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traveller put on his great coat, and the ploughman with his beasts of draught expect rest from their labour.
SIBERIAN SOWTHISTLE.-If the flowers of this plant keep open all night, rain will certainly fall the next day.
Trefoil. The different species of Trefoil always contract their leaves at the approach of a storm; hence these plants have been termed the Husbandman's Barometer.
African Marigold. If this plant opens not its flowers in the morning about seven o'clock, you may be sure it will rain that day, unless it thunders.
The Convolvulus also, and the Pimpernel (Anagallis arvensis,) fold up their leaves on the approach of rain; the last, in particular, is called the Poor Man's Weather Glass.
WHITE THORNS AND DOGROSE BUSHES.-Wet summers are generally attended with an uncommon quantity of seed on these shrubs; whence their unusual fruitfulness is a sign of a severe winter. The flowers of the Alpine Whitlow Grass (Draba Alpina), the Bastard Feverfew (Parthenium), and the Wintergreen (Trientalis) hang down in the night as if the plants were asleep, lest rain or the moist air should injure the fertilizing dust.
One species of Wood Sorrel shuts up or doubles its leaves before storms and tempests, but in a serene sky expands or unfolds them, so that the husbandman can pretty clearly foretel tempests from it. It is also well known that the Mountain Ebony (Bauhinia), Sensitive Plants, and Cassia observe the same rule.
Besides affording prognostics, many plants also fold themselves up at particular hours with such regularity, as to have acquired particular names from this property. The following are among the more remarkable plants of this description :
GOATSBEARD.-The flowers of both species of Tragopogon open in the morning, at the approach of the sun, and without regard to the state of the weather regularly shut about noon. Hence it is generally known in the country by the name of Go-to-Bed-at-Noon.
The Princesses Leaf, or Four o'clock Flower, in the Malay Islands, is an elegant shrub, so called by the natives, because their ladies are fond of the grateful odour of its white leaves. It takes its generic name from its quality of opening its flowers at four in the evening, and not closing them in the morning till the same hour returns, when they again expand in the evening at the same hour. Many people transplant them from the woods into their gardens, and use them as a dial or a clock, especially in cloudy weather.
The Evening Primrose is well known from its remarkable properties of regularly shutting with a loud popping noise, about sunset in the evening, and opening at sunrise in the morning. After six o'clock these flowers regularly report the approach of night.
The Tamarind Tree (Parkinsonia), the Nipplewort (Lapsana com
munis), the Water Lily (Nymphaca), the Marygold (Calendula), the Bastard Sensitive Plant (Aeschynomene), and several others of the Diadelphia class, in serene weather expand their leaves in the daytime, and contract them during the night. According to some Botanists, the Tamarind Tree enfolds within its leaves the flowers or fruit every night, in order to guard them from cold or rain.
The flower of the Garden Lettuce, which is in a vertical Plane. opens at seven o'clock and shuts at ten.
The flower of the Dandelion possesses very peculiar means of sheltering itself from the heat of the sun, as it closes entirely whenever the heat becomes excessive. It has been observed to open, in summer, at half an hour after five in the morning, and to collect its petals towards the centre about nine o'clock. I am indebted for the Calendar of British Botany subjoined, to Forster's Perennial Calendar and Mr. Howitt's select lists.
SELECT CALENDAR OF BRITISH BOTANY FOR MAY.
The figures at the end of names of Trees and Plants signify the number of Months' duration.
Order 1. Veronica chamodrys, cum aliis, Germander Speedwell, with others. Locality, woods and hedges, 10. Pinguicula vulgaris, Yorkshire Sanicle, bogs, 6.
II.-2. Anthoxanthum odoratum, Sweet scented Vernal Grass, pastures, 6.
III-2. Alopecurus pratensis, Common Foxtail Grass, meadows, 8. Aira præcox, Early Hair Grass, heaths, 6. Melica uniflora, Wood Melic Grass, woods, 7. Briza media, Common Quaking Grass, pastures, 6.
IV.-1. Asperula odorata, Sweet Woodruff, woods, 9. Galium cruciatum, Crosswort, hedges, 6. Plantago major, Greater Plantain, roadsides, 10. Epimedium alpinum, Barren Wort, Yorkshire, Scotland, on mountains, 10.
IV.-3. Ilex aquifolium, Common Holly, hedges, 10. Monchia erecta, Upright Pearlwort, heaths, 6.
V.-1. Myosotis cœspitosa, Tufted Water Scorpion Grass, watery places, 6. Myosotis sylvatica, Wood Scorpion Grass, woods, 7. Anchusa sempervirens, Evergreen Alkanet, amongst rubbish, 7. Symphytum officinalis, Common Comfrey, banks of rivers, 6. Viola tricolor, Pansy, Heartsease, gardens and fields, 9. Viola lutea, Yellow Mountain Violet, mountains, 9. Rhamnus catharticus, Common Buckthorn, hedges, 9. Rhamnus Frangula, Berry-bearing Alder, moist woods, 9. Euonymus Europaeus, Spindle Tree, hedges, 9. Vinca minor, Lesser Periwinkle, banks, 6. Vinca major, Greater Periwinkle, moist woods, 6.
V.-2. Chenopodium Bonus Henricus, Mercury and Goosefoot, waysides, 6. Myrrhis odorata, Sweet Cicely, mountainous woods and pastures, 7. Sanicula Europaea, Wood Sanicle, woods, 6. Bunium flexuosum, Earth Nut or Pig Nut, pastures, 6. Smyrnium Olusatrum, Alexanders, among ruins, 6. Meum athamanticum, Spignel, mountainous pastures, 7.
V.-3. Viburnum Lantana, Wayfaring Tree, woods, 7.
VII.-1. Trientalis Europœa, Winter Green, pine woods, 6.
VIII.-3. Paris quadrifolia, Herb Paris, Truelove, Woods, 6.
X.-3. Arenaria verna, Vernal Sandwort, mountains, 8.
X.-4. Oxalis corniculata, Yellow Wood Sorrell, waste ground, 10. Lychnis dioica, Red and white Campions, fields and gardens, 10.
XII.—1. Prunus Padus, Bird Cherry; Prunus Cerasus, Wild Cherry Tree, woods, 6.
XII.-2. Mespilus Oxycantha, Hawthorn-May, hedges, 6. Pyrus malus, Crab Tree, hedges, 6. Pyrus torminalis, Wild Service Tree, hedges and woods, 6. Pyrus aucuparia, Mountain Ash, Mountainous Woods, 6. Pyrus Aria, White Beam Tree, mountains and rocks, 6.
XII.-3. Rubus idaeus, Raspberry, woods and hedges, 6.
Rubus arcticus, Arctic Bramble, mountainous moors, 6. Fragaria vesca, Wood Strawberry, banks and woods, 6. Geum urbanum, Common Avens, woods and hedges, 8.
XIII.-1. Chelidonium majus, Common Celandine, waste grounds, 6. XIII.-3. Adonis Autumnalis, Pheasant's Eye, corn fields, 9. Ranunculus bulbosus, Bulbous Crowfoot, meadows, 6. Ranunculus aquatilis, cum aliis, Floating Crowfoot, with others, ponds and rivers, 7. Trollius Europaeus, Globe Flower, mountainous woods, 6.
XIV.-1. Lamium purpureum, Red Dead Nettle, waste grounds, 8. Galeobdolon luteum, Yellow Dead Nettle, hedges and woods, 6.
XIV.-2. Melampyrum pratense, Common Cowwheat, woods, 8. Antirrhinum Cymbalaria, Ivy-leaved Snap-dragon, banks and walls, 11. Linnæa borealis, two-flowered Linnæa, pine woods, Scotland, 6.
XV.-1. Crambe maritima, Sea Kale, sandy and sea-coast, 6.
XVI.-2. Geranium phæum, Dusky Crane's bill, mountainous thickets, 6. Geranium Robertianum, Herb Robert, hedges and banks, 10. Geranium lucidum, Shining Crane's bill, moist rocks, 8. Geranium dissectum, Jagged-leaved Crane's bill, waste ground, 7.
XVI.-3. Malva sylvestris, Common Mallow, roadsides, 9. XVII.-1. Fumaria lutea, Yellow Fumitory, old walls, 6. Fumaria officinals, Common Fumitory, gardens and fields, 8.
XVII.-3. Orobus tuberosus, Common Heath Pea, banks and woods, 7. Lathyrus Nissolia, Crimson Grass Vetch, bushy places, 6. Vicia sepium, common Blush Vetch, corn fields, 6. Ornithopus perpusillus, Bird's Foot, sandy places, 9. Trifolium pratense, common Red Clover, pastures, 9.
XIX.-1. Hieraceum Pilosella, Mouse-ear Hawkweed, waysides, 7. XX.-1. Orchis morio, Meadow Orchis, meadows, 6. Orchis fusca, Great Brown-winged Orchis; Orchis Militaris, Military Orchis; Orchis tephrosanthos, Monkey Orchis, chalky hills, Kent, 6. Orchis latifolia, Marsh Palmate Orchis, moist meadows, 6. Ophrys fucifera, Drone Orchis, chalky hills, Kent, 6. Listera Nidus-avis, Bird's nest Orchis, shady woods, 6. Epipactis ensifolia, Narrow-leaved White Helleborine, mountainous woods, 6. Corallorrhiza innata, Spurless Coral Wort, mossy bogs, Scotland, 6.
XXI.-2. Carex dioica, cum mult aliis, Dioicous Carex with many others, bogs, 9.
XXI.-4. Bryonia dioica, Red-berried Bryony, hedges, 9.
XXI.—5. Arum maculatum, Wake Robin, banks and woods, 6. Fragus castanea, Sweet Chesnut; Carpinus betulus, common Hornbeam, woods, 6.
XXI.-6. Pinus sylvestris, Scotch Fir, Scotland, 6.
XXII.-1. Salix triandra, cum mult aliis Triandrous, Willow with many others, osier grounds, 8.
XXII.-2. Empetrum nigrum, Crowberry, mountainous heaths, 8.
XXII.-8. Juniperus communis, common Juniper, heathy downs, 6. XXIV.-1. Polypodium vulgare, common Polypody, walls, trunks of trees, &c., 10. Asplenium tricomanes, common Maiden Hair, Rocks and old walls, 12. Pteris crispa, Curled or Rockbrakes, sides of mountains, 8. Hymenophllum Tunbridgense, Tunbridge Filmy Fern, moist, shady, and stony places, 6. Ophioglossum vulgatum, Adder's Tongue, meadows and pastures, 7.
Lectures on the Development of Religious Life in the Modern Christian Church. Part II. Zwingle and Calvin. By Henry Solly. London,
C. E. Mudie.
In part II. Mr. Solly has to deal with the two chief reformers of Switzerland, Zwingle and Calvin, most different in their lives and characters, to be praised as well as blamed very different acts. That deep trust in God which lies basis of Judaism, Mahometanism, and Christianity, was alike conspicuous in the character of both; but, while
one was remarkable for logic and learning, the other was much better known for his practical sense and goodness of heart. While Zwingle was particularly the apostle of freedom and of inquiry, and had in his views left Luther behind, whom in his admirable temper he far surpassed in controversy; Calvin, on the contrary, had only thrown off the fetters of Rome to replace them with still more galling ones of his own formation; for the Catholics endeavoured to rule through the affections, and perhaps superstitious reverence of their devotees; but Calvin cast fetters for the understanding to which the will of a rational being never has submitted and never can submit.
Zwingle was remarkably conscientious. He not only sacrificed his emoluments at the altar of Truth, but he ever displayed the utmost horror of all imposture and deception. He regarded veracity as the parent of all the virtues. Like Luther, he was passionately fond of music, and in this bore a strong contrast to most of the followers of Calvin, who, when consistent with the extreme melancholy of their creed, have ever shunned the muses, and all that can innocently cheer the heart of man. While Zwingle was more desirous of inculcating the Truth than of directly attacking error, thinking the latter must necessarily disappear before the light of knowledge, he was no time-server, and did not spare any of the vices of his age. He fearlessly rebuked Luxury, Intemperance, Extravagance in Dress, Oppression of the Poor, Idleness, Foreign Service, [the Life of the Soldier,] and Foreign Pensions. The earlier life of Zwingle altogether is the most pleasing picture of Christianity, exemplified in life, that the Reformation presents to us. But, alas! towards the close his zeal sadly led him astray, and forced him into a civil war, in which he perished. The observations upon this head by Mr. Solly are all that we could wish :
"When a teacher of religion, whose office is the highest that man can hold, who has to unfold and enforce eternal truths of the highest importance, descends to argue the lower questions of expediency, and strives with his brethren on matters of practical business, whether of a social, political, or commercial nature, his opponents feel that he no longer speaks to them the word of God, but is interfering on subjects with which they are probably much better acquainted than himself. While true to his lofty calling, and consistent in his character, he possesses somewhat the position of an Equity Judge, as far as all questions of right, truth, and duty are concerned. But, if he identifies himself with any party or faction, he is immediately viewed as a special pleader, biassed by party motives, and is stripped of that respect which had previously given weight to his decisions. But, whenever and wherever he has the opportunity, then and there every Christian, and, a fortiori, every Christian teacher,