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To kiss your willing heads, that seem to eschewy
Upon your living stalks, grow you not withered ?
Flew fast into the western world to tell
And made the nymphs to dance who mourned but yesterday." The following record was borne of queen Elizabeth, by her godson, Harrington, several years after the hand that wielded the sceptre and the sword of empire, were in the dust, and the tide of court favour and preferment were flowing liberally to him from her successor : “ Her mind was ofttime like the gentle air that cometh from the westerly point in a summer's morn, 'twas sweet and refreshing to all around her. Her speech did win all affections, and her subjects did try to shew all love to her commands, for she would say, 'her state did require her to command what she knew her people would willingly do, from their own love to her.' Surely, she did play her tables well, to gain obedience thus, without constraint; but then she could put forth such alterations in her fashion, when obedience was lacking, as left no doubtings whose daughter she was.”
Again, he says, in a familiar letter to his brother-in-law, Markham, and surely, the memoir of this great sovereign and most extraordinary woman, can scarcely close in a more appropriate manner than with this noble tribute to her memory :
6 Even her errors did seem marks of surprising endowments; when she smiled it was a pure sunshine, that every one did choose to bask in ; but anon came a storm, from a sudden gathering of clouds, and the thunder fell, in wondrous manner, on all alike. I never did find
greater show of understanding than she was blest with, * This allusion is to the rejoicings on the proclamation of king James.
and whoever liveth longer than I can, will look back and become laudater temporis acti.”
Elizabeth was interred in the same grave with her sister and predecessor in the regal office, Mary Tudor. Her successor, king James I., has left a lasting evidence of his good taste, and good feeling, in the noble monument he erected to her memory in Westminster Abbey. Her recumbent effigies repose beneath a stately canopy, on a slab of pure white marble, which is supported by four lions. Her head rests on tasselled and embroidered cushions, her feet on a couchant lion. She is mantled in her royal robes, lined with ermine, and attired in fardingale and ruff
, but there is almost a classical absence of ornament in her dress. Her closely curled hair, is covered with a very simple cap, though of the regal form, but she has no crown, and the sceptre has been broken from her hand, so has the cross from the imperial orb, which she holds in the other. Queen Elizabeth was the last sovereign of this country to whom a monument has been given, and one of the few whose glory required it not.
Her autograph, of which the reader is here presented with a fac simile, is indicative of the masculine energy of the character of this great queen and extraordinary woman.
ANNE OF DENMARK,
QUEEN-CONSORT OF JAMES THE FIRST, KING OF GREAT
BRITAIN AND IRELAND.
Anne, or Anna, of Denmark, first queen-consort of Great Britain, &c.
Her parentage and protestant education-Disputes between Scotland and Denmark relative to the Orkneys-Youth of James VI. of Scotland Negotiations for marriage between James VI. and Anna's sister-Broken by queen Elizabeth-Anna's hand demanded by James VI.-Marriage traversed by queen Elizabeth — Obligations of Mary queen of Scots to Anna's father, Frederic II., king of Denmark—His death-King James's efforts for the marriage-Sends proxies to Denmark-King James and princess Anna married by proxy at Cronenburg—Anna sails for Scotland with a Danish fleet-Twice driven by storms from the Scottish coast -Suspicion of witchcraft-Quarrel of the Danish admiral with a witchDisasters of the queen's ship—She takes refuge on the coast of NorwayQueen's miserable state-She writes to king James by Steven Beale King James sails to Norway-Meets her-Their marriage on the Norway coast–King James's Morrowing gift-Dangerous journey over the Norway mountains-Joyous arrival in Denmark--Re-union with Danish royal family-Re-marriage of James and Anna by Lutheran rites—Their voyage to Scotland-Landing and sojourn at Leith-Scotch presbytery dislike the queen's unction-Her entry into Edinburgh-Robes-Crowned queen of Scotland at Holyrood-Queen's palace Settlement of household -Queen's dialogue with sir J. Melville-Witch Simpson confesses a conspiracy against the queen-Accuses lord Bothwell as instigator-Bothwell troubles the queen-King's jealousy of the earl of Murray-Ballads of him and the queen-Her palace attacked by Bothwell- Queen's kindness to her Danish maid and Wemys of Logie--Bothwell invades HolyroodDanish ambassadors alarmed for the queen_Value of the Danish alliance to James VI.
ANNE OF DENMARK was undeniably inferior, both in education and intellect, to most of the royal ladies whose biographies have occupied our preceding volumes. Her political position was, nevertheless, more important than any queen-consort of England, since she was the wife of the first monarch whose sovereignty extended over the whole of the British islands. Her dower, moreover, completed the geographical wholeness of her husband's fortunate inheritance; for the Orkney and Shetland islands, which had, in the preceding century, been pawned by Denmark to Scotland, were yielded ultimately to the Scottish king, on condition of his marrying this princess. The sovereignty of these barren islands may appear, at the present day, a trifling addition to the majesty of the British crown, yet they are links of the great insular empire of the sea; and their retention by any rival maritime power must have caused, at some time or other, a considerable waste of blood and treasure.
Anne of Denmark was the first queen-consort of Great Britain;' a title which has been borne by the wives of our sovereigns from the commencement of the seventeenth century to the present era. Before, however, she attained this dignity, she had presided fourteen years over the court of Scotland, as queen-consort of James VI.
The line of sovereigns from whom Anne of Denmark descended had been elected to the Danish throne on the deposition of Christiern II., so notorious for his cruelties in Sweden. Perhaps the outrages this tyrant perpetrated against humanity were less offensive to his countrymen than the accident of his family consisting of two daughters; for, by the ancient custom of Denmark, continued to this hour, the crown could only be inherited by male heirs. The crowns of Denmark and Norway' were, by the people, during the life-time of Christiern II., bestowed on his uncle Frederic I., whose reign, and the change of religion from the catholic to the Lutheran creed, commenced simultaneously in 1524. The son of this elected king was Christiern III., who completed the establishment of the protestant religion in Denmark. His eldest son, Frederic II., succeeded him ; he married Sophia, the daughter of his neighbour, the duke of Mecklenburg, and had, by her, six children, born in the following order: Elizabeth, the eldest, born at Coldinga, August 25, 1573; Anna, or Anne, the second child and subject of this biography, was born at Scanderburg, December 12, 1575; Christiern, the crownprince, afterwards Christiern IV., (who more than once visited the English court,) was born at Fredericsburg, April 12, 1577; Ulric, duke of Holstein, and bishop of Sleswig, was born at Coldinga; and Sophia, who married a prince of Hesse.
* Queen Elizabeth first used the name Great Britain as a collective appellation for the kingdoms in this island, (as we have shewn in her biography.) James I. had sufficient wisdom to adopt it. He took an important step towards the union of the whole island (afterwards perfected by his great grand-daughter, queen Anne), when he called himself king of Great Britain. Previously, his titles of king of England and Scotland had set his fierce subjects of the south and north quarrelling with each other for precedence. · As early in his English reign as October 23, 1604, Lord Cranbourne wrote
thus to Mr. Winwood, from the court at Whitehall : “I do send you here a proclamation, published this day, of his majesty changing his title, and taking upon him the name and style of king of Great Britain, France and Irelard, by which he henceforth desires to be acknowledged, both at home and abroad, and that his former titles shall be extinct. The proclamation was at Cheapside with the lord mayor and heralds.” Lodge's Illustrations, vol. iii., and Winwood's Mems.
* The crown of Norway, which came to Denmark by a female, and, of course was expected to descend in the female line, was in vain claimed by the celebrated Christina of Lorraine, who was daughter to the deposed Christiern II. and Isabella of Austria, sister to the emperor Charles V. Her character has been drawn in the life of queen Mary I., vol. v. chap. 6.
It was the opinion of the French ambassador, that Frederic II. was one of the richest princes in Europe, for he possessed the endowments of seven bishoprics in Denmark and Norway, which his father Christiern III. had appropriated to his own use.”
As Frederic was a prudent prince, and laid up large dowries for his daughters, their hands were sought by many of the northern princes. They were all educated as zealous protestants of the lutheran creed.
Sophia of Mecklenburg, queen of Denmark, bore a high character among the protestants for her many domestic virtues, " She is,” (wrote a spy, whom Burleigh had employed to report the characters of the Danish royal family,) “a right virtuous and godly princess, who, with a motherly care and great wisdom, ruleth her children.93 Whatever were the moral excellences of queen Sophia, her judgment, in rearing children, must have been somewhat deficient, since the princess Anna could not walk alone till after she was nine years old, being carried about in the
? Milles' Catalogue of Honour. * It is well known that king Christiern, having possessed himself of the whole wealth of the church at the Danish reformation, sent a very gracious message to Luther, expecting to receive great praise for the exploit; but the reformer almost execrated him for his selfishness, and considered him an utter disgrace to his creed.-( See Luther's Table Talk.)
* Letter of Daniel Rogers to Burleigh. Ellis, second series, vol. iii. p. 143.