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No; he said,

What is the

not of this

he laid claim to be an earthly king? My kingdom is not of this world.* meaning of Christ's kingdom being world? That it is spiritual, and not earthly, in regard to its subjects, laws, and privileges. When Pilate had heard what were the nature and principles of our Lord's kingdom, did he find cause to condemn him? No; he said unto the Jews, I find in him no fault at all.†

12. When the chief priests and elders heard Pilate's

opinion of his innocence, what effect had it upon them? They were the more fierce, and accused him of many things.‡ When our Lord was thus accused, what did he say? “He answered nothing." Why did he remain silent? Because the accusations were too frivolous to require any answer. 13. Did the governor notice his silence? Yes. What did he say, to induce our Lord to answer? "Then

said Pilate unto him, Hearest thou not how many things they witness against thee?" Why did Pilate seek to induce our Lord to answer the charges brought against him? That he might find some occasion, from what he should say, to content the

Jews, by chastising him.

14. Did our Lord enter on his defence, when appealed to by the governor? No; "he answered him to never a word." Was there something in his

silence that appeared remarkable? Yes; " inso

*John xviii. 36.

+ John xviii, 38.
and Mark xv. 3.

Luke xxiii. 5.

much that the governor marvelled greatly." Why was he so much surprised? Because he had never before seen an instance of such calm, self-possessing silence. Does it appear that the governor was offended by it? No. How do you account for his not being offended, when our Lord gave him no answer? Because there was nothing disrespectful or offensive in our Lord's manner. What did Pilate

now resolve to do with Jesus? To send him to Herod. Who was Herod? Tetrarch of Galilee. What was a Tetrarch? See ii. 1. For what purpose did Pilate send him to Herod? That Herod might try him, and pass judgment upon him. But why send him to be judged by the governor of another district? Because Pilate found out that he belonged to Herod's jurisdiction.* What was the sphere of Herod's jurisdiction? The district of Galilee. How came our Lord to belong to Herod's jurisdiction? Because he was of Nazareth, in Galilee. Was Herod in Galilee at that time? No; he was at Jerusalem.* Had he a court at Jerusalem?


For what purpose had he a court of justice, so far from his own dominions? For the trial of causes relating to the subjects of his government, who happened to be at Jerusalem. Herod receive our Lord?

the opportunity to see him, many things of him.†

How did

He was very glad of

because he had heard How was he treated, after

that Herod had seen and questioned him? Herod

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and his soldiers set him at nought and mocked him, and arrayed him in a gorgeous robe, and sent him again to Pilate.* Why did Herod treat him thus? Because he was disappointed and mortified, that Jesus did not work a miracle in his presence.† What Scripture was fulfilled by the conduct of Pilate and Herod, in making this an occasion of being reconciled to one another? The kings of the earth set themselves, and the rulers take counsel together, against the Lord, and against his Anointed.‡

15. When our Lord was led back to Pilate, did that governor again declare his innocence? Yes. What did he say? I have found no fault in this man, touching those things whereof ye accuse him: no, nor yet Herod: for I sent you to him: and, lo, nothing worthy of death is done unto him.|| What did Pilate then propose to the priests and elders to do? I will therefore chastise him, and release him.§ Why chastise him? For no fault; but only to appease his enemies. Was it just to put down

clamour by punishing the innocent? No; it was unjust and cruel.


propose to release Jesus?

what ground did Pilate

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governor was wont to release unto the people a prisoner, whom they would." At what feast was

it customary to release a prisoner? At the feast of the passover. Who released a prisoner? The governor. Who chose the prisoner that should be

Luke xxiii. 11.

+ Luke xxiii. 8. + Psalm ii. 2.
§ Luke xxiii. 16.

Luke xxiii. 14, 15.

released? The people. Why did the governor allow the people to have a prisoner released, at their will, and by their choice? In order to make himself popular with the Jews. Did it require some policy to gain the favour of the people? Yes. Why so? Because the Jews hated the Roman yoke, and longed for their former independence.

16. Had the Jews any prisoner of note, at that time, whose release they desired? Yes; "They had then a notable prisoner, called Barabbas.” Of what crimes had Barabbas been guilty? Of sedition, robbery, and murder.* What is sedition? Promoting disaffection to government. What do the

Scriptures teach us concerning our duty to kings and magistrates? Let every soul be subject unto the higher powers.† Does that mean in things civil, or in those relating to the soul and to eternity? In all civil matters. Why not in things pertaining to God and to our consciences? Because in spiritual matters we are responsible to God only. Is it evident that Barabbas was a very wicked man? Yes; he was one of the worst of characters. In what respect was he "notable"? For the greatness of his crimes.

17. When the multitude were gathered together, what did Pilate say to them? "Whom will ye that I release unto you, Barabbas, or Jesus, who is called Christ ?" Whom did Pilate wish to release to

them? Jesus.||

* Luke xxiii. 19. & John xviii. 40.

Matt. xxiii. 9.

+ Rom. xiii. 1.

Luke xxiii. 20,

18. Why did the governor wish to favour Jesus?



cause "he knew, that for envy they had delivered him." Who had delivered him for envy? The chief priests.* What is envy? See xx. 15. what were the chief priests envious? Of the fame of Christ, and the spread of his doctrines. 19. What did Pilate do, before passing sentence? He sat down on the judgment seat. "When he was

set down on the judgment seat," what took place? "His wife + sent" a message "unto him.” What was the message ? "Have thou nothing to do with that just man; for I have suffered many things this day in a dream because of him." Whom did she mean by "that just man"? Jesus. What did she mean by saying, Have thou nothing to do with him? Have nothing to do in condemning him. What made this Roman lady so solicitous about the matter? An extraordinary dream. When does she say she had dreamed it? "This day." How is it that she speaks of having dreamed in the day? The word "day" includes the twenty-four hours. Are dreams a safe and proper guide of our conduct? By no means. But has not God often spoken to men in a dream, in a vision of the night? Yes; and, in the present instance, the dream seems to have been from God. Why, then, may not we

Mark xv. 10.

+ Claudia Procula. This marks the time of the event, and proves the veracity of the Evangelist; for it was only in the reign of Tiberius, that the wives of the Governors had obtained permission to attend them in the provinces.

Job xxxiii. 14--17.

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