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OR, A

DI Τ
D I C TI O N A RY

A
ARTS, SCIENCES,

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A N D

MISCELLANEOUS LITERATURE;

Constructed on a PLAN,

BY WHICH

THE DIFFERENT SCIENCES AND ARTS

Are digefted into the form of Distinct
TREA TISES OR SYSTEMS,

COMPREBENDING

The HISTORY, THEORY, and PRACTICE, of each,
according to the Latest Discoveries and Improvements ;

AND FULL EXPLANATIONS GIVEN OF THE
VARIOUS DETACHED PARTS OF KNOWLEDGE,

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WHETHER RELATING TO

NATURAL and ARTIFICIAL Objects, or to Matters ECCLESIASTICAL,
Civil, MILITARY, COMMERCIAL, &c.

c,
Including ELUCIDATIONs of the most important Topics relative to RELIGION, MORALS,

MANNERS, and the OECONOMY of LIFE:

TOGETHER WITT

A DESCRIPTION of all the Countries, Cities, principal Mountains, Seas, Rivers, c.

throughout the WORLD;
A General HisTORY, Ancient and Modern, of the different Empires, Kingdoms, and States į

AND

An Aecount of the Lives of the most Eminent Persons in every Nation,

from the earliest ages down to the present times.

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Compiled from tbe writings of tbe brf Authors, in several languages ; tbe most approved Dictionaries, as well of general science as of its partie

culor branches ; tbe Transactions, Journals, and Memoirs, of learned Societies, boob at bome and abroad: the Ms. Lectures of

Eminent Profeffors on different sciences; and a variety of Original Materiuls, furnished by an Extenfive Correspondence.

THE THIRD EDITION, IN. EIGHTEEN VOLUMES, GREATLY IMPROVED.

ILLUSTRATED WITH FIVE HUNDRED AND FORTY-TWO COPPERPLATES.

VOL. III.

IN DOCTI DIS CANT, ET ANENT MEMINISSE PIRITI.

B DIN BURG H.
PRINTED FOR A. BILL AND C. MACFARQUHAR.

MDCCXCVII.

Entered in Stationers Hall in Terms of the ad of Parliament.

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ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA.

a

B A R

B A R

A R Barbarus, ARBARUS (Francis), a noble Venetian, was a north to fouth, does not exceed 128 German miles. Barbary. Barbary.

BA

man of great fame in the 15th century, not only for More particularly, Barbary begins on the west of the learning, but likewise for a skilful address in the ma- famed mount Atlas, called by the Arabs Ay Duacal, nagement of public affairs. He is author of a book De or Al Duacal, inclosing the ancient kingdoms of Suez Re Uxoria, and some speeches.

and Dela, now provinces of Morocco; thence stretch.
BARBARUS (Hermolaus), grandson of the preceding, ing north-eastward along the Atlantic to the pillars of
one of the most learned men in the 15th century. The Hercules at Cape Finisterre, then along the coast of the
public employments he was entrusted with early, did Mediterranean, it is at last bounded by the city of A.
not prevent him from cultivating polite learning with lexandria in Egypt.
great application. As he was very skilful in the Greek, Concerning the origin of the name Barbary, there whence
he undertook the most difficult translations, and began are many conjectures. According to some, the Ro- named.
with a famous paraphrafe upon Aristotle. He then mans, after they had conquered this large country,
attempted Dioscorides, whose text he corrested, gave gave it that name out of contempt and dislike to the
a translation of him, and added a commentary. But barbarous manners of the natives, according to their
of all his works, there is none which has gained him so custom of calling all other people but themselves Bar.
much reputation as that which he made upon Pliny ; barians. Marmol, on the contrary, derives the word
he corrected in him above 5000 passages, and occa. Barbary from Berber, a name which the Arabs gave
fionally restored 300 in . Pomponius Mela. Pope In- to its ancient inhabitants, and which they retain to
nocent VIII. to whom he was ambassador, conferred this day in many parts of the country, especially along
the patriarchate of Aquileia upon him. He was so the great ridge of the mountains of Atlas ; and which
imprudent as to accept of it without waiting for the name was given them on account of the barrenness of
consent of his superiors; though he could not be ig. their country. According to Leo Africanus, the name
norant that the republic of Venice had made laws to of Barbary was given by the Arabs on account of the
forbid all the ministers they sent to the court of Rome strange language of the natives, which appeared to
to accept any benefice. His superiors were inflexible; them more like a murmur or grumbling of some brute
and not being able to gain any thing upon them either animals than articulate sounds. Others, however, de-
by his flattery or his father's intereft, the father died rive it from the Arabic word bar, fignifying a desart,
of grief, and the son soon followed him.

twice repeated; which was given by one Ifric, or A.
BARBARUS (Daniel), of the same family with the fricus, a king of Arabia, from whom the whole conti
preceding, was patriarch of Aquileia, and famous for nent of Africa is pretended to have taken its name.
his learning. He was ambassador from Venice to According to them, this king being driven out of his
England; and was one of the fathers of the council of own dominions, and closely pursued by his enemies, some
Trent, where he acted with great zeal for the interest of his retinue called out to him Bar, bar, that is, To
of the pope. He wrote, 1. A commentary upon Vi- the defart, To the defart ; from which the country was
truvius. 2. Catena Græcorum Patrum in quinquagin- afterwards called Barbary.
ta Pfalmos Latine versa. 3. La Prattica della Per.

Among the Romans this country was divided into

Subject to spectiva. He died in 1569, at 41 years of age. the provinces of Mauritania, Africa Propria, &c. and the Roo

BARBARY, a kingdom of Africa, including the they continued absolute masters of it from the time of mans. states of Algiers, Morocco, Tripoli, and Tunis; (see Julius Cæsar till the year of Christ 428. At that time those articles). This country contain almost the whole Bonifacius the Roman governor of these provinces,

of what the Romans pofleffed of the continent of A. having through the treachery of Ætius been forced to Extent, &c. frica, excepting Egypt. It stretches itself in length revolt, called in to his allistance Genferic king of the B nitacius

from eaft to weft, beginning at the southern limits of Vandals, who had been some time settled in Spain. calls in the
Egypt, to the straits of Gibraltar full 35 degrees of The terms offered, according to Procopius, were, that Vandals.
longitude ; and from thence to Santa Cruz, the utmost Genseric should have two thirds, and Bonifacius one
weltern edge of it, about fix more, in all 41 degrees ; third, of Africa, provided they could maintain them.
so that the utmost length of Barbary from east to west felves against the Roman power; and to accomplish this
is computed at above 759 German leagues. On the they were to affift each other to the utmost. This pro-
south, indeed, it is confined within much narrower posal was instantly complied with ; and Genseric set sail
bounds, extending no farther than from 27 to 35+ de- from Spain in May 428, with an army of 80,000 men,
grees of north latitude ; so that its utmost breadth from according to some, or only 24,000 according to o-
VOL. III. Part I.

A

thers)

3

5

to returi,

9

Romans

Generic

IO

Barbary. thers, together with their wives, children, and all their against so powerful an enemy. Accordingly, he fitted Barbary. effects. In the mean time, however, the Empress Pla- out a fleet consisting of 1100 large ships; and putting

,
cidia having discovered the true cause of Bonifacius's on board of it the flower of his army, under the con-
revolt, wrote a most kind and obliging letter to him, duct of Arcovindas, Ansilus, and Germanus, he or-
in which the assured him of her favour and protection dered them to land in Africa, and, joining the western
for the future, exhorting him to return to his duty, and forces there, to drive Genseric out of the countries he
exert his usual zeal for the welfare of the empire, by had seized. But Genseric in the mean time pretending
driving out the Barbarians whom the malice of his a defire to be reconciled with both empires, amused
enemies had obliged hiin to call in for his own safety the Roman general with proposals of peace, till the
and preservation.

feason for action was over; and, next year, Theodo-
Endeavours Bonifacius readily complied with this request, and fius being obliged to recall his forces to oppose the
unsuccess- offered the Vandals considerable sumz if they would Huns, Valentinian found it necessary to conclude a
fully to per- retire out of Africa and return to Spain. But Genfe. peace with the Vandals ; and this he could obtain on
fuade them
ric, already master of the greatest part of the country, no other terms than yielding to them the quiet poffet-

, first returned a scoffing anfiver, and then, falling unex. sion of the countries they had seized. pectedly on him, cut most of his men in pieces, and So powerful was Genseric now become, or rather obliged Bonifacius himself to fly to Hippo, which place fo low was the Roman empire by this time reduced, he invested in May 430. The fiege lasted till the that in 455, he took and plundered the city of Rome month of July the following year ; when the Vandals itself, as is fully related under the article Rome; and, were forced, by a famine that began to rage in their after his return to Africa, made himself malter of the Makes camp, to drop the enterprize, and retire. Soon after, remaining countries held by the Romans in that part hinfelf maBonifacius having received two reinforcements, one of the world. Hereupon Avitns, who had fucceeded fer of all

ihe Roman from Rome, and the other, under the conduct of the Valentinian in the empire, dispatched ambassadors to celebrated Aspar, from Constantinople, a resolution Genseric, putting him in mind of the treaty he had

provinces. 6 was taken by the Roman generals to offer the enemy concluded with the empire in 442 ; and threatening, if

battle. The Vandals readily accepting the challenge, a he did not observe the articles at that time agreed updefeated by bloody engagement ensued, in which the Romans were on, to make war upon him not only with his own for

utterly defeated, a prodigious number of them taken, ces, but with those of his allies the Veligoths, who
king of the
Vaudals.

and the rest obliged to shelter themselves among the were ready to pass over into Africa. To this Genseric
rocks and mountains. Alpar, who commanded the was so far from paying any regard, that he immediate-

eattern troops, escaped with difficulty to Conftanti- ly put to sea with a fleet of 60 ships ; but being at. Deseated
· nople, and Bonifacius was recalled to Italy. Upon tacked by the Roman fleet under Ricimer, he was ut- by Ricimer
their departure, the Vandals over-ran all Africa, com- terly defeated, and forced to fly back into Africa: he

and Majo-
mitting every where the most terrible ravages ; which returned, however, foon after with a more powerful
ftruck the inhabitants of Hippo with such terror, that feet, committing great ravages on the coast of Italy:
they abandoned their city, which was first plundered, but in a second expedition he was not attended with to
and then set on fire by the victorious enemy; so that good success; the Romans falling unexpectedly upon
Cirtha and Carthage were now the only strong places his men while bufied in plundering the country, put
poffeffed by the Romans.

great numbers of them to the sword, ard among the Peace co!). In 435, Genseric, probably being afraid of an at. reft the brother-in-law of Genseric himself

. Not concluded with tack by the united forces of the eastern and western tent with this small advantage, Majorianus, at that

empires, concluded a peace with the Romans, who time emperor, resolved to pass over into Africa, and dals.

yielded to him part of Numidia, the province of Pro attempt the recovery of that country.
confularis

, and likewise Byzacene; for which, accord. pose he made great preparations ; but his fleet being
ing to Prosper, he was to pay a yearly tribute to the surprised and defeated by the Vandals, through the
emperor of the east. Genferic delivered up his son treachery, it is said, of some of his commanders, the
Hunneric by way of hostage ; but fo great was the enterprize miscarried.
confidence which the Romans placed in this Barbarian, Notwithstanding this misfortune, however, Majo-
that some time after they sent him back his son. Of rianus persisted in his resolution ; and would in all like-
this they foon had reason to repent ; for in 439, the lihood have accomplished his purpose, had not he him-

Ronans being engaged in a war with the Goths in self been murdered foon after by Ricimer. After his Genferic's Gaul, Generic laid hold of that opportunity to seize death, Genseric committed what ravages he pleased in treachery.

upon the city of Carthage; by which he considerably the poor remains of the western empire, and even made
enlarged his African dominions. Valentinian, the Ro. descents on Peloponnesus and the islands belonging to
man emperor, however, maintained as long as he lived, the emperor of Constantinople. To revenge this affront, Genleric
the two Mauritanias, with Tripolitana, Tingitana, and Leo made vast preparations for the invasion of Africa, defeats the
that
part of Numidia where Cirtha stood.

insomuch, that, according to Procopius, he laid out caitern em-
On the taking of Carthage, Genferic made it the 130,000 pounds weight of gold in the equipment of his peror's
feat of his empire ; and in 440 made a descent on the army and navy. The forces employed on this occasion
island of Sicily, where he ravaged the open country, weré fufficient for expelling the Vandals, had they

,
and even laid fiege to Palermo. Not being able, how- been much more powerful than they were ; but the
ever, to reduce i hat place, he foon returned to Africa command being given to Bafilifcus a covetous and am-
with an inmense booty and a vast number of captives. bitious man, the feet was utterly defeated through his
Being now become formidable to both empires, Theo. treachery, and all the vast preparations came to nothing.
dobus emperor of the eaft resolved to allift Valentinian By this lait defeat the power of the Vandals in Africa

6

rianus.

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7

For this pur

8

was

13

a

Barbary. was fully established, and Genseric made himself matter time engaged in a war with Perfia, he sent a power. Barbary.

of Sicily, as well as of all the other islands between ful feet and 'army to Africa, under the command of

Italy and Africa, without opposition from the western the celebrated general Belisarius, who was for that Kingdom of the Vaudals emperors, whose power was entirely taken away in the reason recalled from Perlia. founded. year 476.

So much was Gilimer, all this time, taken up with
Thus was the Vandalic monarchy in Barbary founded his own pleasures, or with oppressing his subjects, that
13
Barbarity by Genferic, between the years 428 and 468. If we he knew little or nothing of the formidable prepara-
and tyran- take a view of that prince's government in his new do- tions that were making against him. On the arrival of
ny of Gen- minions, it presents no very agreeable prospect. Being Belisarius, however, he was constrained to put himfelf
(cric.

himself an absolute barbarian in the strictest sense of the into a posture of defence. The management of his
word, and an utter ftranger to every useful art, he did army he committed to his two brothers Gundimer and
not fail to show his own prowess by the destruction of Gelamund, who accordingly attacked the Romans at
all the monuments of Roman greatness which were fo the head of a numerous force. The engagement was 18
numerous in the country he had conquered. Accord- long and bloody; but at last the Vandals were defeated, Defeats the
ingly, instead of improving his country, he laid it and the two princes Nain. Gilimer, grown desperate

Vandals;
watte, by demolishing all the stately structures both at this news, Tallied out at the head of his corps de re-
public and private, and all other valuable and sump- ferve, with full purpofe to renew the attack with the
tuous works with which those proud conquerors had utmost vigour; but by his own indiscretion loft a fair
adorned this part of their dominions. So that, what opportunity of defeating the Romans. For no sooner
ever monuments the Romans had been at such an im- did they perceive Gilimer haftening after them at the
mense expence to erect, in order to eternize their own head of a fresh army, than they betook themselves to
glory, the barbarous Vandals were now at no less pains flight ; and the greatest part were dispersed in fuch a
to reduce into heaps of ruins. Besides this kind of manner, that, had the king followed them close, they
devaftation, Genseric made his dominions a scene of must have been totally cut off. Instead of this, how-
blood and Naughter, by perfecuting the orthodox ever, itumbling unfortunately on the body of one of his
Christians; being himself, as well as most of his coun- Nain brothers, the fight of it made him lose all thoughts
trymen, a zealous Arian; and for this his long about the enemy; and instead of pursuing them, he
reign is chiefly remarkable. He died in 477, after a spent part of his time in idle lamentations, and part in
reign of 60 years; and was succeeded by his fon Hun- burying the corpse with suitable pomp and dignity.
neric.

By this means Belisarius had an opportunity of rally14 Hunneric a

The new king proved yet a greater tyrant than his ing his men ; which he did so effectually, that, coming blooty ty- father, persecuting the orthodox with the utmoft fury; nexpectedly upon Gilimer, he casily gained a new and and, during his short reign of seven years and an half, complete victory over him.

19 destroyed more of them than Genseric had done in all This defeat was followed by the loss of Carthage, Takes CarHis terrible his lifetime. He is said to have died in the same man- which the barbarians had been at no pains to put into thage; death. ner as the herefiarch Arius * ; before which time his a posture of defence. After which Gilimer, having in Sve Arius. Aeth had been rotting upon his bones, and crawling vain endeavoured to obtain affittance from the Moors and

with worms, so that he looked more like a dead car- Goths, was obliged to recal his brother Tzafon from
case than a living man. Concurning his successors Gu- Sardinia. The meeting between the two brothers was
tamund, Thrasamund, and Hilderic, we find nothing very mournful ; but they foon came to a resolution of
remarkable, except that they sometimes perfecuted, making one desperate attempt to regain the loft king-
and sometimes were favourable to, the orthodox; and dom, or at least recover their captives out of the hands
by his favour for them the last king was ruined. For, of the enemy. The consequence of this resolution was
having unadvisedly published, in the beginning of his another engagement, in which Tzafon was killed with
reign, a manifeito, wherein he repealed all the acts of 800 of his choicest men, while the Romans lott no

his predecessors against the orthodox, a rebellion was more than 50 ; after which Belisarius moving sudden-
Hilderic
the immediate consequence. At the head of the mal- ly forward at the htad of all his

upon

the deplid by contents was one ilimer, or Gildemar, a prince of camp of the Vandals. This Gilimer was no sooner apG.limer. the blood-roval, who by degrees became so powerful, prised of, than, without staying to give any more orders

as to depofe Hilderic in the seventh year of his reign ; to the rest of his army, he fled towards Númidia in the
after which he caused the unhappy monarch with all utmost consternation. His flight was not immediate-
his family to be closely confined, and was himself ly known among his troops; but when it was, such an
crowned king of the Vandals at Carthage.

universal confusion ensued, that they abandoned their
Gilimer proved a greater tyrant than any that had camp to the Romans, who had now nothing to do but
gone before him. He not only cruelly perfecuted the plunder it ; and not content with this, they massacred

orthodox, but horribly opprelfed all the rett, so that all the men found in it, carrying away the women cap17

he was held in universal abhorrence and deteftation tives Belifarius when the Greek emperor Justinian projected an invasion Thus a total end was put to the power of the Van. And puts iva!e: A. of Africa. This expedition of Justinian's is said to dals in Barbary, and the Romans once more became an endo frica;

have been occasioned by an apparition of Lætus an masters of this country. The Vandal inhabitants were African bishop, who had been murdered some time be- permitted to remain as they were, on condition of ex-chy. fore, but now commanded the emperor'to attempt the changing the heresy of Arius for the orthodox faith. recovery of Africa, and assured him of success. Ac. As for Gilimer, he fled with the utmost expedition to cordingly, this, or some other motive, prevailed upon Medamus, a town situated on the top of the Pappuan Juttinian so far, that, notwithftanding his being at that mountain, and alınoit inaccessible by reason of its

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