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The day of low-priced land in California has passed. In 1850 the average value of farm land was $1.88 per acre. In 1920 the average value was $116.84 per acre. Climate is the chief factor in determining the value, but as elsewhere, soil, water, roads, markets, distance from towns, social conditions and schools play a part.

Probably many think of California as producing little but fruit and gold. Such is far from being the case. The state is a large producer of wheat, especially in the Central Valley. Consider

Acres .4,219,040 3,348,385 2,488,406 .1,681,729 1,371,651 ..1,207,982

.14,317,593 .19,191,716

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able is grown in the Salinas Valley and in other smaller valleys. The wheat industry is of particular interest because of the influence of climate. Because summer rains seldom occur and because the air is so dry, the grain can be threshed as soon as cut. This resulted in the invention of the combined harvester by means of which,under the most favorable conditions, one hundred acres of wheat can be cut, threshed and sacked in a day. Again, the dry summers mean that the farmer does not need to hurry to haul his grain from the field.

California is not a large producer of either corn or oats but in barley she holds first place in acreage, production and value of crop. This state together with the Dakotas and Minnesota produce more than one-half of the entire crop of the United States.

Many are not aware of the advance which California has made in rice growing. This crop requires an abundance of water and conditions which make the flooding of the land relatively inexpensive. The production of rice in California on a commercial scale began in 1911. The rice growing sections are in the southern part of the Sacramento and northern part of the San Joaquin valleys. A part of the crop is exported.

Millions of dollars worth of alfalfa are produced in California yearly. The long growing season, the high percentage of sunshine, the deep soil and the availability of water make possible several

otherwise have. The crop is cultivated in various localities and a number of factories have been established. At Spreckels, in the Salinas Valley, is one of the largest sugar factories in the world. Among the other factories may be mentioned the ones at Santa Maria, Oxnard, Anaheim and Chino. Table IV shows that, in the year 1921, Cali

fornia had 15 per cent of the total acreage and about 16 per cent of the total value of the crop.

The value of the product of the truck farms is enormous, millions of dollars worth being sold annually. In addition to supplying the home markets large quantities are shipped to eastern cities. The chief crops are tomatoes, melons, onions, asparagus, lettuce, celery, peas, artichokes and berries. The region near Sacramento, the east side of San Francisco Bay, San Francisco Peninsula, the Los Angeles area and Imperial Valley are all important vegetable growing sections. Thousands of car loads of melons are produced yearly, chiefly in the neighborhood of Turlock in the San Joaquin Valley and in Imperial Valley.

California is rapidly coming to the front as a dairying state. During the decade closing in 1920 the sum realized from the sale of dairy products increased 175.2 per cent. Great attention is given to the dairy herds and to the dairies as well. The industry is carried on in all parts of the state, but Stanislaus and Imperial Counties are especially important.

The climate of California is highly favorable to the poultry industry. A large number of farmers carry poultry as a side line but the chief commercial return is from the poultry farms. These vary from less than one acre to a number of acres in extent. A profit of $2.00 per hen per year is not unusual.

Petaluma is a noted poultry center and there are many poultry ranches in other parts of the state. In some sections large flocks of turkeys are fattened (Continued on page 285)

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N

A Dark Laid Plot

EXT TO A FUNERAL, Darktown loves a wedding.

When the sagging, unpainted gate before Sis' Malviny Johnson's "bohdin' house" creaked under Malviny's heavy hand, the street leading to the Colored Methodist Church bloomed like a perambulating flower garden with "best clo'es" and new spring hats, heading in that direction.

Malviny knew that she was late, so she hurried. She had something to do -yas'm! She'd show dat trash-yassir! She saw the nudgings, heard the whisperings of those that she passed; but she did not stop.

At the church, she was met at the door by Sis' Chloe Jenkins. Greetings were exchanged. Sis' Jenkins, eyes rolling in fear that was half delight, tried in hoarse whispers to persuade her companion from the course on which she was set. To no purpose. Malviny grabbed Chloe's arm, and steered her into the church.

"Dis heah seat will do, right heah in de back row. Slide in fust, Sis' Jenkins. I'se gwine take de aisle seat mah

By CAROLINE KATHERINE FRANKLIN se'f. Yas'm, don' lemme miss seein' nothin', 'specially as dis heah was teh be mah own weddin', which it ain't. Ah' likes de back row. Back heah, a lady kin view de aujence wid greater perspicacity, yas'm.'

Chloe Jenkins ventured a remark on the beauty of the decorations.

"Wha' say, Sis Jenkins? Yas'm Ah's boun' ter admit de chu'ch is suht'nly a dignity o' color; but Ah likes mo' refinement mahse'f. Oh, Sis' Jenkins, jes' lookit! Jes' lookit yander at de bridegroom! Lawsy, lawsy, dat dar Alkali Jones! Ain't he de man! Oh, you Alkali! Sis' Jenkins, that Alkali jes' natchully mek yo' feel lak de new moon am hung out 'special fo' yo'-yas'm. Sech a puhsonality-Ma'am? Wha' say? He laks dem heavy?

"Yas'm, yo is suht'nly right. De bride done mek threefo' of him ef yo' figguhs 'em by tonnage, she suht'nly do. She's jus' three hund'ed poun' o' nothin' atall. When Ah thinks huccome dat theah yalluh impudence done wreck mah

mahied life, fo' it done got stahted, Ah jes' lose all mah exaltation fo' weddin's.

"Lan' sake, how mah h'aht do poun'!" moaned Malviny. "Lookit-dat dar Alkali Jones whut done bus' off wid me! See him er-standin' dar, des dat gran' wid his white undahtakah's gloves, an' his bes' man.

Lissen, Sis' Jenkins, de weddin' mahch! An' lookit-lookit-Heah dey comes!

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EE DEM Ames'es twins unrollin' an' stretchin' dat white crepe papuh fo' de bride ter plunk down huh flat-bo't feet on. An-an'-Ssh! Heah comes de bride.

Lawsy, lookit! Lookit dat Geranium Graham a-prancin' down de aisle on huh pah's ahm! Ain't she de kittenish ice-wagon? Lookit, honey-dat bokay! Hothouse roses an' maidenhaiah fuhn! Dat veil all submounted wid Val lace, three-fo' inches wide-now ain't dat sump'n? White satin

Ah kain't look no mo', honey. It done blim mah eyes. An' see huh train -yahds an' yahds!

(Continued on page 286)

Bernice Freeland Lott---Explorer

HE IMPULSE which has caused the Aryan race to rise en masse and spill itself over a continent in a single movement sometimes animates an individual representative regardless of conditions or circumstances. Such an instance is found in the self-appointed task of Mrs. Bernice Freeland Lott, born in Knoxville, Iowa, graduated; from the convent of the Sacred Heart in Chicago, and shortly afterwards married to Egbert Phelps Lott, son of the famous railroad builder, Uriah Lott, born in Texas of Dutch par entry. Bernice Freeland Lott herself is a mixture of Scotch, English and French. She has the wanderlust in her veins; and her husband's occupation-that of mining engineer-afforded the opportunity of gratifying a desire to see and know American antiquities.

Employed by the Guggenheims the Lotts spent their early married life in Guatamala and Mexico, where both became interested in the ruins of Antigua; but before it was possible work Mr. Lott was transferred to the Atacama Desert in Chile, second only in size to the great Sahara. Here at an elevation of 10,000 feet nothing lives. A compensation for this desolation is the Chuqui Camata Copper Mine of the Guggenheim Company, the largest body of low grade copper ore in the world. It is situated two hundred miles inland from the port of Antofagasta-a choice spot long in dispute between Chile and Bolivia.

It was while staying in this isolated camp that Mrs. Lott began serious work in an old Indian village burying ground on the river Loa, dating from 1630. Here was found much of the crude pottery now in the loan collection in the M. H. De Young Memorial Museum in Golden Gate Park, together with bone and carved wood work.

This tribe was called Mapuchemeaning "People of the Earth." The village itself was built of petrified vegetation which at first glance looked like a peculiar coarse lava formation; the roofs and walls glittering in the full glare of the sun like crusted salt. This petrified fiber was light in weight but firm and hard enough for building purposes.

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social boundaries. When it is remembered that the women of Latin-America do not go about without a chaperone or other escort, and that it is the men only who go to the cafes and drink tea at four o'clock each afternoon, one has some idea of the independence and courage necessary to undertake any kind of work outside regular domestic routine.

In the face of these difficulties Mrs. Bernice Freeland Lott has managed to collect the most extensive assortment of textiles ever brought to the United States. For four years she and her husband labored at Pachacamac, the preInca ruin eleven miles from Lima, the capital of Peru. Here the burial places are terraced one above the other and all are buried beneath a top soil which indicates a lapse of centuries beyond present time.

Mrs. Lott reports five terraces as the depth to which she penetrated. The different strata clearly show that the races preceding the Incas were not metal

workers. For this reason their graves have not been desecrated, and the textiles found are in their original position.

The terraces containing Inca tombs have been rifled of their metal contents. The images and ornament of pure gold interred with the nobles and reigning princes richly rewarded the first comers,

but to the true antiquarian the textiles and pottery found at a lower level are of priceless value as indicative of the culture and progress of this ancient people. The tombs yielding the best results were made of adobe bricks with plastered walls and thatched roofs of grass and reeds wove into mats four feet square and laid flat over the tiny rooms. The bodies were in one corner, and were placed in a sitting posture facing west. Above the heads and around the mummies were yards and yards of a coarse white cotton cloth tightly wound.

The burial robes were ornamental in rich colorings woven into bands, all-overs and set designs, indicating family or rank, or symbols of the sun. All the units of the serpent symbol are found in the borlas, or head bands, and in the ornate ponchos, identical with the garment of that name worn by the natives of today.

That there was no difference

ence in the culture and religious beliefs from Southern Mexico to the Amazon river is amply demonstrated in the burial cloths found in this area. The most exquisite bit of texture in Mrs. Lott's collection reproduces in exact form the color the famous murals of the ruins of Mitla, in the State of Oaxaca, Mexico.

Mr. and Mrs. Lott have loaned their rare collection to the M. H. De Young Memorial Museum, in Golden Gate Park. Here in the new addition now nearing completion will be installed those relics of a vanished civilization.

The collection will be used as a nucleus for teaching Americanization to the rising generation and to the aliens who need to know the beginning of civilization in the New World. With the very fine. Colonial Room, and the Pioneer and Historical Collections, already installed, the progress of the human family on the Western Hemisphere will be well dem(Continued on page 287)

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American Music and Musicians

INCE it is my privilege to write on music in the columns of "Overland," I shall take the bull by the horns at once-so to speak-enter the arena of opera, and throw down the gauntlet in behalf of the American Composer in California. The distinguished men whose names I shall mention are doubtless known to their colleagues; but my intention, or desire, is to have them. known to my readers-a vast public and the very public I wish to reach: Charles Wakefield Cadman of Hollywood

William J. McCoy of Oakland
John Lawrence Seymour of Santa
Monica

Gerard Carbonara of Oakland
Humphrey J. Stewart of San Diego
Wallace Arthur Sabin of Berkeley
Edward C. Potter of Los Angeles
Surely a goodly list for one State alone
when as a Country we are reputed to
have "no American operas or writers
of opera!" Later, I hope to come to the
complete list, and show our public the
wealth of ability in our land. What a
festival California could have in the per-
formance of its own opera-repertory;
and what an addition to the history of
its State such a program would be!

Right here, I shall ask a few questions concerning the rights of the American. Composer of Music-drama versus the opera company, with the hope that proper action may follow.

Are not our institutions, which are considered as educational and exempt from taxation, civic, state or national organizations? If so, how can we banish from them our language and our music. If a civic opera company, through this exemption of 10 per cent on a million dollars, takes from the government so large a sum, how can it continue to be based upon foreign languages and music, 80 per cent foreign artists, with the inclusion of Americans only at the price of their renouncing the mother tongue and American music? Surely, with all the nations of Europe at liberty to send their opera companies to this country, we can get "culture" through the vernaculars of Europe, if necessary; whereas opera companies incorporated in the U. S. A. cannot be civic, state or national organizations upon their present regime or activity.

The board of directors cannot make them American, it must be the regime. Art is history. How long are we going to forget this and continue to accept conditions as they are in the field of art in this country?

The collaboration of California's Wo

By ELEANOR EVEREST FREER

men's and Music Clubs, and the California Auxiliary of The League of American Pen Women, could create an annual festival of its State composers which would have but one result: it would be carried broadcast by radioand surely be copied in every state in the union, by a program-if not of entirely State operas at least, American music dramas. Shall I say, we have a

four-score list on hand?

And if every

one of the eighty were not to prove a success, it would still give us at least one opera, if not more, for every State to present. We have investigated enough of them to make this statement without hesitancy.

What is surely coming-and without which the Fine Arts of this Country will never have prestige-is Government

Editor's Note: If Overland readers wish to have Eleanor Everest Freer discuss any particular phase of music in the Middle West and East, a request addressed to her in care of Overland will have response. Mrs. Freer is National Chairman of Music, League of American Pen Women.

Patronage. But why wait, even a short while for your State patronage would only assist our government; and in "Americanization" are we not bound to help, in every field, towards a still more perfect nation with its ideals?

My advice to California is: Do not wait. Give these splendid works the coming winter in one or all of your opera companies; (in chamber opera or grand opera form) and then when the Biennial of the N. F. M. C. Clubs is to take place, you will have a list to choose from and can offer,-a la Noble Prize system, a fitting reward for work accomplished, the only proper system of prize-giving to follow.

And as to the public and "what it wants:" I can assure you, the public is a lamb! It takes what it gets! But it prefers the best; and Americans are intelligent and loyal when they get the chance. They will welcome their own art if it is brought to them with the same prestige and honor with which we favor the works of Europe. When they say "there is no patriotism in Art," the fact that "Art is History" disproves the statement, and we must not forget that if citizens in the United States of America prove themselves best fitted for activity in the field of music-as composers, singers or instrumentalists-and we banish these citizens and our language from Opera Companies incorporated in the U. S. A., we are, directly, depriving our musicians of a livelihood. We are stifling the progress of our Musical Art, which is a large factor in our history. The system at present in vogue is at fault and must be changed by these companies, their guarantors and the public, unless we wish to be guilty of an act which is a direct injustice to Americans. Music cannot exist without the composer; the composer cannot exist without a hearing; the artist cannot exist without the opportunity to exercise the profession for which he is by nature, best endowed.

In my philanthropic and artistic work, a few matters have been brought rather emphatically to my attention. In England, foreigners adopt the English language and become English. In our country, they keep the old language and remain foreigners-the sixty or more foreign-language newspapers still in existence being sufficient proof of this statement. One of them in Chicago has constantly increased its circulation in the past thirty years, now having over 100,000 circulation. This is proof that the (Continued on page 287)

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Etching In California---Roi Partridge

ROMINENCE in any field of creative art is not infrequently fortuitous. The happy chance which brings into prominence the work of the poet, the painter, may elevate the one to heights which his fellows may as equally deserve. Often times the place so attained is passing; the fame ephemeral. It is only when laymen and contemporaries alike assent to the honor, and the artist consistently maintains his work at the level which has brought him honor, that it may be definitely assumed that the distinction is deserved.

Among the California etchers the name of Roi Partridge holds deserved pro minence. Usually given place as the foremost exponent of the art on the West Coast a place to which the awards of various juries would seem to entitle himhe is with surety included in that little group which most truly represents the art of etching in the West. And if the work of the California etchers is expressive of all that is most virile in the art today, then Partridge must be given place among the best of present day etchers.

He has been identified with the art in California almost from

By HARRY NOYES PRATT

the unconcealed contours of California's hills the nude Nature-life-demand that simplicity of expression which is the highest form of art. Partridge responded. Physical California, coupled with that half-believed-in psychic atmosphere which makes the region the great center for artistic expression, commanded a new dignity of expression; his plates gained directness, a new and greater

tispiece) the tree dominates in the design, it is actually subject to the mountain beyond. The tree is the accessory, the mountain the commanding personality. This is even more clearly evident in Sierra Shanties, where the snowdraped firs almost fill the plate and yet are' scarcely evident in the interest which the play of sun and shadow upon the snowy slope induces. Partridge loves the mountains, feels at one with them; for the trees-however close his friend

"Sierra Shanties." From the etching by Roi Partridge

the beginning of what constitutes the Western movement. Western by birth, though not a Californian, Partridge legitimately inherits that sense of freedom and breadth of vision which his work exemplifies. It was only, however, upon his entry into the California atmosphere that he commenced to express his inner vision with forceful directness. Where he had been hesitant, giving only partial and inadequate expression to his vision of beauty, his plates began to lose all ambiguity, to speak in immediate straightforwardness.

Physical California must, of course, be credited with a portion of this influence toward a higher art. Partridge's native Puget Sound country is a region of forested slopes. The earth anatomy is fully clothed; the underlying truth smothered, softened, in the cloak which Nature has thrown upon it. And just as the nude in human life calls for truthful simplicity of artistic expression,

virility and beauty.

The beauty of Partridge's plates is not altogether of line, though his technique demands admiration. It is not essentially of design-the word used as expressive of that "decorative" effect. which is, after all, not an essential, however much it may delight the superficial eye-though this etcher's plates are carefully planned in their balance of line, their masses of light and shade. There is present in them a subjective beauty which, however unconscious the spectator may be of it, holds direct and forceful appeal. Perhaps it is in this that Partridge's supremacy may be found; his intense and sympathetic love of Nature gives power of interpretation.

YOU WILL FIND that practically

all his plates deal with mountains or trees, usually holding a combination. of the two. And you will find, too, that where-as in his Los Cerros-(see Fron

ship may be it is only friendship.

If the chief province of the artist-I lay myself open to dispute in this-is to arouse in the spectator an emotion parallel to that which actuated the creation, then Partridge is justly entitled to his high place among etchers. There is strength in his work; power-but it is

a vigor which goes hand in hand with poetry, and finds kinship, a softening influence, in it. It is the combination of these two which gives the strong emotional appeal. A posed Hercules has beauty; it is only his action which arouses emotion. Life is never static; and Partridge's etchings have this lifequality. Each line has strength, but it has too

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that rhythm which is life.

I remarked in passing that simplicity of expression is the highest form of art; and it is possible that there, too, I may be open to attack. Yet contrast, if you will, his Sierra Slopes with that older plate, The Cloud. Now the latter is a splendid plate. It is probable that the etcher would place this as the finer product of the two, judged as an etching and from the standpoint of technique alone. But which produces the greater emotional appeal? Isn't it the former?

There is in this etching nothing of pictorial expression save the bare granite ledges which guard the lonely mountain pass. But note how dexterously the etcher has disposed his few lines to express not so much the physical characteristics as the feeling of intense solitude, the loneliness of the region. That lone rhythmic line which sweeps upward across the lower plate seems relatively unim(Continued on page 285)

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