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was their first visit and Annette took pride in showing them the house and grounds. The elder woman was quick to see that the appointments of the dinner, though inexpensive, were in perfect. taste. She admired the triple gold lines which enmeshed the tiny pink roses decorating the china, and she saw that a uniform key pattern adorned the quaintly shaped glass ware. The bowl of roses in the center gave the table the right touch of color.

With fine tact the elder woman made conversation easy. She adroitly brought out the fact that Annette had made the elaborate combination of lace and embroidery which covered the table and that the doilies and napkins had been designed and worked by the same deft fingers.

Self-consciousness and over - anxiety made Annette indifferent to the food while the young man alternately flushed and paled in his effort to appear at ease.

Dinner over, Annette declared that she would wash the dishes before going to church. Her admirer immediately offered to assist, and much to his mother's amusement Annette tied one of her aprons around his waist, and handed him a tea towel. He looked so awkward, and was so helpless that his mother was convulsed.

"Mother!" he protested, "such hilarity is shocking! What will Miss Weatherby think of your angel child?"

What the mother saw in the face of the girl, made her steal out into the flower patch. The rays of the setting sun sent glints of gold among the old fashioned blossoms. The soft hum of insect life swelled into a vesper lullaby. Time passed unnoticed as the mother breathed a prayer for her beloved one. She was standing surrounded by tall stalks of hollyhocks heavy with bloom, but she turned an illumined face to her son as he ran toward her.

"Mother!" he cried, his voice shaken with emotion, "It's all right.... Kiss me, and then come and kiss Annette."

The deep rich tones of the church bell found a devotional echo in each happy heart.

With a pretty show of authority, Annette directed her fiance to the washroom while she and the mother went upstairs for hats and wraps. Wallace was careful to select the towel under the inscription "For My Guest," but studiously avoided wrinkling the embroidered monogram and edge. Curious as a boy he wandered out into the storeroom. Here he found row upon row of jams and jellies, neatly labelled and set on white oil cloth covered shelves. He had an almost ungovernable desire to put one of the jars into his pocket. It was a

momentary lapse to boyhood impulse.
He smiled at his own absurdity, with
every sense keenly alive to the immacu-
late cleanliness about him.

Presently he went upstairs. He heard
the voices in the bed room, but refrain-
ed from a close scrutiny of the ivory
toilet articles nestling among pink rib-
bons and lace. Instead he examined
with approval the well framed prints
and etchings on the wall and noted the
harmonious colorings of green and gold
in his surroundings. He busied himself
with the books and magazines reposing
in odd nooks and corners. He was stand-
ing near a low, flat brass bowl filled
with trailing nasturtiums when the two
women joined him.

Annette could scarcely wait to get home from church to call her own mother, and tell of her great joy. Both voices were tearful and there were many breaks in the long distance connection before the tale was finally told.

Still laboring under excitement, Annette's mother called up Uncle Henry's club.

"What's that you say, Sis, Annette's engaged?" he bawled over the phone. "Who is she going to marry? Do you know anything about him? Can he take care of her? Of course, you don't know. That's just like a lot of fool women! I'll take the first train down there tomorrow morning. I've helped raise that girl, and she shall not marry any Tom, Dick or Harry that comes along. If it ain't all right, I'll run him out of town." True to promise Uncle Henry came storming up to the school.

"Where's this paragon; this haloheaded, winged creature that got you going?" he demanded of Annette. "You can't marry him until I find out about him; do you hear that, Missy?"

Annette didn't know whether to laugh
or cry. She did know better than to try
and reason with her visitor.

"Wallace does business with Mr.
Burton. Go and see him, Uncle."
"I will, and you'll hear from me
later."

"Burton, do you know anything about
this Wallace Rathburn, who has just
come to town?" Uncle Henry lost no
time in getting the desired information.

"Yes, and no;" replied Mr. Burton showing no surprise at Henry Hazleton's sudden appearance and abrupt question. "I knew the father, Josiah Rathburn very well. They don't make better men than he was. When he died a few years ago he left his two boys some money, but not much, I imagine. The family comes of old New England stock. The younger son, Wallace, seems to be a forthright, upstanding sort, with a good business head. Rathburn Bros.

deal extensively in fruits. I understand that this young fellow intends to put up one of their plants here. It all depends, I think, on what the new foothill orchards justify."'

Mr. Burton was considerably puzzled by Henry Hazleton's odd, quizzical

smile.

Shortly after reaching home Annette heard the front gate shut, and looking out of the window saw her uncle and fiance coming up the walk, chatting as amicably as old friends.

That evening, Wallace said to An

nete:

"I am going to San Francisco tomorrow morning, with your Uncle, and I would like to order our engagement ring -if you will tell me what you want."

Annette slowly removed the diamond ring, and looking into the eyes of her lover said, "Please, dearest, match this stone, and let the two lock the ends of the wire setting."

"You have worn this ring a long time," murmured Wallace as he examined the thin band. He did not voice the thoughts surging through his mind. Annette was silent for a moment, then said with a sigh:

"That ring has been my honor guard. It was my mother's engagement ring, and when I left home she gave it to me. Now I shall have a double guard; father's memory and your love."

As Wallace folded her in his arms he was glad that he had not questioned her.

As soon as the ring was finished Annette gave a luncheon at the Tank House and announced her engagement to her girl friends. Later, Mrs. Burton gave a reception and tea, at which the prospective bridegroom was made to feel that he was a welcomed and honored guest.

Curiously enough it was becoming impossible to ignore the fact that the townspeople were jealous! They could not conceal their resentment toward the relatives of Annette. She had belonged to the community so long, that they were not willing to share interest with anybody else! This fact was very patent during the holiday season, especially after Annette resigned from school, and let it be known that the wedding would occur in the early spring.

In the days following Wallace spent many happy hours in the tank house. "Annette, where do you want to spend our honeymoon?"

"Right where we are," she answered promptly.

"Good! I love this little nest."

"And I don't mind having these people peeping, and whispering about us. I've grown to be very fond of this little town."

"Then you would be content to live here? Shall we build in a new location?"

"No; Wallace, let us remodel the bungalow. We can make a beautiful home out of that."

"All right; would ten thousand dollars be enough to fix the house up to suit you?"

Noting Annette's wide-eyed amazement, her lover slipped an arm about her waist, as he nestled down beside her.

"I have a confession to make. The business I represent is my own. My brother owns the London house, Mother has the one near Santa Barbara, all the rest are mine. I was afraid you wouldn't have me around if you thought I had much money.'

"Oh! you've been listening to village gossip."

"Yes; and was scared nearly to death by it."

Annette promptly boxes his ears.

"Listen to my plan, Annette. Let's stay in the tank house long enough to get the bungalow alterations started right, then let's take Mother over to visit brother Dan, while we slip off to the Continent to hunt furniture and stuff for our new home."

"We can leave Jerry in charge of everything."

"Yes; that old chap can stay with us the rest of his life if he wants to. Your touring car and electric coupe need not disturb him at the garage."

Again Annette stared at her lover in speechless surprise.

The twain were in the sitting room of the tank house, near enough to look out over the window box of pink and red ivy geraniums to the greensward below. Gusts of wind flung the raindrops against the panes of glass, but the warm glow of the fire gave an atmosphere of coziness and comfort.

Annette and her sweetheart had lapsed into a strange, sweet silence. Finally Wallace said:

"Annette, dear, would you mind showing me your Hope Chest? I've never seen one." The speaker was under a strong emotion as the lid was raised and his eyes rested upon dainty, frilly wedding garments. He mechanically held the lavender sticks placed in his hands, but was unmindful when they slipped to the floor. Annette carefully lifted out each article until she came to the teething ring and rattle. She looked dismayed for a moment, then picked it up bravely, saying:

"This is Uncle Henry's gift. I am keeping it for the use of my son, Richard."

"And for my daughter, Margaret, too, I hope."

"Yes; if it is God's will." Annette's face was uplifted and glorified.

Pale and agitated her lover carried. her hand to his lips in silence.

Days of unalloyed happiness followed; days that were replete with plans and preparations; days when Annette missed the care of her pupils, especially the younger ones. During it all Wallace and Annette lived in an unreal, Utopian world created by their dreams and fancies.

One afternoon when Annette was busy with her wedding gown, Wallace pulled the work away from her, tossed

Mist

SISTERS

Is the shy sweetheart
Of the sun.
Outside his portals,
Yearning,

She awaits him;

But at his first sweet kiss-
His ardent glance-

She slips away,
Ashamed,

And weeps alone

In the gloom of the canyon.

Rain

Is her sister-
Radiant, gay.
She, too, is enamored
Of the sun.
Savagely

She folds him

In her silver embrace,
Until his infatuation
Reveals itself

In one long, mad kiss,
And the heavens
Reel with a rainbow.

-Saimi Johnson.

the things about, and made a mess generally.

"Sir; why this vandalism?" demanded Annette, with mock severity.

in their coming marriage. The townspeople would have felt distinctly hurt if they had not been consulted in the

matter.

Upon the advice of Mrs. Burton, the first day of "Blossom Festival" week was selected, and then everybody began to prepare for the event.

Each year Santa Clara Valley holds a beautiful fete in honor of its chief product-prunes. The Valley from end to end is a mass of snow white blossoms, and many and devious are the ways in which this special gift of nature is made. to serve Art and Beauty.

The quaint little church had been transformed into a bower of bloom. Uncle Henry drove everybody nearly frantic carrying out what he imagined were Annette's wishes. He was especially particular and hard to please about the details of the floral canopy under which the ceremony was performed. Finally when all was to his liking he was a flustered and moist-eyed member of the bridal party. He was gentleness and tenderness personified as he gave Annette into the keeping of her husband.

It was a radiantly happy bride who walked proudly down the flower decked aisle, smiling and bowing as she left the church.

Annette's heart was full when she saw that the yard in front of the tank house was filled with school children. She was quick to note that each year of her teaching was represented. It taxed her self-control to pass under the banner held by the oldest boys. The inscription said:

"You taught us to respect you; by ourselves we have learned to love you."

From all sides the children pelted them with blossoms, and they were obliged to walk over flowers shaken from the cornucopias held by the little ones preceding them.

A group of the smallest pupils dressed as fairies surrounded the entrance to the tank house. Their diminutive queen waved her wand and with a deep curtsy said to Wallace:

"Good sir, accept this tiny heart of gold as a lucky talisman. The fairies wish for you all possible happiness and joy." Wallace was profoundly moved as he

"I'm trying to get some attention. There may be no wedding. The groom seems likely to die of neglect." "What sort of attention do you think stooped and kissed the wee face upturned you need?" to his own. Then he took the little trinket and kissed that, too.

"Civilized man cannot live without cooks. I should say that a thick slice of bread, well buttered and covered with jam would fill a long felt want."

What feasts they had! impromptu and otherwise.

Great happiness makes for consideration of others, and the young people were not slow in sensing a community interest

With streaming eyes Annette knelt at the flower strewn threshold, and opened her arms wide. The littlest ones clung to her affectionately. They covered her tear-stained face with sweet, innocent baby kisses.

Thus did the new household receive its benediction.

[graphic][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed]

ERHAPS it may seem like a far cry from the music of the streams far up the slopes of the Sierras to the music in a multitude of prosperous homes in the valleys below. Yet the two are intimately and vitally related. The marvelous growth of California in agriculture, mining, manufacturing, transportation, wealth and population looms large. One of the important causes of this is to be found in the development and and utilization of the water resources of the state.

To those who have never visited our higher regions, California appears to be lacking in streams, falls and lakes. Those who are familiar with our mountains know that they give birth to many rivers which hurry noisily over stony reaches and flow gently through deep pools. They are familiar with falls upon whose mists are painted the rainbow and with beautiful lakes which gleam like jewels in the laps of the mountains, reflecting tree and peak and cloud.

Motoring, tramping or camping beside the rivers, one is far removed from the rush and noise of industry; yet were the songs of the mountain streams stilled, a hush would fall upon the busy marts of trade. Many of the wheels of industry and transportation would cease to turn. Darkness would at night envelop many a city street and rural home which are now ablaze with light. But for the application of hydroelectric energy, large areas of fertile land would today be dreary wastes instead of the homes of thriving people.

The water resource of California is very great, ranking second to that of New York state. It is widely distrib

The Water Resources of California

By JAMES F. CHAMBERLAIN

uted, extending throughout the length of the state. Most of it is, of course, in the Sierras, but there are water powers in the Coast Mountains as well. Many years ago Clapp and Henshaw in discussing the Sacramento Basin in Surface Water Supply of the United States, Volume XI, p. 118, said: "Fully 50 per cent of all the available water power in the state exists in this basin, though its area is not more than 17 per cent. of that of the state. A number of the streams have a fall of 4,000 or 5,000 feet and an average minimum flow of several hundred second-feet. Without storage they are capable of developing a minimum of 2,000,000 horsepower, and with storage about 3,000,000 horsepower."

According to the above estimate the potential water power in California amounts to 6,000,000 horsepower. Recent estimates range from 5,000,000 to 9,000,000 horsepower. The present installation amounts to more than 1,000,000 horsepower. There is therefore a very large untouched resource upon which to draw for future developments. That all of this unused power will be needed, there can be no doubt.

Before long distance transmission without excessive leakage became a reality, the water power of California was scarcely touched. Falls in some of our states are so situated that centers of industry could and did develop in close proximity, but in California this is not the case.

California has pioneered in the development of hydroelectric energy and long distance transmission. In 1895 power was being transmitted from San Antonio to San Bernardino, a distance of 20 miles. In the same year a line was established between Folsom and Sacramento, practically the same distance. These achievements attracted the attention of the world.

When it was demonstrated that long distance transmission was entirely practical, capital became available and there are now within the borders of California a number of strong organizations for the development and distribution of hydroelectric energy. The following figures, from the Journal of Electricity and Western Industry for June 15, 1921, p. 598, give some idea of the magnitude of the work of these companies. Much development has taken place since the above date.

Electric Public Service Industry
of California

Total investment
No. of employees.
Annual payroll
Annual taxes

No. of consumers..
Connected load, hp...
Installed capacity, hp.
((Water power plants)
Miles of wire

[graphic]

$408,102,093

21,178

28,293,964

5,035,631

780,691

2,603,682

1,206,410 116,585

[merged small][graphic][merged small]

years later it became the Southern California Edison Company. It serves an area equal to the combined areas of New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island. Connecticut, New Jersey and Delaware. More than 300,000 consumers are on its books.

From Big Creek, a tributary of the San Joaquin, power is transmitted 240 miles to Los Angeles. In addition, the Kern, Kaweah and Tule rivers in the north furnish energy, while in the south the Santa Ana, San Gabriel, and San Antonio rivers, and Mill creek and Lytle creek have been harnessed.

The installation as of December, 1923, is approximately 250,000 horsepower. A large amount of power is furnished the Pacific Electric and other transportation companies in the South. Stock in the company is owned by 64,500 persons, largely residents of California. In 1923 there was distributed to these stockholders dividends in the sum of $4,400,000.

Electric lines in the Bay region furnish a large market for hydroelectric energy. The San Francisco-Sacramento line operates between San Francisco and the capital. The Northern Electric connects Sacramento with Marysville, Chico and Hamilton. Stockton and Modesto are connected with Sacramento by an electric line. Electric trains are operated between Vallejo, Napa and Calistoga and also between Petaluma and Santa Rosa.

From its plants on Rush Creek in Mono County, the Southern Sierras Power Company transmits power to Southern California and to Yuma, Arizona, a distance of 517 miles. The energy is used in the mines in Randsburg and elsewhere; in soda work in Inyo County; for irrigating and ginning cotton in Imperial County, and in many other areas and ways.

Forty miles northeast of Fresno the San Joaquin Light and Power Corporation constructed a diversion dam across the San Joaquin river. The dam is 125 feet high, and 570 feet long. A tunnel 17,300 feet long conveys the water to steel penstocks which deliver it to the turbines. The plant, which includes the Kerckhoff Power House and buildings for employees, cost $5,750,000 and was put into operation on August 7, 1920. This plant generates 56,800 horse power.

The counties of Fresno, Mariposa, Merced, Madera, Tulare, Kings and Kern are served directly and through another company service is extended to Monterey, San Luis Obispo and Santa Barbara counties. It has eleven hydroelectric plants and 5,500 miles of transmission and distribution lines. To its

12,668 bond and stock holders dividends aggregating $766,800.33 were paid in 1922. "Today's generating capacity of 183,533 horsepower supplies light and power to 134 towns and cities, giving service to more than 50,000 consumers, 8,000 of whom operate motors." (Year Book of the San Joaquin Light and Power Corporation, 1922, p. 5.

On September 27, 1922, the Pacific Gas and Electric Company put into service the first unit of its $100,000,000 power plant on Pitt River, from which energy is transmitted 200 miles to Vac

Typical stream as a source of power

aville. The water of Fall River is diverted about one mile above its junction with the Pitt and carried through a tunnel two miles long to Pitt River Canyon, 454 feet above the stream. Some 140,000 horsepower is transmitted with a loss of only eight per cent.

On the Yuba River, the company has built Spaulding Dam, 275 feet high, which impounds 74,000 acre-feet of water. The company has a total of 263,495 horsepower installed and has a potential of 875,045 horsepower. In 1920 it distributed $11,000,000 in wages and $5,000,000 in dividends.

The Great Western Power Company draws upon the energy of the North Fork of the Feather River. At Big Meadows, a dam 55 feet high has created an artificial lake with a storage capacity of 300,000 acre-feet. The Caribou Power House, which was put in operation on May 7, 1921, added 59,000 horsepower to the previous output.

Municipal development and utilization of the water resource of California, has in two cases attracted national attention. In 1901 James D. Phelan, at

that time mayor of San Francisco, filed water locations on the Tuolumne River. It was not until seven years later that permission was obtained from the Federal Government to use storage resevoir sites in Yosemite National Park. On January 4, 1910, San Francisco voted bonds in the amount of $45,000,000 for the development of the Hetch Hetchy Project.

The Hetch Hetchy is in the Tuplumne basin, eighteen miles northwest of Yosemite and one hundred sixty-eight miles from San Francisco. At its lower end the valley narrows to a gorge but sixty feet wide and here a dam has been constructed. The six hundred fifty-one square miles of watershed owned by the city varies in altitude from 3,500 to 13,000 feet. The precipitation is considerable and the opportunity to develop hydroelectric energy great. Resevoirs have been built on Eleanor and Cherry Creeks, both tributaries of the Tuolumne River.

From Hetch Hetchy Reservoir the water follows the bed at the Tuolumne for twelve miles to Early Intake. At this point a diversion dam turns the water into the aqueduct. At Irvington Gate House, near Niles, the aqueduct divides, the main line extending westward and crossing the Bay at Dumbarton. A second line will carry water to the East Bay cities and a third will supply San Jose. The main aqueduct follows the peninsula to San Francisco. There will be connection with the Crystal Springs Reservoir, the capacity of which will be doubled. This reservoir will be kept practically full at all times. to insure a water supply in case of accident.

The Hetch Hetchy project is about three-fourths completed. The total cost will be $77,000,000 and it will furnish 400,000,000 gallons of water daily or a supply sufficient for 4,000,000 people. Some 200,000 horsepower by hydroelectric energy can be developed. This will be of great importance in the industrial development of the Bay Section.

The rapid growth of Los Angeles made it necessary some years ago to secure a much larger water supply. After long and thorough investigation it was decided to bring water from Owens River about 220 miles distant. On June 12, 1907, the people of Los Angeles voted bonds to the extent of $23,000,000 for carrying on the work. The primary object was to secure an adequate water supply but in 1910 bonds were voted for the purpose of developing and transmitting hydroelectric energy.

Much of the territory crossed by the aqueduct is a desert and this added to the difficulty and the cost. Miles of tunnels were run under mountains and a

[graphic]

railroad was built for the purpose of transporting materials.

Los Angeles now has five hydroelectric power plants on tributaries of the Owens River with a combined capacity of about 100,000 horsepower. The water supply, although large and meeting present needs, will have to be increased in the not distant future owing to the very rapid growth in population.

In 1900 California ranked twentyfirst of all the states in population. In 1910 it had advanced to twelfth and in 1920 to eighth place. The gain per cent, between 1910 and 1920 was 43, as against 15 for the United States as a whole. If the growth of the state continues at the same rate we shall have in 1940 seven million people within our borders. In any event, preparation for a large gain must be made.

The Great Valley can support several millions of people. Large areas of unproductive land need but the magic touch of water to produce abundantly. Much of the water will be supplied by electrically operated pumps. Indeed, more than one-third of the irrigated land in the state is now so supplied. During the decade ending in 1920, the acreage of irrigated land in California increased 54 per cent.

Intensive agriculture on acreage now

unused, will yield large quantities of food. It will stimulate manufacturing, increase the number of wage earners, place an added demand upon transportation and communication and result in the erection of new buildings in city and country. This in turn means increased use of hydroelectric energy in the lumber, cement, paint and other industries.

In response to our rapidly growing population both building and manufacturing are increasing. According to the U. S. Department of Labor, Los Angeles, during 1922 and the first half of 1923, provided buildings for a larger number of families in proportion to its population than did any other city in the United States. The building program alone demands a large increase in hydroelectric energy.

Monthly Labor Review, October 1923.

The value of the output of our manufacturing plants has increased from $201,000,000 in 1880 to $1,900,000,000 in 1920. We have not the coal to supply the needed power and our petroleum, although vast in amount, is far from being inexhaustible. The only solution of the problem is the development and use of more hydroelectric energy.

A complete list of the industrial uses of this energy would require more space

A typical power dam

than is at our command. It is employed on our farms, in our mines and in the lumber, brick, cement and paint industries. Wheat is ground, cotton ginned, paper made, salt piled up and fruit cans sealed by means of electrically driven machinery. Hydroelectric energy operates many of the great presses which turn out our daily papers and magazines. It operates butter making machines, provides us with refrigerated foods, pumps municipal water supplies. illuminates our homes and places of business, provides cooling breezes in public places and warns us of the intrusion of burglars.

To move the products and the people of California from place to place requires a large amount of power. At present steam, generated through the use of crude oil, is largely employed. We have, however, an extensive mileage of urban and rural electric lines. The Pacific Electric Railway has more than 1,000 miles of track and operates several thousand trains daily. Fifty cities and towns are served and the investment of the company reaches $75,000,000.

It is evident that the development and the use of hydro electric energy in California is a matter of common concern, because increase of power is essential to continued expansion. As has been shown, it is vitally connected with the home, forest, farm, mine, with manufacturing and transportation. In addition, there is offered to those of small as well as large means, a safe investment with satisfactory returns. In the unapplied energy in our mountain streams is the key to continued develop

[graphic]

ment.

Solar energy, acting upon the surface of the great Pacific, transforms water into vapor which is carried by the westward movement of the atmosphere to the land. The lower land temperatures of winter result in condensation which, upon the mountains, is heavy. The streams bear the blessing from the land to the sea and thus the circle is completed. This gift of Nature, unlike some others, is permanent. As long as the sea endures; as long as the sun continues to shine; as long as our mountains lift their heads into the blue, so long will the songs of our Sierra streams continue to mean progress in California.

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