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a devout spirit upon all who would profit by reading the word of God. Explanatory teaching, such as his Grace recommends, deserves all the importance he assigns to it; but it is not to be the only kind of preaching. Nor should it even be predominant. There is an evil heart to be subdued ; not unfrequently there is a profound lethargy out of which the hearer cannot be too rudely shaken ; for it is the sleep of death. A Boanerges is always wanted in the church ; aye, and in every pulpit; and he must not forget his calling. The terrific peals of Sinai must often be heard to crash upon the sinner's hard and desperately wicked heart. This does not of necessity require a stern look, or a stentorian, or even a shrill voice; better far that both should be avoided, if the work can be effectually done without them. Better far, because when men are told, “even weeping, that they are the enemies of the cross of Christ, whose end is destruction,” the probability is greater that they will believe in the preacher's sincerity, and that insulted pride will not throw an additional shield between their consciences and the preached word. Then comes expository teaching; the constant “opening and alleging” of scripture truth from the text of Scripture. And this requires both prayer, and patience, and hard study; but the minister who will not submit to these, fails in his duty to his flock; for it is only thus that he can give full proof of his ministry, or build up and edify the souls committed to his

And after all, neither he nor they may hope to profit except as the Spirit is poured out amongst them; and for this outpouring of the Spirit both he and they must wrestle, as it were, with God unceasingly



The Book of Psalms ; with an Exposition, Evangelical, Typical,

and Prophetical, of the Christian Dispensation. By W. Wilson, D.D., Vicar of Holy Rhood, Southampton, and Canon of Win

chester. London: James Nisbet and Co. 1860. 2 Vols. 8vo. DENY the inspiration of the Psalms, and their popularity becomes a miracle. Three thousand years ago, one of the greatest of epic poets, in the most tuneful of all languages, wrote a poem which is still, and will always be, admired. In fact, it has been a school-book ever since; and scholars and men of taste in their leisure hours turn to it, and find in it always fresh delight. But no man ever thought seriously of committing it to heart, with the view of guiding his life by its instructions; no man has recourse to it in stern perplexity and deep sorrow; no man dies with a line of the Iliad quivering on his lips !

Three thousand years ago, there lived another poet. He wrote short pieces, in a language the genius of which is totally foreign to our own, or to any other European language. Few laymen read it. We know these poems through the serious disadvantage of prose translations, or of versions in rhyme made upon some translated version. Yet with all these disadvantages, king David is everywhere through the civilized world the mighty lord of song. Take all that he has contributed, and all that he has suggested, from European poetry, and how much will there be left ? In religious poetry, at least, the answer is obvious ; for the Psalms of David are to all sacred poets what the Iliad was to Virgil,– the ethereal blaze from which his taper was lighted. But even this is nothing. There have been, and there are now, literally myriads of men unconscious of a spark of poetic fire, and thousands to whom poetry is perhaps rather distasteful than otherwise ; persons of every age, in all possible circumstances,-in the vigour of life, in early youth, and in life's decay,—who better acquainted with the Psalms of David, love them more, derive more direction, more wisdom, more consolation from them, than from all other books whatever. If David were inspired to write that which the church of Christ should want through all its life-time, the mystery ceases; otherwise it is a phenomenon in human nature so remarkable that it may properly be called a miracle.

No doubt the Psalms of David, and those other Hebrew poets who are comprehended in the book which bears his name, were inspired With regard to David himself, we agree with Dr. Wilson that his experience of the Divine mercies, and his insight into the mysteries of Divine truth, far surpass those of any worshipper under the Old Testament dispensation. His kingdom, too, was the type of the kingdom of God and of His Christ. As a prophet David undoubtedly spoke of Jesus. But Dr. Wilson thinks that the information, instruction, and edification of the individual believer is ever in view. Holy men of old time must surely have thought so too, or they would never have incorporated the Psalms of David into the daily service, first of the Jewish, then of the Christian church. Dr. Wilson says :

“Of all the portions of the sacred volume, there is none in which the true church of Christ bave ever taken a deeper interest than in the book of Psalms. It unfolds in the fullest light the great attributes of Jehovah, His purposes of grace, the character and glorious consummation of redemption. It is the fullest history of the church for time and eternity; and at the same time the glass in which every true believer may most distinctly estimate his own mercies and trials with a profitable reference to their final issue.

“As the Psalms have been in the constant use of the church of God in every age since their composition, so I know no employment to which a devoted believer may better consecrate the remainder of his days, than to the careful searching investigation of their right meaning and application.

“It is recorded by Salmasius, one of the most learned men of the seventeenth century, that he said on his death-bed, 'I have lost a world of time. If I had one year more, I would spend it in reading David's Psalms and Paul's Epistles.'” (p. xii.)

The expositions which follow sustain the character which such a preface would lead us to expect. As far as we have read, they are wise without pedantry, diversified and interesting, and the spiritual meaning and application are well wrought out: original thoughts and illustrations occur not unfrequently, and the author shows himself acquainted with


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recent criticism. The exercise on the fifty-first Psalm appears to us singularly true and beautiful; but it is too long for our pages. Each exposition would serve for a family reading, or a private study for the day. We must highly commend the work, and close with one short extract from it. It is part of the exposition to which we have just referred, that on the fifty-first Psalm :

“The occasion of the composition of this psalın is sufficiently stated in the preface, and the circumstances detailed in 2 Sam. xi. and xii. There is so remarkable a correspondence of this with the spirit and aim of the former, that I cannot resist the suspicion that the 50th was composed by Asaph during the year in which David was insensible to his heavy guilt. Had he not in that time, in a measure at least, forgotten God, Ps. i. 22 ? Might not verse 18 be regarded as a remonstrance justly applicable to his case? He had been 'partaker with adulterers;' he ‘frained deceit' against Uriah ; and yet his conscience slumbered, under all his accumulated guilt, till the Lord sent Nathan the prophet to awaken him to his transgressions. And did not God tear him in His wrath by the awful denunciations uttered by Nathan, and by the sickness and death of his child? No provision was made in the Levitical law for the expiation of the sins David had committed. Here, then, was a case for the illustration of that mercy afterwards to be more clearly revealed under the dispen. sation of the Messiah. David knew that he had no refuge but in the covenanted mercy of the promised seed; and therefore, in the exercise of true faith and unfeigned repentance, he is encouraged to take God's covenant in his mouth, and plead with the God of his salvation. The whole psalm is a beautiful specimen of that spiritual service which God the Father requires. There is no true believer who may not receive great profit from its frequent use. It is a striking observation of Brentius, the reforiner, drawn from the fact of the frequent use of this psalm in the church of Christ, its frequent repetition in the Papal church in its darkest days, that he doubts not that it has been the instrument in the hands of the Spirit for rescuing many a soul from the inefficacy of formal penitence, and from the dark. ness of despair to the enjoyment of divine mercy through Christ the Saviour. This psalm, says Strigelius, is the brightest gem in the whole book, and contains instruction so large, and doctrine so precious, that the tongue of angels could not do justice to the full development. May a covenant God pour His mercy in full measure into the heart of him that now attempts to unfold something of its import; and that mercy shall be the best and purest light for an insight into its mysteries.

• That David should have composed the psalm, and then given it to the chief mu. sician to be used in public, when he could join in the use of it, not only proves that he had no wish to hide his guilt, but that he looked for the congregation to unite with him in the same spiritual service, and so would prepare the church for something more excellent than Levitical worship, to be cultivated by faith in the Messiah to

Under this view, it is not out of place to suppose that it may have a reference to the future conversion of the Jews, which Horsley and others have thought to be the real subject of the psalm.” From London to Lucknow ; with Memoranda of Mutinies, Marches,

&c. By a Chaplain in H. M. Indian Service. London: James Nisbet and Co. 1860.

Two volumes full of information, written in a cheerful goud spirit such as becomes a Chaplain in H. M. Indian Service, or in any other service; the writer being, as it appears, a Scotchman. We cannot follow him on his interesting marches and voyages, but we must transfer a scene or two. Here then is Calcutta in the days of bishop Wilson.

«•City of Palaces' is a high-sounding name, and I expected to find, on a large scale, a facsimile of one of the model cities built of white pith, and set out upon green baize, which one sees at the Crystal Palace, or British Museum. Calcutta, therefore, disappointed me. There is nothing beautiful about it, except the gardens around Government House, (an ambitious and perhaps rather handsome edifice), and an immense green stretching between Fort William and the fashionable part of the

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town which is called Chowring-hee. The river is filthy and unwholesome. Naked corpses are constantly to be seen floating past the wharves. The palaces' are built of brick, plastered over and white-washed. Wretched native huts are to be seen here and there amoug them; and the native town, which is of course the principal part of Calcutta, is dirty, ill-drained, ugly, irregular, and over-crowded, in fact a conglomeration of mud-hovels. The Cathedral, however, is a fine building in its way, although very different from auy structure of the kind in Europe. It is charmningly situated (oh! that St. Paul's had such a site !) in the far stretching green to which I have alluded, and iminediately opposite to the palace of the Bishop who has laid out a fortune upon it.

Daring the week we have spent under his lordship’s hospitable roof, I have been struck by the quaint originality of his character, combined with fervent piety and apostolic zeal. At family prayers, he mentions the names of his friends and prominent officials, when offering up petitions in their behalf. He never forgets Mrs. Ellerton and Dr. Spilsbury, two intimate friends of his, long and honourably known in Calcutta, and now supposed to be dying. One day, after asking a good many questions about Dr. Tait, the new bishop of London, he prayed with atfectionate earnestness for him and the archbishop of Canterbury. Although his own opinions are very decided, catholicity of spirit is a distinguishing feature of his character. He prays as earnestly-perhaps I may say as lovingly-for those who differ from him as for those who agree with him. Mingled with occasional severity, there is a winning gentleness in his manner and conversation, and a tender regard for the feelings and anxieties of others, which must often touch the heart of a stranger. On one occasion his lordship made some inquiries about my congregation, my successor, and my children. At our next gathering for family worship, he prayed for them all specifically. There is something very loveable in all this. Every morning at seven he drives over to the Cathedral to service, and I think he is not very well pleased unless his guests go too. Frequently there are not more than eight or ten persons present. The dear old man is an able preacher. I heard him in the Cathedral on the morning of Sunday the 22nd. He was lately brought to the brink of the grave by an accident, and this was his first public address after recovery, -a circumstance which added greatly to the etfect of a discourse on the text, * Though our outward man perish, yet the inward man is renewed day by day:' He came out as bishop of Calcutta and metropolitan of India some tive-and-twenty years ago, on the nomination of Lord Glenelg, who was at that time President of the Board of Control. His work on the · Evidences of Christianity,' originally addressed in the form of lectures to his parishioners at Islington, is admirably adapted for popular use. I cannot tell you how kind this good bishop is to us. He asks one or both of us out to drive with him every evening, and takes pains to make the drive interesting, by varying the route, and explaining the novelties which strike us on every hand. He has given me a great bundle of volumes and pamphlets written by himself

, inscribing on the title pages of several my name, and With author's love.' On Thursday evening, when he heard that I had ordered a hired vehicle to take me to Government-house to dinner, his lordship in the most obliging manner ordered his own carriage to be got ready for me instead. All this, as you may suppose, is very pleasant and gratifying to strangers in a foreign land. I have preached twice in the Cathedral.” (p. 163.)

Our second photograph shows us the chaplain at Bithoor, in the midst of the camp, and, alas! on the eve of scenes far more painful than those which are here depicted.

“Yesterday we had a day of rest, and I remained in bed, doctoring my lumbago with mustard. To-day the order was to start for Bithoor at eleven, but we did not get off till about one o'clock. There was great difficulty in persuading the jaded bullocks to drag the loaded hackeries and the heavy guns across the fields. Poor brutes, how they do get beaten, kicked, cuffed, punched, and cut. The drivers are generally cruel; but then they are sometimes cruelly treated by their superiors, if the work exacted is not promptly done. I witnessed recently an occurrence of this kind which made my blood boil. A youth of eighteen or nineteen-an oflicer who disgraced his uniform--had something to do with the superintendence of the baggagecarts. He rushed about on horseback in the wildest manner, swearing abominably, striking heavily right and left, and addressing the native carters in English, which of course they did not understand. I looked after this phenomenon with mingled Vol. 59.--No. 273.

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astonishment, indignation, and disgust, until I actually saw him deal a blow with his cudgel at the head of a woman, who had not turned the oxen she was driving as he wished them to be turned. Being fifteen or twenty yards from the spot, I did not see precisely where the stroke fell, as the road was crowded; but my impression is, the scapegrace missed her head, and bruised her shoulder. He must have been a coward: in a charge he would have sneaked away. No man with a particle of soldier-like spirit could have thus brought dishonour on his profession, his country, and his country's faith.

“ Had a long conversational discussion concerning some of the evidences of Chris. tianity. How cheaply a man may set up as a free-thinker. With a few offensive weapons, which may be picked up in half an hour, he assumes high critical ground, fires off a few things hard to be understood’ at you, throws you on the defensive, denies inspiration, denies prophecy, denies miracles, denies all revelation, except what one can read in external nature, and his own consciousness, and smiles incre. dulously at all the evidences that have been accumulating from the days of the apostles downwards. If you happen to be a clergyman, your defence is a matter of business, and your unanswerable arguments are set down to the credit, not of Christianity, but of your professional training. If you are a layman, your inability to quasli every cavil on the spur of the moment is a triumph, not over you personally, but over the faith which you endeavour to defend! You have nothing affirmative to meet, but a series of negatives, which fly like paper pellets from a pop-pun against the bomb-proof walls of our citadel. Yet the party who shoots the pellets is in high feather if you don't reply to each of them in succession with a 24-pounder at the least. It sometimes requires considerable self-command to meet even with politeness the worn-out sophisms to which one is obliged to listen, delivered with an air of originality, as if they had not been a hundred times stated, and a hundred times exposed.” (p. 325.)

A third scene amidst the horrors of the mutinies :

“Very unwell to-day. The doctor kindly came to see me, and told me the fol. lowing delightful story about Mrs. Orr and Miss Jackson :

" When expecting to be murdered, they begged an old native woman to procure for them a Bible. She replied that she dared not. The child who was with them became dangerously ill, and they begged a little medicine for her. For a long time this also was refused. But at length it arrived, in a bottle wrapped up in part of a leaf of the Bible. The verses printed on this fragment of a quarto leaf were these, (so applicable to their circumstances):_* Is. li. 11, They shall obtain gladness and joy; and sorrow and mourning shall flee away.. I, even I, am he that comforteth you : who art thou, that thou shouldest be afraid of a man that shall die, and of the son of man which shall be made as grass; and forgettest the Lord thy maker, that bath stretched forth the heavens, and laid the foundations of the earth; and hast feared continually every day because of the fury of the oppressor, as if he were ready to destroy ? and where is the fury of the oppressor ? The captive exile hasteneth that he may be loosed, and that he should not die in the pit.' [The paper was torn after the word 'pit,' but on the other side of the leaf was the whole of the last verse of the chapter.) . But I will put it into the hands of them that afflict thee; which have said to thy soul, Bow down, that we may go over : and thou hast laid thy body as the ground, and as the street, to them that went over.'

“The two ladies thanked God and took courage. They said to the native woman that they were not afraid now, because their God had sent them a message, and promised to deliver them. When captain McNeil and lieutenant Bogle, on the 19th instant, made a noise at the door of the Darogah’s house, where they were concealed or imprisoned, the old native woman called out to them to use no violence, as she would open the door. The ladies expected to see Sepoys. Imagine, then, their amazement and gratitude when they saw a European officer in the room. So overcome by emotion were they both, as they started up from their miserable corner, dressed like native women, that they were for some time unable to utter one word. It is said, that even now they can speak only in a whisper, or very low tone of voice, so dreadfully have terror and anxiety operated on their nerves.” (p. 455.)

We know not who the chaplain may be, except that the dissyllable Mackay is imprinted in gold letters on the back of his book ; but we thank him heartily for his very interesting volumes; from which reli

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