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juvenile

kinetics

listen lithography livelong lozenge

mobile molecule municipal museum

nepotism neuralgia

new

jocose

jocund

kept

kiln

lamentable larynx laugh learned

legend
lenient
lettuce
lineament

lugubrious
lyceum

mustache

magazine
manufactory
maritime
matinee

mediocre
mineralogy
mischievous
misconstrue

nascent
national
nature

nauseate
necessarily
nephew

niche,
nicotine
nomenclature

oasis
oaths
obesity
object
objurgatory

obligatory
occult
o'er
office
often

oleomargarine
orchid
ordeal
ordnance
ornate

orotund
orthoepy
oust

palmistry
patriotism
patron
patronize
peremptory
piano

piquant
placard
plagiarism
pomegranate
predecessor
preface

premature
prestige
pretense
primarily
progress
proscenium

protestation
puissance
pyramidal

quadrupedal

quiescent

quinsy

qui vive

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radish rapine receptivity recess recluse

reconnaissance reptile recreant

requiem refutable research regime

resource remonstrate respite

salutatory sapient satiety schedule secretary senile

serpentine simultaneous sinecure sirup sojourn solitaire

sonorous sophistry soporific sovereign splenetic spontaneity

tenet
tepid
testimony
topography

toward transact tremendous tribunal

tribune trilobite truculent truth

usage

umbrella uninteresting

untoward urbanity

vagary vaseline vaudeville vehement

veracity verbatim verbose versatile

version via vicar victory

.

rhythm
robust
romance
route

squalor
succinct
suggest
suite
supererogatory
superfluous

tyrannic

usurp

virulent
visor

wrath

wreak

which
whistle

with
wound

xylophone

youth

zenith

zodiacal

zoology

VOCAL DEFECTS

The defects most commonly found in untrained voices are breathiness, throatiness, and nasality. The following exercises, if practised persistently, will remedy these defects :

Breathiness. This is caused by allowing breath to escape unvocalized. The remedy lies in applying to the vocal cords just the quantity of breath required to produce a given tone. It should be noted that clear and robust sounds depend upon breathing gently.

1. Inhale deeply. Exhale on singing ah. Apply the air very gently to the vocal cords, hold back the unused breath and aim to increase the purity of tone.

2. Count one to ten in a loud whisper, inhaling after each number. Repeat with half breath and half voice. Repeat with pure tone. Project into the distance.

3. Practise the following in pure, clear-cut voice: hup, he, ha, haw, hah, ho, hoo.

Throatiness. This defect arises from smallness of throat or rigidity. First, relax the throat muscles and practise exercises for depressing the root of the tongue, raising the soft palate and lowering the larynx. Practise the various tongue exercises, keeping the lips perfectly still. Sing 00-oh-ah in well-projected voice. Sing le, la, law, lah, lo, loo.

Nasality. When the vocal current is allowed to escape through the nostrils, a nasal tone is produced. To avoid this, the soft palate must be well raised and the tone projected directly towards the lips.

1. With soft palate raised sing ah and oh in pure projected tone.

2. With the thumb and first finger gently close the nostrils and pronounce several times with the utmost nasality : "O precious hours." Keep the nostrils closed and try to repeat with a pure tone. Repeat with nostrils open.

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