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densed breath of "all nations" will fall and be conveyed into the transverse gutters; thence through the columns into the jurisdiction of their honors the Commissioners of Sewers. We subjoin a section of the rafter, to show the "Paxton gutter," and to clench our explanation: A is the external gutter, в в the frames of the . glass, c c the internal duets.
These ingenious rafters are
cut out of solid wood, in a machine (invented by the inventor of all the rest), with incredible rapidity. In order that there may be a fall for the water to run off, each rafter is slightly curved; and, to correct warping, a rod of iron, with nuts and screws at each end, forms the string of the bow, so as to regulate its deflection. For this ingenious expedient Mr. Paxton has taken out a patent.
We must now give proof that the floor is a ventilator and a dust-trap. It is laid four feet above the sward of the park. A series of subterraneous lungs are thus provided, and air is admitted to them, by means of louvres, fixed in the outer walling of the building. These being made to open and shut like Venitian blinds, will admit much or little air, which gently passes through the seams of the open flooring, and circulates over the building. Finally, through the openings of the floor, the daily accumulation of dust will be swept into a space below by a machine, which Mr. Paxton has invented for the purpose.
Enough has now been said to indicate rather than to describe how each part of the building "plays many parts," and how, consequently, incalculable saving has been effected in time and money. It is hardly necessary to repeat, that the interior of the edifice is the most expansive covered space in the world. That some idea may be formed of the excess of its capacity, we may mention, that the largest cov
ered area in England is believed to be that of the Ravenhead Glass Works, at St. Helen's, in Lancashire, where the space roofed in is three hundred and thirty-nine feet, by one hundred and five feet, or not one quarter so large as that section of Hyde Park which Mr. Paxton has glazed
That a Palatial Exhibition building, providing a total exhibiting surface of twenty-two acres, and affording space for nine miles of tables, shall have been put up in four months for less than a penny farthing a cubic foot, would in itself make 1851 famous in the history of enterprise, if nothing else were to happen to stamp it as pre-eminently "The Industrial Year." From it will at least be dated a new era in building. In a communication from Mr. Paxton himself, which we are permitted to quote, he says:
"When I consider the cheapness of glass and cast-iron, and the great facility with which they can be used, I have no doubt that many structures, similar to that at Darley,* will be attached to dwelling-houses, where they may serve as sitting-rooms, conservatories, waiting-rooms, or omnibusrooms, if I may be allowed the expression. I am now, in fact, engaged in making the design for a gentleman's house to be covered wholly with glass; and when we consider that wherever lead is now used, glass may with equal propriety be substituted, I have every hope that it will be used for buildings of various conditions and character. Structures of this kind are also susceptible of the highest kind of ornamentation in stained glass and general painting. I am not without hope, however, that glass will become almost universal in its use, and that the system will be extended for manufacturing purposes, as well as general cem
*A conservatory on the new plan, attached to a house of Mr. Paxton's, in Derbyshire.
etcries, and also for horticultural buildings, so that even market-gardeners will advantageously apply it, in the growing of foreign fruit for the London markets. I even go so far as to indulge in the sanguine hope that agriculture will be ultimately benefited by the application of cast-iron and glass. In short, there is no limit to the uses to which they may be applied; and we may congratulate ourselves, that in the nineteenth century the progress of science, and the spirit of manufacturers, have placed at our disposal the application of materials which were unknown to the ancients, and thereby enabled us to erect such structures as would have been deemed impossible, even in the early part of the present century."
Physiology of Jutemperance.
NE glass more," exclaimed mine host of the Garter. A bumper at parting! No true knight ever went away without the stirrup cup.'
Good," cried a merry-faced guest; "but the Age of Chivalry is gone, and that of water-drinkers and teetotallers has succeeded. Temperance societies have been imported from America, and grog nearly thrown overboard by the British Navy."
"Very properly so," observed a Clergyman who sat at the table. "The accidents which occur from drunkenness on board ship may be so disastrous on the high seas, and the punishment necessary to suppress this vice is so revolting, that the most experienced naval officers have recommended the allowance of grog, served both to officers and men in our Navy, to be reduced one-half. In America, as well as in our own Merchant Service, vessels sail out of harbor on the Temperance principle; not a particle of spirits is allowed on board; and the men, throughout the voyage, are reported to continue healthy and able-bodied. Tea is an excellent substitute; many of our old seamen prefer it to grog."
"That may be," exclaimed the merry-faced guest. "Horses have been brought to eat oysters; and on the
Coromandel coast, Bishop Heber says, they get fat when fed on fish. Sheep have been trained up, during a voyage, to eat animal food, and refused, when put ashore, to crop the dewy greensward. When honest Jack renounces his grog, and, after reefing topsails in a gale of wind, goes below deck to swill down a domestic dish of tea, after the fashion of Dr. Samuel Johnson, at Mrs. Thrale's, I greatly fear the character of our British seamen will degenerate. In the glorious days of Lord Nelson, the observation almost passed into a proverb, that the man who loved his grog always made the best sailor. Besides, in rough and stormy weather, when men have perhaps been splicing the mainbrace, and exposed to midnight cold and damp, the stimulus of grog is surely necessary to support, if not restore, the vital energy ?”
"Not in the least," rejoined the Clergyman. "Severe labor, even at sea, is better sustained without alcoholic liquors; and the depressing effects of exposure to cold and wet weather best counteracted by a hot mess of cocoa or coffee served with biscuit or the usual allowance of meat. In fact, I have lately read, with considerable satisfaction, a prize essay by an accomplished physician, in which he proves that alcohol acts as a poison on the nervous system, and that we can dispense entirely with the use of stimulants."
"Not exactly so," observed a Physician, who was of the party. "Life itself exists only by stimulation; the air we breathe, the food we eat, the desires and emotions which excite the mind to activity, are all so many forms of physical and mental stimuli. If the atmosphere were deprived of its oxygen, the blood would cease to acquire those stimulating properties which excite the action of the heart, and sustain the circulation; and if the daily food of men were