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this we walked across the first room to the given for that purpose. Most children ball and refreshment rooms, where the brought to these establishments are infants whose parents are too poor to support them. The great majority of them are girls. They are put in the charge of foster-mothers, who generally live at their own homes, and are required to present them
dancing was going on. Here were officers in divers uniforms, civilians (many whose decorations appeared sufficiently heavy to make them almost bow their heads), Turks in the Viceroy's uniform and tarboosh cap, all dancing with ladies. Refreshments, for inspection at the asylum every halfsuch as ices and every conceivable cooling month, when they receive their regular stidrink, were being constantly handed round pend. When the children are about two on large chased silver trays by English years old they are brought back to the State servants in red coats, powdered wigs, establishment, and several are put under &c. Supper was laid down stairs in three the care of one nurse. When they have or four rooms. Fruits and vegetables, both arrived at a suitable age, boys are put out in and out of season, were to be had, and as apprentices to learn trades, or sent to wine in abundance. On the other side, free schools; girls are sold to the poorer again, were the coffee and smoking rooms. classes, according to the custom of the counI believe there was not one vacant seat in try, as wives. Children of both sexes, the large card room. however, are not unfrequently adopted, and treated by their benefactors as their own.
In Hang-chow, the provincial capital of Chekiang, I found, in connection with a variety of benevolent institutions, an Asylum for Old Men, in which I became particularly interested, and which I frequently visited. It contained, in 1859, about five
We returned to the ball-room- -now four A.M. The dancing was evidently beginning to flag, and many of the people were already gone; and by five the last carriages were being called up. During the whole time the Viceroy was walking about the rooms making himself very agreeable amongst his guests- amongst whom were Sir John Lawrence, the Duke of Suther- hundred inmates. The building was large, land, M. de Lesseps, of the Suez Canal, the beneficiaries were made very comfortaand many distinguished foreigners. The ble, and everything connected with the guests numbered 3,000, 4,000 invitations establishment was carried on with as much having gone out. All the guests residing order and system as in a similar institution at Alexandria and Suez were taken to Cairo in our own country. In addition to an and back by special trains, provided by the immense dining-room, kitchen and sleeping Viceroy's orders. apartments, conveniences were afforded in separate buildings for making different articles of handicraft, and the inmates were at liberty to spend as much time as they chose working at some trade, and to make such use as they pleased of whatever they might earn in this way.
Societies for affording pecuniary aid to widows are very common, and exist either independently or in connection with societies embracing several distinct objects conjointly. Immediately after the death of her husband, the widow receives a larger stipend than at any subsequent time, in order to assist her in providing for her young children. This allowance is gradually diminished; and as old age approaches, women of this class, if they have no children able to support them, are sometimes transferred to another establishment which provides for the wants of the aged and infirm. When a respectable and worthy widow is in want, and the limited number of beneficiaries in the public asylums is complete, private individuals frequently make contributions to afford relief in these particular cases. The peculiar interest felt in this class of women is due to the views
(Nevius's "China and the Chinese.") THAT benevolent societies are found in a heathen land may appear strange to Western readers; but it is a fact that they exist in China in numbers and variety hardly exceeded in Christian lands. In comparing these institutions with those of the West, one is also struck with the similarity which exists in their nature and objects. We have here orphan asylums, institutions for the relief of the widows, as well as for the aged and infirm, public hospitals, and free schools, together with other kindred institutions more peculiarly Chinese in their character. Moral tracts are also distributed to a great extent.
Orphan asylums are found in almost every eity, and frequently in country villages. They are established by a wealthy individual, or several individuals associated together, and are sometimes supported by a permanent fund, or the proceeds of lands
of the Chinese respecting the disreputable- | Instances have occurred in which bookselness of the second marriages of widows. lers who have continued to sell immoral Among the poor, and in case of widows works in the face of these regulations, have who have no children to depend upon in become obnoxious to public authority, and after-life, a second marriage is allowable, incurred a great sacrifice of reputation and though the opposite course is spoken of in property. terms of the highest commendation as honourable and meritorous. The ground for this feeling seems to be respect for the memory of the deceased husband.
There are in Chinese cities public asylums, sustained at the expense of Government, containing a limited number of diseased and disabled poor, who receive a daily allowance insufficient for their support, and eke out the remainder of their living by begging. They are more successful than
The gratuitous distribution of medicine is quite common in China. In the summer especially, certain remedies much prized by the people may be obtained free of charge others, as they carry the evidence of their from societies which include this among misfortunes in their physical infirmities, other objects for which they are instituted. and some of them amass considerable proThere is a very common mode of practising perty. These also have their heads or the healing art, professedly from benevolent leaders, some of whom are brokers and motives, in which a selfish motive is too billshavers. They sometimes buy bad bills apparent. Notices may continually be seen at a discount, and collect them by attacking placarded in public places calling the atten- the house of the delinquent debtor with an tion of the public to some distinguished army of beggars, until he is glad to get rid personage of the Esculapian school who has of them by paying it. learned his art at the capital, or from some foreigner, or from some distinguished native practitioner, or by communication with the genii, who is desirous of relieving those who are in a condition of suffering and distress, and will give them an opportunity to avail themselves of his knowledge and skill without charge, except for the cost of medicine.
The most popular of the benevolent institutions in Ningpo, and the one having by far the largest income, includes a variety of objects. It has a fund for providing coffins for the poor, a fund for carrying coffins which have been thrown carelessly aside to some suitable place for interment, and one for collecting and burying again human bones which are found exposed to A new enterprise, originated a few years view; also a fund for providing medicine since in the city of Suchow, has since in summer, and warm clothes in winter; a been introduced into other places, which fund for the relief of widows; one for cannot but be regarded with peculiar inter- gathering old printed paper, and the only est. Its express object is the suppres- one in Ningpo for suppressing immoral sion of immoral books." This enterprise books. This society has a large building, has also gained the sanction and concur with as many secretaries and superintendents rence of the authorities, and has already as are necessary for the orderly and effidone much towards checking the influence cient carrying on of its extensive operaof this source of demoralization. The tions. people are not only requested, but required to bring such books as have been prohibited to the head-quarters of this society, where they receive an equivalent for them in money. Not only books, but the stereotyped blocks from which they are printed, are thus collected at a great expense, and all are together, at stated times, committed to the flames. Several of the celebrated standard novels of China, which in a moral point of view will bear favourable comparison with some of the current popular literature of our own country, have fallen under the ban of this society, and cannot now be obtained without great trouble and expense.
It is also worthy of remark, that most of the roads and fine arch bridges, as well as the public buildings of China, are structed by voluntary donations. In connection with these public works it is very common to see stone tablets erected containing the names of the donors and the amounts of their subscriptions.
Tea is in many places provided for travellers, and offered gratuitously in restinghouses by the roadside. Poor scholars are furnished with money for travelling expenses in attending the literary examinations.
TRAVELLING Over the mountain trails almost anywhere in California, no matter how remote and solitary may be your route, you can scarcely fail to meet a curious figure sloping-eyed, yellow-complexioned, with a shaved head, and pigtail carefully secured in a twisted knot behind; clad in a loose cloth or calico garment, half shirt. half jacket; trousers equally wide; a long bamboo pole over his shoulder, on either end of which, carefully balanced, are a sack of rice, a piece of pork, and a heterogeneous mass of mining tools; and, over all, the head of this strange individual is covered with a hat made of slips of bamboo, the brim of which equals in breadth a moderately sized umbrella. This is John Chinaman from home, finding his fortune. He always answers to the name of "John." He follows many ways of making his modicum of rice; and the representative of Chinese industry in this case is "Mining John." The white miners only allow him to labour at the poorer diggings, or at others which have been so well wrought over, as no longer to yield returns enough to satisfy their ideas as to wages. Accordingly, we find John at work in some remote locality which the stronger race has deserted, or which is too poor to tempt them to drive out the Chinese. In the former times, this was frequently done; and in the old California newspapers reports of such outrages, or of meetings at which resolutions to do so were passed, are quite common. Some years ago I had occasion to pass a few days with some Chinese miners in the mountains. They numbered some twenty men, and occupied the deserted cabins of the miners who had formerly wrought in the locality. Every morning they would go down to the river side, and labour, steadily washing the gravel for gold, until mid-day, when their slight meal of rice and vegetables was partaken of. At six o'clock, or thereabout, they stopped work for the day; and after carefully washing themselves in the river, they Whang Ho. Washing and Ironing. Butprepared supper. I was the only white tons sewed on;" and peeping through the there, and had made an arrangement with window, you see the proprietor busily at them about my meals. Accordingly my work clear starching, or ironing out the frills supper was first prepared: an office which on the shirt bosom of probably the governI generally superintended, as they had, ac- or himself. He has a large pan full of cording to my observation, a nasty habit of lighted charcoal, which he uses as a "* flat incorporating rattlesnakes, frogs, slugs, and iron," and his mouth is full of water, which "such small deer," in their stews. After he most adroitly sprinkles over the linen in supper they would look to their little a fine shower. If you have any foul clothes, patches of water melons, cabbages, &c.; he will follow you home, take them away, and their head man would talk to me about and return them again in a day or two, his daily life, or the province he had come charging about sixpence apiece for his from, and to which he hoped before long to trouble-bargaining, however, that he has
return. The greater portion of them, however, after they had weighed out the proceeds of the day's labour and allotted each man his share by the aid of a suan-pan (a sort of miniature Babbage's calculating machine) would place themselves on their sleeping benches, put a little tray before them on which were all the materials for smoking, and soon drug themselves into a dreaming stupidity with the fumes of opium. Their huts were situated amid the most beautiful scenery, by the banks of a fine river, over which cataracts from the snowcapped mountains in the distance fell gurgling or roaring into the waters below. But for all this, on which I never tired of gazing, my hosts seemed to care little. They had no visitors, save an Indian on horseback now and then, who treated them very cavalierly and rarely dismounted. On Sundays they generally laid over from work, not from any religious motive, as they were Buddhists, but merely as a day of rest; and sometimes, if they had been more than ordinarily successful, one of them would go to the town or trading port, distant some ten miles, and buy some provisions and a bottle of a beverage called (I quote the label) "fine Old Tom," over which they made merry for a few hours, playing a rude description of musical instrument sounding like a paralytic drum. They made, however, poor pay, generally not more than three or four shillings per diem each; though now and then they would come on a lucky pocket, and return in the evening grinning from ear to ear. The ground was, however, getting exhausted, and they were then talking of putting their household gods on the bamboo pole, and of removing to some more favoured locality which they had heard of. Go down into almost any town or village, and you will find John moving about with that same silent air of his. Here he generally follows the business of a laundryman. All through the by-streets and suburbs you can see his little cabin with a signboard informing that here lives
From All the Year Round.
In the suburbs of every town agricultural John is busy at work, clearing the most unlikely pieces of ground, for the purpose of raising vegetables for the town market. These farmers, or rather market gardeners, are generally in companies of three or four; and if you pass that way, you can generally find one or other of the bucolic partnership driving the old cart and still older horse either from or to market; if the latter is the case, it is usually filled with several casks of garbage, &c., which the industrious proprietor has bought or begged for feeding his pigs with.
vices from fifteen to twenty dollars per week, with board and lodging; while the young ladies who condescend to do "house helping" will demand from thirty to forty dollars, coupled with the bargain that they are not to brush boots, and are to have two nights a week, and the whole of Sunday, to themselves! They are not strong enough for labourers, but what they lack in muscle, they make up in industry. Accordingly, working for moderate wages, a large number of them are employed on public works, like the Pacific Railroad. Indeed it is principally owing to the assistance rendered by them that the rapid formation of the portion of the line already completed on the west side of the Rocky Mountains is due. They were also employed in considerable numbers on the Panama Railroad, but had to be discontinued, as they had a disagreeable habit, Shopkeeping John is of a rather more aris- when the day was very warm, of fastening tocratic type. He still wears his country's themselves by their pigtails to the "dumpdress, but it is of a fine material, and his shoes cart," used to empty the earth into the are of the best description, with the thick- Chagres river. They also employ themest of felt soles. He is also more particular selves to some extent in catching and dryabout his person, and shaves his head with ing fish for the Chinese market. Every greater regularity than any of the labouring year they preserve several tons of the albiclasses, much to the advantage of his per- core, or ear-shell, for exportation to Canton, sonal appearance; for, however smart a where it is used in a variety of manufactures. Chinaman may look with his sprucely shaven Even their signboards are painted by themhead and neat pigtail, he looks a most atro- selves, as it is dangerous to employ a joccious scoundrel when the hair is beginning ular American, especially when under the to grow down on the forehead. These lit- influence of Mongehala whisky. Near San tle shops are chiefly patronized by their own Francisco is a Chinese washing-house, surnation, or by the pedlars who at all seasons mounted by a signboard informing the passbut more especially in the winter, when ers-by that "ALL'S WELL — WE MAY BE the outlying settlers find it inconvenient HAPPY YET! YOU BET!" which no doubt to come into the town for trifling purchases the innocent proprietor supposes to be an - perambulate the country with two huge eloquent announcement anent washing hampers swung, as usual, on either end of and ironing." Most of their large firms a bamboo pole over the dealer's shoulder. designations do not express the names of Most obliging are these Chinese pedlars, the owner or owners, but are symbolic. and they always make a point, every Christ- For instance, they mean "The wide-spreadmas, of making some little present to their ing firm,' The firm of the Flowery Land," chief customers and to the children. Most and so on. All of their food, clothing, &c., of the large storekeepers and wholesale with the exception of pork, boots, or mindealers are men of education and refine-ing tools, are imported from China. Some ment, standing well with the commercial years ago they were detected carrying on a community, but, except on rare occasions, most lucrative business in importing a liquid never mingling in any society but that of called Chinese wine, which was discovered their own people. A few of them keep to be a very strong brandy, and, accordingcheap eating-houses or restaurants, fre- ly, notwithstanding its name, exciseable in quented by sailors and others who have no the highest duties. If a Chinese dies in a objection to a dinner composed of very du- foreign country, Mongol theologians seem bious materials, so long as its cost does not agreed that it will go hard with him in the exceed a shilling or eighteen pence. Many after world unless his bones repose in the of them are general servants, and in almost Flowery Land. Accordingly, the companies every house in North-West America the which bring the Chinese emigrants over to cook is a Chinaman. Female servants are California are under contract to take them rare, expensive, and most independent; so back again after a certain period, dead or that our Asiastic friends have almost a mon- alive. A Chinese funeral is a curious scene opoly of the kitchen. They get for such ser- in San Francisco. A special burying
not to find linen collars for paper ones which may have been dropped in. From the frequent warnings of washing John on this subject, I suspect that it is a custom of the colonial gentlemen, by which our friend has suffered in time past.
ground, called the Yerba Buena Cemetery, credit, though worse men may. The la is set apart for Celestial repose. When bourer doesn't like him, for he works for carrying the body to the grave, a solemn lower wages than he. This is a favourite individual scatters little slips of paper, with subject of growling with these lazy loafers, wise aphorisms from Confucius written on as they doze away in bar-rooms with their them, on either side; and on the lintels of feet on the top of the stove. Yet there is their doorways are strips of red paper, on room for all of them, and the Chinese are which are incribed similar wise saws. On only taken because white men can't be got. the grave is placed a roast fowl, some rice, Politicians don't take him up, because he and a bottle of "Chinese wine;" after doesn't vote, and therefore is of no account which the mourners depart, never looking in municipal or state elections, and is not to behind them. There is, however, another be conciliated, while the newspaper editor, class of gentlemen who assist at the depart- who ought to put in a good word for him, ed funeral, who are not so backward. A is very luke-warm on the subject, for John number of the rowdies of San Francisco, does not advertise, while his detractors do. who are concealed near at hand, no sooner Accordingly, poor John is kicked and see the last of the mourners than they make abused with very little chance of redress. a rush for the edibles and drinkables left He is hunted out of every good mining for the benefit of Joss, and very soon make locality, and he may think himself well off short work of them Joss, no doubt, get-if he is not robbed and has his pigtail cut ting the credit. After lying some months off as a lesson to him, when of course the in the grave, the bones are dug up, and local paper will be sure to repeat the timecarefully cleaned and polished with brushes, honoured joke about a "long tale being cut tied up, and put into little bundles, which short." Formerly rowdies thought it good are nicely labelled and stowed away, in a fun to catch a Chinaman and cut his tail off, small tin coffin, in the particular hong or though, as every one who knows that peocommercial house, which is responsible for ple is aware, he would as soon you took his them." When a sufficient number of these life, as he is an outcast among his co-religinteresting mementos have accumulated, a ionists until his "hair grows." Some of ship is chartered, and the coffins despatched them are Christians, and have given up this with their contents back to Shanghae, Can- method of hairdressing, but these are rare ton, or Hong-Kong. I saw a vessel in San exceptions. I am glad, however, to say Francisco harbour laden with four hundred that of late years the California legislature dead Chinese. On some of the silent moun- have made it a penal offence to cut off a tain trails I have come across some of these Chinaman's pigtail; at the same time I lonely graves, only marked with a stick, in never heard of anybody being punished, which was stuck a slip of red paper, with though there are plenty of pigtails lopped the name of the deceased, with some maxim off. In the streets he is openly insulted. of Kungfutzee (Confucius), about the vanity In Christian California I have seen a poor of things earthly, which the subject of the harmless Chinese stoned by boys until he cousin of the moon who lay below had was bleeding, hardly one being manly already experienced in his own person. enough to take his part. I have heard of others after whom ruffians would hound their dogs, while the poor persecuted man was torn and bleeding, and the law touched his assailants not. The law passes acts against him, taxes him heavily as he enters, taxes him for making his living, and taxes him at every turn. It is quite a perquisite of the local official, this Chinese taxation, and he is either a very just, or by no means, a "smart" man, who cannot make a revenue out of the unfortunate Celestial.
Even the Digger Indian, taking example from his superiors (?), persecutes and robs John also, if he finds him in the mountains; and as our poor friend will do anything rather than fight, he comes off very poorly indeed. John, it must be acknowledged, has an insuperable objection to paying taxes, notwithstanding his being in early life accustomed to be "squeezed" by a
Every year thousands of Chinese are entering to supply the place of those who leave, so that instead of decreasing, their numbers are increasing with the country. Nobody likes John over much, and some of the baser sort have the most determined enmity to him. The storekeepers don't like him, because he deals with his own people, though they forget that he takes nothing from them, and sometimes does put something in their pockets for mining tools. Beside, all John's dealings are for ready money, for though he may haggle long enough about the price yet he gets no
* I notice an advertisement in a California paper about a new earthenware coffin, combining the advantages of durability, cleanliness, and cheapness; which latter virtue will no doubt commend it to the Chinese undertakers. The editor, in a paragraphic
puff, remarks "that any one having once used this
coffin, would use no other!"