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can public. The sound advice of the Commissioner will not be the less acceptable to his countrymen because it is seasoned with a curious sneer at England, whose Freetrade policy he ascribes, "not to philosophic theory, but to enlightened selfishness." Why, who ever ascribed it to anything else? We adopted Free-trade because we believed it best for our own interest in particular, and for that of every nation in general; and we recommend it to others on the ground that it would advance their interests also a doctrine which the Report appears distinctly to endorse. The Comptroller of the Currency has to deal with a more limited and less generally interesting topic, but the light thrown by his Report upon the working of an inconvertible paper money, and particularly on its incidental tendency to discourage and embarrass regular and legitimate trade, and foster an irregular and nationally unprofitable speculation, is in its way almost equally valuable. It also affords, indirectly, some curious hints regarding the peculiarities of the American banking system. Both Reports might be used with great effect as texts for a series of lectures on the various economical questions involved, and would serve as a mine of effective practical illustration for the writers of Treatises on Political Economy.



AN inquiry which has been nearly five years in progress has at last terminated. It is now pretty well determined what arm the British Soldier shall wield for the future. In assigning a duration of five years to the inquiry, we are well aware that the actual selection of the proposed weapon has occupied something considerably under two years. But there remains the fact that on the 11th of July, 1864, a Committee, appointed by Lord de Grey, with General Russell as president, formally recorded its opinion that it was desirable forthwith to arm the British Infantry Soldier with a breech-loading instead of a muzzle-loading musket. So that it is nearly five years since the doom of the Enfield rifle was sealed, after a term of honoured service of eleven years, now extended, if we regard the arm as not yet obsolete, to fifteen years. During the five years which have elapsed since the Report of General Russell's Committee was rendered the subject has made vast strides.

We then knew little of breech-loaders; we had not yet graspd their full value, of which we had derived from the Dano-German war only a dim appreciation; of the principles of construction of the arms, of the relative merits of particular varieties, we knew next to nothing. Our accumulated experience with breech-loaders was practically limited to an acquaintance with the Sharp rifle, the Westley-Richards', Green's, Terry's, and the like- arms which were all discharged by means of a percussion cap applied in the old-fashioned way to a nipple, and all, therefore, failing to satisfy that condition of breech-loading which is now accepted as a sine qua non, viz., the employment of cartridges containing their own ignition. So that, if we consider that we have been engaged during these five years, or the greater part of them, in spelling out the alphabet of the subject, and that we have advanced out of darkness and doubt into light and certainty, - from some of the worst types of the system to an arm which, we believe, is superior to any other military breech-loader at present existing, the time will scarcely appear to have been illspent.

It was a wise step, in the first instance, to insist on the conversion of the existing muzzle-loading Enfield rifles before proceeding to the selection or manufacture of a wholly new weapon. Not merely was the store of these arms considerable, but the arm itself was an accurate and far-reaching shooting machine, as good, at least, as that possessed by any other nation, if not better. The decision, moreover, indicated a perception of the true principles of the subject, which may be regarded as in advance of the general perception of the age. It implied a distinct recognition of the fact that the shooting part of a gun and its breech-loading arrangement are separate things. A gun may be accurate, or the reverse, powerful, long-ranging, and the like, without any reference whatever to its rapidity of fire. The breech arrangement is merely a means of multiplying the rate of discharge,- a contrivance, more or less ingenious, more or less perfect, for rapidly opening and closing the back end of the barrel. It is not necessarily more connected with the character of that fire than is the number of barrels which a gun possesses, merely it enables the gun to be shot twice, three times, six times as fast. In the Enfield rifle we had a capital barrel. Could not mechanical ingenuity produce some simple, endurable arrangement for easily and swiftly opening the back end of that barrel to admit the charge and bullet, and then securely and easily closing it?

The solution of that problem, as is well were offered for the best arm, for known, was found in the Snider-Enfield the best breech action, and for the rifle, an arm of recognized efficiency, an best cartridge. With this part of the arm which has now outlived its many and inquiry we need not concern ourselves. not always disinterested detractors, and To gunmakers and inventors, it had a cerwhich we would not willingly exchange with tain interest; as a means to an end, - the any foreign military breech- loader now in end being the collection of a certain number use. But it is not so generally recognized, of arms to select from, it was important; because the recognition entails a closer as an opportunity for acquiring experience, appreciation of the details and fundamental it proved instructive. But it had no direct principle of the subject, that the success of or immediate bearing upon the decision the Snider has been due in a very large which has now been come to as to the future measure to, if indeed it may not be said to arm of the British Soldier, and may, theredepend upon, the very excellent cartridge fore, be passed by. which Colonel Boxer designed for its use. Substitute for this cartridge one of inferior resisting power, one less easy to load or extract, one less reliable or efficient in any way, and the Snider becomes more or less of a failure. Compared with most other systems of breech-loading, this is one which throws a maximum of work upon the cartridge and depends most largely upon it. The cartridge is not merely the means of sealing the breech against a possible escape of gas, that the non-consuming cartouche obturatrice must be as a first necessity of its existence, but in the Snider the actual safety of the arm depends upon the cartridge. If the cartridge yields or if the gun does not support it properly, the block becomes blown open; and such an accident occurring in a large per-centage of cases would practically determine the failure of the system. But the cartridge has proved good enough to cover this radical defect, as we must consider it, of the Snider breech action; the explosive escapes have been comparatively few; and the system, in which expression we include breech and cartridge, has furnished, on the whole, thoroughly satisfactory results.

But the store of Enfield rifles available for conversion was not unlimited, and it became necessary to look forward to the time when new arms would have to be manufactured. At once the question arose, should these arms be Snider-Enfields, or some other weapon? Clearly, it was desirable to institute experiments on this point, to discover, before resuming the manufacture, if the Snider-Enfield could be improved upon. Accordingly, a special Committee was appointed, consisting of Colonel Fletcher, Scotts' Fusilier Guards, president; Earl Spencer, Mr. Edward Ross, Captain Rawlins (48th), and Captain Mackinnon (3rd); with Captain Haig (R. A.) as secretary. The Committee was formed early in 1867, and its first duty was to award prizes in connection with a War-Office advertisement of the 22nd October, 1866. These prizes

We have said that the questions of accuracy and rapidity of fire are distinct; they have been so dealt with by the committee during the inquiry. The barrel and breech action were tried separately, and this separation even extends to the ultimate selection. For the choice has fallen on the barrel of one gunmaker, Mr. A. Henry, of Edinburgh, and the breech action of another, M. Martini, a Hungarian. Throughout the inquiry the Boxer cartridge-case has held its own, and it will be the service cartridge of the Martini-Henry rifle, as it has been the service cartridge of the Snider. But the bullet will be one of Mr. Henry's designing, a hardened-lead bullet, of 480 grains' weight, and cylindro-conoidal in form. The lubrication consists of pure beeswax, placed in the form of a disc, at the base of the bullet between two pieces of cardboard. When we add that the charge is 85 grains (hitherto of Curtis and Hervey's powder, to be superseded, no doubt, hereafter by powder of Government make); that the bullet is enveloped in thin paper slightly smeared with wax, to prevent "leading," and that the cartridge-case is adapted for a 45-in. bore, and is therefore longer and thinner than that of the Snider, we shall have said all that is necessary respecting the BoxerHenry ammunition. Returning to the arm, the barrel is 35 inches long, and is made of steel; its weight is 4lb, 6oz; calibre 45in.; rifling, Mr. Henry's, i. e., on the polygonal system, with ribs running down the intersections of the planes; twist 1 in 22. The Martini breech action is distinguished from most others in use by the absence of a lock and hammer. The piston is driven forward by a powerful spiral spring, which is situated within the breech block. The block is hinged behind, and by the action of a lever behind the trigger guard the fore part of the block is sufficiently depressed to admit of the cartridge being introduced. The same movement places the striker on full cock (if we may use that not very accurate expression, in default of a more convenient


one), and ejects the empty cartridge-case. | proved free from fouling in continued firing. The arm is fitted with an indicator to show Its penetrative power was remarkable: it when it is at full cock, and with a safety bolt pierced 14 1-2 half-inch elm plank, and iron to secure it from accidental discharge. It plates up to 261in. thickness; rope mantweighs, complete, 9lb. 4oz. lets, gabions, and sap rollers were penetrated by it, and when tried against a dead horse the Henry bullet produced the most severe fractures. The initial velocity was 1,362ft. per second (that of the Service Snider is 1,252ft.); and the Henry bullet was much less sensible to the effects of wind than any other bullets which were tried. As to durability, a Henry barrel fired over 2,000 rounds without any injury or deterioration whatever, and evidence was received that as many as 30,000 rounds have been fired without any indications of wear. What more need we add? Only this, that the new arm will cost in supply £2 18s. 9d. against £2 13s. 2d. for a new Snider-Enfield, - a difference of price which is wholly insignificant when measured beside the advantages which it promises to purchase.

To follow the details of the inquiry which has resulted in the selection of this arm would occupy more space than we could afford; it will perhaps be sufficient if we state generally of what the arm has proved capable, and what tests it has satisfied. Taking the breech mechanism, first, we find that the general course of the experiments was as follows. The arms were carefully examined, and if approved, twenty or more shots were fired for rapidity. Sand was thrown over the breech actions both open and closed, and the rifle fired without cleaning. Cartridges so damaged as to ensure a serious escape of gas, such as would have blown open the Snider block every time, were fired. Then there was the test of long-continued firing, and the exposure test. This last was peculiarly severe, the arms being exposed unprotected for a week to the effects of weather, and water being poured over them to aggravate their sufferings. During the trials, the facility of manipulation, and general simplicity, and durability of the mechanisms were observed. It is not surprising that under tests such as these arm after arm broke down, What is more noticeable is, that there were some arms, the Henry and Martini breech actions among them, which passed through the whole of the tests, severe as they were. Of these two the Martini action acquitted itself the best, and was ultimately, after a close competition, preferred by the Committee to its formidable rival. A rate of fire of 20 rounds in 48 seconds has been obtained with it. Turning to the barrel, we find that the Henry defeated all the other bar-cupy. rels which entered against it, including the Westley-Richards, Whitworth, Rigby, Lancaster, and the 5-in. bore, as well as the Service 57.7-in. bore. It was superior to these in accuracy at all the four ranges of 300, 500, 800, and 1,000 yards, giving figures of 47ft., 90ft., 1.85ft., and 2-59ft., at these distances respectively. In flatness of trajectory it was practically equal to any of the other rifles of 45-in. calibre," and superior to the larger bores. With the Henry bullet and the beeswax wad, the arm

It is intended, before proceeding with the manufacture of the new arms on an extended scale, to issue a few hundreds to the troops for further trial, and report as to their general serviceability. What tests the troops will be able to apply more severe or searching than those which the arms have already satisfied, we know not; and yet the precaution of eliciting the opinion of the Army on the subject before finally adopting the arm is a commendable one. It is just possible, although scarcely probable, that some defects may thus be brought to light which the Committee have not been able to discover; at any rate, some useful practical suggestions and minor modifications may result from this rougher trial, and we are happily not so desperately pressed as to be unable to afford the time which it will oc


But if, as there is every reason to anticipate, the performances of the arm in the hands of the troops shall confirm the opinion which its experimental performances appear to warrant, the country will possess an unequalled military breech-loader, and the Committee to whose intelligent and longsustained labours its selection has been due, will merit an expression of warm commendation, which even at this stage it is scarcely premature to bestow.

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