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It might be hastily assumed that Jomini's literary power was greater than his generalship. But if his opportunities of service
by France. Yet he was obliged for some service, and placed his sons in it. One of years to be content with a commercial situ- his daughters married in Russia, and two ation, and it was not until he had become in France, and he died last week near known as a military writer that he obtained Paris. Among all the soldiers of fortune, an appointment on the staff of Marshal as they used to be called, that his country Ney. The first two volumes of his Treat- has produced, he was the most distinguished, ise on Grand Military Operations were pub-and perhaps he was the last; for public lished in 1804, and in the five following opinion now condemns the employment of years he served with Ney in the campaigns mere mercenaries, and the hardy youth of of Ulm, Jena, Eylau, and Spain. When Scotland or Switzerland cannot seek, as Napoleon directed the corps of Soult and they used to do, the service of whatever Ney against Sir John Moore, it may be prince or potentate promised the most libsupposed that Jomini was with his chief. eral reward to valour and fidelity. But Napoleon checked the march of Ney, considering Soult's corps sufficient to drive Moore to his ships; and thus Jomini did not see any actual collision of English and in the field had not been limited by jealFrench troops. He had seen almost every-ousy of his foreign origin, he might have thing that war could show. He was sent been himself a marshal, instead of being from Spain, by Ney, to Napoleon, whom the head which guided a marshal's hand. he found in occupation of Vienna, and with Napoleon owed much to Ney, and Ney in whom he remained until the war with Aus- turn owed much to Jomini. Ney could tria was finished by the battle of Wagram, and would do anything, if only he knew in July 1809. For the next three years he what was wanted, and this Jomini could was occupied at Paris in writing the history always tell. One of the most brilliant conof Napoleon's campaigns. When war broke ceptions of Napoleon was the battle of out with Russia, he did not wish to fight Friedland, but that conception might have against the Emperor Alexander, from whom been formed in vain if he had not had Ney he had received handsome offers of employ- to execute it. As we read Jomini's descripment, and therefore he solicited from Na- tion of this battle, we imagine him riding poleon a civil government. But being by the side of Ney, and comprehending at inade Governor of Smolensk, and the a glance the fault of Benningsen's position, French army having begun its disastrous and the movements by which Napoleon preretreat from Moscow, his military capacity pared to profit by it. Before these movewas necessarily exercised. At the Beresi- ments were complete it was five o'clock of na he was employed, in conjunction with a summer afternoon, and in order that the Engineer-General Eblé, to select points Ney's attack might be effective it was neefor the erection of bridges for the passage essary that it should be prompt and vigorof the army. Next year he was appointed ous. If Napoleon's orders miscarried, Joto his old post as chief of the staff of Mar- mini could supply them; if they arrived, he shal Ney; and he gave advice, in anticipa- could explain and enforce them. One of tion of Napoleon's order, which, if it had the difficulties of Jomini's career was the been promptly and fully carried out, would hostility of the wife of Ney, to whose ears have made the battle of Bautzen a victory came reports, spread by injudicious friends like that of Friedland. Ney recommended of Jomini, that her husband's most success him for the promotion which he had well ful operations were advised by his chief of deserved; but by the jealousy of Berthier, staff. These reports were probably only the chief of Napoleon's staff, who had al- too true. We do not know how far Jomini ways been his enemy, this promotion was contributed to Ney's success at Friedland, refused, and he was even charged with in- but we can hardly doubt that he was prescapacity and threatened with arrest. Here-ent at the battle which he has so clearly upon he quitted the French service for that described. We do know that he was of Russia, so that he began the campaign present six years afterwards at Bautzen, of 1813 on one side and finished it on the and he has shown us what Ney did and did other. When France was driven within not to make that place another Friedland, her frontier, his influence with the Emperor although the plan of his work did not perAlexander saved Switzerland from absorp- mit him to inform us how far his own adtion by Austria. He was at Paris in 1815, vice was taken. In the work to which we and so warmly opposed the execution of his now refer Napoleon is made by Jomini the old leader, Ney, that it was proposed to narrator of his own exploits. My mastrike his name from the list of Russian noeuvre," says he, "accomplished its object. generals. But he continued in the Russian The Allies reinforced Milaradowitsch in the
mountains, and Ney concentrated the third | have saved their left wing and their cavalry. and fourth corps behind Klix, ready to "The fate of my empire thus depended on strike, the next day, a blow not inferior to the faulty movement of the most valiant of either Ratisbon or Friedland in the import- my generals. It is just, however, that I ance of its results." At break of day the should take my own share of the blame." battle was commenced throughout the whole After the left wing, under Ney, was on the line. Napoleon renewed against the left decisive point of the battle, Napoleon should of the Allies in the mountains the demon- have moved there himself with his guard stration of the previous day. His centre and cavalry; or at least he should have was deployed to impose on the enemy, but sent to Ney a more detailed order. With not to engage him. Ney crossed the Spree proper support of cavalry, Ney would have at Klix, pushed his divisions behind the captured Bucher's infantry. A great vicright flank of the Allies, and "these forces tory over the Allies would have deterred afterwards directed their march on the spires Austria from joining them, and Napoleon of Hochkirch." Although Jomini does not might have retained his throne. Thus mention his own name here, he has else- much depended on Ney's adherence for where told us that the direction of this two hours to Jomini's advice "to direct his march was suggested to Ney by him. He march on the spires of Hochkirch." As it read, by what we have called his military was, Napoleon took no prisoners, and found intuition, Napoleon's plan of battle. He on the field only a few dismounted cannons. knew that Napoleon's attack on the left and For the second time in that campaign he front of the Allies would dislodge them had sacrificed twenty thousand men without from their position in the mountains, and any adequate result. he advised Ney to place himself across the roads by which they must have retreated. Here was the opportunity for another Fried-by land, and there was all the day to use it. "The manœuvre was perfect, and ought to have produced incalculable results; but several unfortunate circumstances marred its success." An order which Napoleon wrote to Ney was delayed in transmission, but Jomini anticipated its tenor. Thus far no harm was done. But, unfortunately, Ney did not appreciate the position he had gained. An attack made upon him by Blucher caused him to forget the direction of Hochkirch, which he had indicated in the morning, and he deviated entirely from the manœuvre by which Napoleon designed to get possession of the enemy's line of retreat. Meanwhile that part of the battle which was under Napoleon's eye was shaped according to his scheme. "At twelve o'clock Ney's cannon announced that the moment had come for striking at the centre." And Napoleon struck as he always did strike for such an object. The attacks which he directed dislodged the Allies as he had calculated, and at the same time, Ney, advancing in the wrong direction which he had chosen, found no enemy to oppose, but saw them defiling by a road to which he had been much nearer than they were two hours before. If Ney had executed precisely the order which was sent to him, and knowledged the greatness of his services which Jomini, as we have seen, had antici-and the reality of the grievance of which he pated, and had shown one half of the en- complained. It was soon made manifest ergy which he showed at Friedland and that Marshal Ney had lost his head. The many other places, the enemy would have defeat which he suffered at Dennewitz enalost the greater part of his army and all his bled Jomini to say of him, "Ney's intellect matériel of war. The allies could never shone only in the midst of a battle when the
When Ney was next called upon to execute Napoleon's orders, he had not Jomini
his side to explain their meaning. An armistice followed the battle of Bautzen, and when hostilities were renewed, Jomini was in the camp of the Allies, among whom Austria was now numbered. The plans of the Allies were discussed in an unwieldy council, of which Jomini and also Moreau were members. Moreau was a Frenchman who served against his country's army in the honest belief that the overthrow of Napoleon was necessary to her happiness. Jomini had a well-founded belief that he had been exceedingly ill-treated, and so he changed sides with a facility which was common in the seventeenth century, but has gone out of fashion in the nineteenth. When we remember how the passions of Englishmen were excited by this conflict, and still more with what populor ardour Germany rushed to arms against Napoleon, we cannot but regard with wonder the calmness with which Jomini transferred himself from the side of Napoleon to his enemies. Yet it is hard upon the native of a country too small to go to war on its own account, that his military capacity should be forbidden to display itself at a time when all the Great Powers of Europe are in arms. Napoleon expressed no resentment at Jomini's departure, but ac
From The Sunday Magazine.
balls were flying round him. There his discernment, his coolness, and his vigour were incomparable. But he was unable to combine his operations in the silence of the cabinet, while studying his maps." This disaster of Ney, and others which befell Napoleon's lieutenants about the same time, balanced the great victory which Napoleon himself gained over the Allies at Dresden. The causes of Napoleon's reverses in 1812-13 have been excellently explained by Jomini. "He fell from the height of his greatness because he forgot that the mind and strength of man have their limits, and that the more enormous the FIRST PUBLIC PROTESTANT WORSHIP IN masses which are set in motion, the more subordinate does individual genius become A PLEASING narrative from Spain gives to the inflexible laws of nature, and the less an account of the first celebration of public is the control which it exercises over worship by Spanish Protestants in Madrid. events." There was, however, for Napo- The preacher on this occasion was Pastor leon the hope that his enemies would blun- Ruet, who has done great service for Protder more seriously than his own generals. estantism in Algeria, and the service was Chaos reigned supreme at the allied head-held in the Plaza de Santa Catalina de los quarters. Even Napoleon's genius could Donados. The writer already quoted says, not command four hundred thousand men, that, as he passed up the staircase, he heard and Schwartzenberg, who was opposed to for the first time since he left England Napoleon, was a mere ordinary man. It congregational singing to one of Luther's had been proposed to give the chief com- grand old tunes. The room was crowded, mand to the Archduke Charles of Austria, and many had to leave, unable to find mere who alone had shown adequate capacity, standing-room. The preacher wore a black but, says Jomini, " private interests de- gown and white lappets; and the service, feated this object." So Schwartzenberg which he read in Spanish, was part of the was the nominal general of this unwieldy English Prayer-Book. The singing was army, and the Emperor Alexander had the from a printed sheet of four hymns, which "indirect control" of it, and probably con- was given to every person on entering. sulted Jomini sufficiently to prevent any One of these was a translation of the wellmore such enormous blunders as that which known hymnincurred defeat at Dresden. The picture of confusion in the allied councils is the more interesting because England was spending millions to pay and equip troops which seemed destined to useless slaughter. However, by force of numbers and perseverance, the Allies finally prevailed, and Napoleon was driven out of Germany. We cannot know how far this result was attributed to Jomini, because the counsels which were really his went forth as those of the Emperor of Russia.
Next year Jomini entered France with the Russian Emperor, and was then permitted by him to go to Switzerland, which needed an influential protector against Austria. Thus the year 1814 was the last of Jomini's active service. He had seen as many battles as most men of his age, and he enjoyed fifty years of leisure to think and write on war. His death is like the closing of an era, for there can be few men left to speak, as he could speak, from personal recollection, of the fields of Jena, Eylau, Wagram, Bautzen, and Leipsic,
and to say, as he might say, of the great events which he recalled, quorum pars magna fui. The most remarkable result of his large experience of war is perhaps the declaration which he somewhere makes that he had seen positions carried by troops with shouldered arms, but that in the line of battle he never saw a conflict with the bayonet.
"Just as I am, without one plea,
But that thy blood was shed for me."
The number present was about one hundred and forty, of whom a goodly number were Protestants, as was evident from the singing, which in Romish churches is left all to the priests. On the present occasion, the singing was started with a heartiness and a precision impossible to those not accustomed to it, and the congregation so easily took it up, and sustained it, as to prove that most of them were familiar with the music. A noticeable feature was the number of men present. There were not a dozen females, nor half-a-dozen children." Worship of a similar nature had been held in houses on previous weeks, but this was the first occasion of a properly public service.
The intense dissatisfaction caused among the clergy by the toleration of Protestant worship in Madrid, and the prospect of the erection of a Protestant church, is seen from the furious spirit of the Iglesia on the sub
ject,-a clerical paper that has just been | Valladolid, the capital of Old Castile, a started." If the decree," says the Iglesia, very interesting letter, addressed to Mr. S. "which permits a Protestant church to be Southall, of Leeds, has been published. erected in Madrid be certain, it will be diffi- " Public attention," it says, "has been arcalt to find persons to construct it. And rested to the truth, and very specially by a if they try it, we shall see of what the Span- visit of our devoted Carrasco, who was able ish people are capable when offended in to gain the ear of large audiences in what their religious unity! Singular destiny! was, in September last, the church of the In this century no other thing is spoken of Jesuits, now the Temple of Liberty,' whilst but unity, while they wish to lose that which he treated, in a course of three lectures, they possess, the most beautiful unity of the subject of religious liberty. The first the citizens that of praying at the foot of night, the addresses not having been pubthe same altar! . . . After all the sham-licly announced, about two thousand came. ming about the Iberian union, they wish to The second night, to hear the subject of throw amongst the Spaniards all those dis- religious liberty treated from a scriptural unions which make England and the United point of view, four thousand eager hearers States of America equally ludicrous in point pressed into the church. The last night, of religion. First they employ the masses when the subject was treated historically, to destroy the Catholic churches, and after- and the blood of the martyrs of Valladolid wards they give license to the Protestants itself was brought in testimony against the to erect new temples! But these same intolerance of Rome, large numbers left, Protestants, all the time they are building unable to gain entrance into the temple. one of their churches, will have reason to The interest manifested was absorbing. feel that its duration will be but temporary. Our young friend's reception was nothing If in Spain there are to be found Spaniards else than enthusiastic; and amidst the many sufficiently advanced in impiety to throw warm wishes with which he was greeted as down churches consecrated to the Catholic he descended from the pulpit, let me record religion,― apostolic and Roman,-and the one only, that of an old woman, who, grasponly true one, can we not affirm that there ing his hand, said, God give your tongue will not be wanting some who will be suffi- fifty years of health to tell such blessed ciently fervent in their faith to destroy the truths!"" church which on Nov. 9, 1868, the minister Romero Ortiz permitted to be dedicated to heresy ? "
Two effects have flowed from such labours at Valladolid; a great increase in the demand for Scriptures and tracts: and a very furious pastoral from the Cardinal Archbishop. This gentleman is horrified at the attempt of the heretics to bring to Spain all the false religions in the world, in room of the only true one which the nation loves and venerates. "In this noble and religious city of Valladolid, some heretics have established themselves, who dedicate themselves to distribute tracts and pamphlets, to expose books, and to sell mutilated and corrupt Bibles, in order to propagate the errors of Luther and Calvin, as well as other new ones, and to make proselytes among the honourable labourers, to whom, moreover, they offer the venom of their detestable doctrines by means of discourses and lectures, which they give on certain days; and this they do publicly, to the astonishment and universal disgust of every one." One thing is very plain; whether it be encyclicals in Latin or pastorals in Spanish, anathemas in Irish or diatribes in French, there is no beating Rome in the language of abuse. Her sincerity in some things may be open to question; but the sincerity of her denunciations who can doubt?
We have no doubt the Iglesia is quite right in claiming for the Church sons sufficiently lawless for this outrage, especially after what has taken place at Burgos. We doubt, however, whether their courage will be equal to their frenzy. But if the prospect of a single Protestant church can thus throw the Church party into a fever, how must they feel towards the movement, now in progress, for printing and disseminating a million of Gospels? This undertaking of the British and Foreign Bible Society is not a mere Quixotic speculation, but rests on the actual demand for the Scriptures which has been experienced in various parts of the peninsula. A country where the Spanish Bible has been printed secretly in a cellar, must have numbers of people eager to read in their own tongue the wonderful Words of God. We are told that there are in Spain about three thousand persons more or less engaged in endeavours to make known the truth. One man is reported as having hired a stall in an arcade where he sells of the Gospel of St. Matthew some three hundred copies daily. In Cordova the movement is very active. Regarding
From The N. Y. Evening Post, 20 April.
MR. CHANDLER, of Michigan, made an absurd speech in the Senate yesterday, proposing and supporting the following resolu
"Resolved, That in the judgment of the Senate, the solution of all controversies between Great Britain and the United States will be found in the surrender of all the British possessions in North America to the people of the United States, and that the President be and he is hereby requested to open negotiations as soon as practicable for a settlement of all matters in dispute upon that basis."
"It is time," Mr. Chandler insists, "to say precisely what we mean." He went on to give the substance of all previous speeches and resolutions offered by himself upon our relations with Great Britain for some years past. In 1864 he had asked for an army corps on the Canada frontier. Soon after he proposed to present to the British government a bill for " every ship and cargo destroyed by rebel pirates at a fair valuation, with a rate of interest of six per cent.," and demand payment in full. In 1866, he proposed to insist on immediate payment from England, with a threat of withdrawing our Minister and proclaiming non-intercourse with her if she should hesitate. And now, since " we cannot afford to have an enemy's base so near to us," let us demand Canada at once, he says, as payment in full of the Alabama claims, and desire war if it is not given up to us.
all Chandlers. But just at this time there reaches us from London another proposition concerning Canada, which makes no " sation," affects no prices, can scarcely get mentioned in the newspapers, and which is yet as much more important and valuable than the blustering talk of the Michigan senator as history is above gossip.
Dr. Joshua Leavitt, of New York, has written an essay for the Cobden Club of London, to which that Club has awarded its annual gold prize medal, upon the best way to promote improved relations between the The United States and Great Britain. practical suggestion of all others in it which will attract most attention for its novelty, is that a Customs league, on the plan of the German Zoll-Verein, be formed among the English speaking people of this continent; who, with absolute free trade among themselves, shall raise revenue by an equitable division of the duties levied in common upon imports from abroad.
Canada will be glad enough to enter such a league, and England to approve it. All parties in this country seem to be committed in advance to the policy of it. The protectionists of Mr. Carey's school are never weary of extolling the advantages of free trade among the states of this Union; and will of course see that every argument in its favour applies also to the Dominion, and that the extension of it to all our future states would only add to these advantages. All administrators of the revenue will see that the employment of Canadian custom houses to enforce our tariff would cut off the main channels by which goods are now
Mr. Chandler has succeeded in showing that his whole record on this subject was as smuggled into the United States, and would absurd as his new resolution. But the add immensely to our revenue. And, fistrangest part of it all is his repeated decla-nally, every American who, like Mr. Chandration that if Congress had insulted and ler, is eager for the annexation of Canada, defied Great Britain, "the Alabama and will see that this is the surest way to make other similar claims would have been paid its acquisition easy, certain and speedy. within thirty days; " and that " every reso- It is the Zoll-Verein that has been the chief lution he had offered had been in the inter-agency, though a silent one, in preparing est of peace." Does the senator imagine Germany for Union. that we should yield to such brutal diplomacy as this, were it practised by a world in arms? Or that our English cousins, among their many faults, are distinguished by a want of national spirit, and by readiness to submit to aggression and bullying? The speech of Mr. Chandler had its influGold went up, and the prospects of war became the talk of Wall street. This morning gold is weaker again, the “market” finding that the American people are not
Many things that have been accomplished by war, could, as time has shown, have been attained better and far more cheaply in peace. There is no doubt that we have the power to seize and hold Canada, as well as Cuba or Mexico, against any force likely to be brought to defend it. But robbery is not always wisdom, just as brutal insolence in dealing with foreign nations is not always statesmanship.