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We should precisely reverse Mr. Arnold's as almost to preclude any pleasure in the argument here. From the opposite prem- reading of them. It could not but be felt ise we draw the opposite conclusion. Men, from the first that she was a woman of we say, are better than the stars, and attain greater ambition than ordinary, and of a a more mighty life, just because they are consistency and individuality of purpose not unobservant in what state God's other rare among men; and for this reason she works may be.' It is true a man may was well known, if not popular, long bebe overburdened with observation, with fore she had written anything worthy to thought, with feeling, so that his animal last. The first work in which she reached life-the necessary condition of his pres- down to true originality was Aurora ence on earth decays under the weight; Leigh;' and this and her posthumous volhe may sigh, as Mr. Arnold does, for the ume of Last Poems' are the only poems quiet undistracted rhythm of the starry by which she is likely to be remembered. movements. But this is a mere transitory It is a pleasant thing, in her case as in that feeling; it does not interfere with the truth of Mr. Arnold, to find this consistent imthat the nobility of man results from his provement in mature years, just as on the capacity of affecting and being affected by other hand it is sad to see, what happens others. And though a poet may express with some writers, a luxuriant youth folwishes that are not wise, and thoughts lowed by a manhood that fails to accomwhich are not accurate, and be liked all the plish anything worthy of its promise. better for it from the naturalness of his Mr. Ruskin has called Aurora Leigh' utterance, he must not enunciate this sort the greatest poem of the century. We do of maxims with too solemn an air. And, not the less utterly dissent from this opinindeed, though quietism used to be a sort ion, that we think we undertand the causes of creed with Mr. Arnold, and almost the which induced Mr. Ruskin to enunciate it. very gospel that he preached, in his latest Partly, it is an example of a rule which Mr. volume a change is discernible. He no Ruskin has both given and by his own writlonger attempts that roundness, that perfec-ings copiously illustrated a rule which, tion of a model, that correctness according however, we do not adopt so unreservedly to academical rule, which used to be his as he proclaims it that poets make the aim. And we find such lines as the follow-worst critics of poets, because they can so ing truer and more affecting than all his easily imagine excellence where none is. efforts to an antique symmetry: For Mr. Ruskin is himself a poet, and a most beautiful and original poet; and being this, he has in Aurora Leigh'- as, we think, in other celebrated instances-imagined an excellence greater than that which really exists. But, secondly, the impetuous effervescent spirit of Aurora Leigh' is not very dissimilar to that of Mr.




Calm's not life's crown, though calm is well. Ruskin himself; and, thirdly, we do not "Tis all perhaps which man requires, But 'tis not what our youth desires.'

doubt that he has been attracted by the disquisitions on art which it contains. Now, in our opinion, these disquisitions, though often remarkable in themselves, were yet a snare and a delusion to Mrs. Browning, and hindered her from a more legitimate mode of exercising her genius. It is a graceful thing in poets not to think too highly of the poetic art, but rather to direct their thoughts to the action and practical life of the world in general. Aurora Leigh,' on the other hand, is full of passages like the following:


"Ah, no! the bliss youth dreams is one
For daylight, for the cheerful sun,
For feeling nerves and living breath
Youth dreams a bliss on this side death!
It dreams a rest, if not more deep,
More grateful than this marble sleep.
It hears a voice within it tell :

Surely this is true. And though Mr. Arnold has discovered it rather late though his poems fail of that fullness and depth which they would have possessed had he given the reins to his nature earlier, had he sought less for premature tranquillity, had he resigned himself to the fact that life, however calm in outward appearance, must be fundamentally unquiet and unrestingyet no one can close this his last volume without feeling him to be a friend, and a man alive to the fears, the doubts, and the hopes of other men.

No one can say of Mrs. Browning that she affected too much an air of serenity. Her fault was the very opposite-to exaggerate her passion. And in her earlier poems this was done to so great an extent VOL. XIII. 562


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What form is best for poems? Let me think
Of form less, and the external. Trust the spirit
As sovran nature does, to make the form;
For otherwise we only imprison spirit,
And not embody. Inward evermore
To outward, so in life, and so in art,

Which still is life.

Five acts to make a play,

And why not fifteen? why not ten? or seven?
What matter for the number of the leaves,
Supposing the tree lives and grows? exact
The literal unities of time and place,
When 'tis the essence of passion to ignore
Both time and place? Absurd. Keep up the

And leave the generous flames to shape them-poem.

It is plain that Mrs. Browning did not perceive the extreme and needless rudeness of the interlocutors in this dialogue.

Yet Aurora Leigh' is a very striking Comparing it, for instance, with the Princess'. a poem that like this, deals largely with the position of woman in the world- no one can fail to see how much fuller it is of thought and matter, though Mrs. Browning nowhere reaches up to the level of the lyrics in Tennyson's poem. And


All most true, and only out of place. Mrs. Browning ought hardly even to have thought to herself what she has written in the above passage the method she recommends ought to have been an instinctive habit with her, not a conclusion needing to be ex-given that the efforts of an artist for excelpressed in words; much less ought she to lence in his art form a proper subject for a have written it down. Indeed, she need poem, no one can deny that Mrs. Browning only have followed the advice given by her- has depicted it well. Nor does she ever self. Let me think of form less, and the fail in largeness of sympathy, though perexternal,' she says, and then proceeds to haps this is not always directed with the condemn the critics and their rules, which clearest discernment. But part, at any rate, surely belong to forms and the external. of the passage respecting France at the beThe result is, that having not accustomed ginning of the sixth book of her poem is not herself to concentrate her attention on ac- only generous but in a great measure jution, when she comes to deal with action, dicious: she shows a marvellous ignorance. The whole plot of her poem is wild and improbable to the last degree. The hero, Romney Leigh, is most inadequately drawn. No doubt, he might have done any of the actions ascribed to him; he might have proposed to Aurora and been rejected-might have engaged himself to Marian Erle, the peasant-girl- have founded his phalanstery -have been burnt out of his home, wounded and made blind through those whom he had relieved and lastly have married Aurora after all. All these things are possible. But they are told in the poem as mere isolated facts; there is no consecution among them—no development of character; we are absolutely without that key to the nature of Romney Leigh, which it was the duty of the poetess to have given She means us to admire him; but there is an apparent excess of ignorance in his pursuit of an ideal, to explain which needs much more than is told us in the poem. So, again, Mrs. Browning describes a Roman Catholic and an infidel in controversy - and this is how she makes them talk; the Roman Catholic speaks first: ‘The church, —and by the church I mean, of equalled, not in the violence of their accompaniments, but perhaps in permanent importance, those which took place at the beginning of the century. Will any poet rise great enough to grasp this condition of things, and to render the picture and visible shape of the age eternally present to posterity? We do not know; the advent of such men is not a thing to be calculated



The catholic, apostolic, mother-church,-
Draws lines as plain and straight as her own
Inside of which, are Christians, obviously,
And outside... dogs.

For all her toothless gums,
as Leigh himself
Would fain be a Christian still, for all his wit:
Pass that; you too may settle it for me.'

We thank you. Well I know The ancient mother-church would fain still bite,

And so I am strong to love this noble France,
This poet of the nations, who dreams on
And wails on (while the household goes to

For ever, after some ideal good, -
Some equal poise of sex, some unvowed love
Inviolate, some spontaneous brotherhood,
Some wealth that leaves none poor and finds
Some freedom of the many that respects
none tired,

The wisdom of the few. Heroic dreams;

Sublime, to dream so; natural, to wake.' But some of the Last Poems' excel anything that Mrs. Browning has elsewhere written. In the Forced Recruit,' in 'Bianca among the Nightingales,' and De Profundis,' the strained effort which elsewhere mars her poetry is comparatively very little apparent. And of all her works, the gem is that entitled A Musical Instrument.'

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The poets of whom we have written had their youth, and in some cases their maturer years, cast in times of peace. But since 1848 times of greater restlessness have set in; and within the last ten years changes have been effected in the world which have

upon. There are ages in the world's his- | writer; but the most striking single passatory politically momentous, yet inglorious

'carent quia vate sacro.'

But the final culmination of a period is when great actions are crowned by a splendid record. Meanwhile within the last few years a school of poetry altogether novel has been springing up a school which, taking the classical legends as its main theme, only occasionally and in lyrical fashion glances from thence at the thoughts which are most prevalent among the inquirers and workers of the age. Of this school Mr. Morris is the most powerful

ges, have, we think, been composed by Mr. Swinburne, in that volume of as yet unfulfilled promise, the Atalanta in Calydon.' To these poets we may recur on some future occasion; but at present we must be silent about them. Nor can we say more concerning such a graceful minor poet as Mr. Barnes, in his Dorsetshire poems; nor of those very notable writers, who, like Dr. Newman and George Eliot,' have expressed in verse the superabundance of feeling and thought that remained to them after the greater fullness of their labours in prose.

TIN CALCINING FURNACE. — An improved apparatus for calcining tin ores, the invention of Messrs. R. Oxland and J. Hocking, jun., has been successfully treated at Wheal Basset. The new calciner consists, says the Mining Journal, of an iron tube thirty feet long, three feet internal diameter, lined with fire-brick, and supported in a slightly inclined position on friction rollers. By a cogged wheel which surrounds it the tube is kept in a steady, slow revolving motion, imparted by a small water-wheel. The tube is heated in the interior by fire conveyed into it at the lower end from a furnace at the side. The ore, after being dried, is slowly run into the back end, and is gradually moved forward by its own gravitation down the incline by the rotation of the tube, until it is discharged, red-hot, and free from arsenic and sulphur, from the lower end into a close chamber adja cent to the fireplace. The chief object of the invention was to dispense with manual labour for stirring the ore while exposed to heat, and the utilization of the heat evolved in the combustion of the sulphur and arsenic contained in the ore. These objects have not only been fully accomplished, with the consequent attainment of great economy of labour and fuel, but the THE Shakspeare Treasury* is another of the prime cost of erection of the furnace has proved many volumes of extracts from the works of the to be much less than the ordinary calciner great dramatist which it gives enthusiastic auemployed, and the calcined ore passed much thors pleasure to write, and which no one who more rapidly through the furnace has been has the opportunity to read and the capacity to found to be in superior condition for the sub-appreciate an entire drama will ever dream of sequent dressing operations required.

Public Opinion.

perusing. The extracts are arranged under a variety of headings, and profess to illustrate the genius and knowledge of Shakspeare in every department of human thought, except only in his own especial art; to exhibit him as the philosopher, the preacher, the advocate of woman's rights, the strategist — anything and everything but the dramatic poet. Saturday Review.

scratches glass almost as deeply as the diamond;
and Fremy has stated that an alloy of iron and
chromium may be formed by heating in a blast-
furnace oxide of chromium and metallic iron; it
resembles cast-iron, and scratches the hardest
bodies, even hardened steel. Experiments are
now being made at four of the largest rail mills
in the United States, in order to test the value
of an alloy of chrome ore and manganese, with
the iron in the puddling-furnace, for hardening
rail-heads, and with every prospect of a suc-
cessful result. Other experiments are being
made to test the value of the process for the
purpose of hardening plough-castings, railroad
car-wheels, and other articles of iron fabrica-
tion, where there is great wear from friction,
and requiring to be made very hard. As there
has long been much difficulty in obtaining a
market for much of the chrome ore raised in
Great Britain and her colonies, the proposition
is regarded with great interest.
Public Opinion.

NEW METAL FOR RAILS. An improved metal for the manufacture of rails has been proposed, consisting of iron with an admixture of chrome It has long been known, the Scientific edge. By Charles W. Stearns. M. D. New York: * The Shakspeare Treasury of Wisdom and KnowlReview states, that an alloy of about 40 per Putnam & Son. London: Sampson Low, Son, & cent. of iron and 60 per cent. of chromium Marston. 1869.


LORD STANLEY'S INAUGURAL ADDRESS the effort merely for the sake of securing


[Standard, April 3.]

this sense of enjoyment while it lasted. Work must have an object apart and disLORD STANLEY's speech at Glasgow is tinct from itself, and although it may readall which an address to young and eager- ily be granted that it is, or might be, a hearted men in the van of life ought to be, great blessing to a man to have acquired uncompromising in the loftiness of its aim,that healthy and happy instinct which unswerving in the nobleness of its morality. leads him to take delight in his work for Yet with all its sanguine passion the speech his work's sake," it is nevertheless a blessis firmly knit and closely reasoned, diffi- ing which must come to him in some discult, indeed, to answer, if any one wished guise. The law student, reading for an to answer it, by any better argument than a examination, may take delight very often cynical sneer. The doctrine preached is in slowly mastering through many patient elevated enough in its aim, it might be hours the intricacies of real property law, urged, so elevated that it carries the or unfathoming the mysteries connected preacher quite out of sight of land. Uto- with contingent remainders. Later in life, pia would be reached even before the mark while wading through a troublesome case, was hit. We are all to acquire habits of he may be positively happier than if he earnestness and diligence in our youth, and were at leisure; still, in the one case the in our manhood to work, not for the sake hope of receiving the coveted certificate, in of reward in any shape, but for the love of the other of credit or advancement in his our work itself and of mankind, so that we profession, are essential to the enjoyment may not "pass out of the world in the obtained. And it is not necessary to throw world's debt," not "have sat down, as it any discredit upon the pursuit of objects as were, at the feast, and gone away without contradistinguished from those efforts made paying the reckoning." Who that is born from a purely intellectual appreciation of of woman can go through life on principles the fact that exertion is a higher and haplike these? Who that is of flesh and blood pier state of being than indolence. The can have none but spiritual desires? Is it only arrière pensée which checks our admiso easy to keep the Ten Commandments as ration of the ethical theories in the speech they stand that it is worth while to invent a before us, is a doubt whether it is desirable code of morality, which would be to them to cast upon the pursuits of honourable obwhat the differential calculus is to the mul-jects even so much of a slur as is involved tiplication table? Yes, it is even worth in saying that the noblest course of all is to while to invent the very highest code of work for the love of work. It must be admorality we can conceive, to tell all men mitted, however, that no man could uphold what are the motives that ought to guide this exalted doctrine with better grace, and them, to cheer on each generation as it command for it the reverence of all who rises, to attempt a nobler life than any gen- heard him with more unconscious authority eration has lived before, and even when than the new Lord Rector himself. If any the efforts which may be made for a mo- man works for work's sake it is Lord Stanment fail, and those of us who may have ley, and of all the men who take little from made them sink back exhausted, to keep the world and give back much, no man the ideal object still in view, and preserve, more than Lord Stanley repays the debt even after our faith in ourselves is blighted, with interest. our faith in mankind.

We do not say that this theory of life which is embodied in Lord Stanley's Glasgow address, is one which any great number of the students who listened to him are likely to carry out in the coming years, or that it is one which is possible for any but a few strong natures. To take delight in your work for the work's sake, to pay that debt to the world which each man owes from a pure sense of duty, is only possible for very few. Indeed, though scarcely any man who has ever worked hard will venture to deny that there is a sense of enjoyment pervading the effort itself, still we are not inclined to believe that any man could make

[Times, April 3.]

"WHATEVER you do, then," says Lord Stanley, "do it well; " but some men are fitted for action and some for thought, and he entreats his hearers not to listen to the popular cry that culture is useless, or to doubt that it finds its place and its reward in the work of the world. To put it at the lowest," every one is bound, not merely to do the thing which seems to him right, but also to do his best that the thing which seems to him right may be that which really is right." For this purpose he must learn, above all things, accuracy of thought and expression. If a man cannot acquire these,

this point Lord Stanley becomes larger in thought than his colleague of St. Andrews. He refuses to depreciate culture and the academical idea of education - which cultured men are doing mainly, as he thinks, and as we think also, in a kind of intellectual despair at the limitations of all study. He does not much care upon which road a young man walks so long as he learns to walk. And it is very characteristic to find him defending" culture," not only because it makes men suspicious of ignorant enthusiasm, and cautious in action and conviction, but because it begets a "moral earnestness" which is necessary to all genuine action. "Every one of us is bound, not merely to do the thing which seems to him right, but to do also what is in his power that the thing which seems to him right may be that which really is right.

let him do his best without them; but let him regret his loss. With this object in view, Lord Stanley is naturally led to do justice to the traditional studies of English education the much-reviled classics. Whatever their other defects, the great writers of antiquity have never been equalled "in precision, in conciseness, in dignity of style, and in verbal felicity." These studies teach men more effectually than any others to think clearly and express themselves distinctly. Lord Stanley would not indeed, have them pursued unless they can be carried to some degree of perfection, and he deprecates a mere smattering of Latin, and still more of Greek. His argument, however, may be applied somewhat further. There can be little doubt that the study even of dry grammatical rules has, at least, the effect of teaching boys to know the beginning of a sentence from the end of it, and accustoms them to grammatical expression; while it is very questionable whether any language is so serviceable for this pur- can pass through his allotted term of years pose as Latin. Moreover, our thoughts - least of all can the wealthier classes do and words are so impregnated with Latin so-without profiting by the fruits of other that without some smattering of it a man is men's toil. All capital is accumulated laoften a stranger even in his own mother bour." But " a scrupulous and high-minded tongue. But whatever language be se- nan will always feel that to pass out of the lected, it is certain that nothing else but the world in the world's debt-to have constudy of language gives, at least for general sumed much and produced nothing" is purposes, that accuracy of thought and ex-"to have sat down, as it were, at the pression which Lord Stanley values so world's feast, and not to have paid his reckjustly. A mathematician may be the strict- oning ;" and, hence, even he who lives at est reasoner in his own province: but it is ease will be anxious to replace to the notorious that he is frequently the most public the expenditure of labour that has confused of thinkers in practical matters. been made upon him." There is nothing The phenomenon is sometimes treated as nobler than this in any philosophy; and the surprising; but it is nothing more than the Glasgow youth will not have heard Lord fact, recognized by logicians from the days Stanley in vain if they grave that golden of Aristotle, that demonstrative and prob- rule deep upon their hearts, and take it for able reasoning are distinct. the perpetual motto of their manhood.

Action is the end of all thought; but to act justly and effectively you must think wisely." "No one," says Lord Stanley,


We rejoice, therefore, that Lord Stanley has contributed his high authority to the support of general education, and has urged the youth of Scotland and England to betake themselves heartily to professional life when they must, but to make an equally hearty use of the opportunities of culture as long as they can.

[Daily Telegraph, April 3.]

WHAT work, therefore, shall the student choose? This is the main question; and Lord Stanley tells him that life answers it by asking each of us at last not "What do you know?" but "What can you do?" In fact, this duumvirate of Lord Rectors repeat together word for word the Preacher's counsel, "Whatsoever thy hand findeth to do, do it with thy might." But at


[Morning Post, April 3.]

WHY have men low tastes, and why do they indulge in vicious pursuits? asks the Lord Rector; and he answers the question as it has been answered thousands of years ago, by saying that they have no healthful occupation, and that they have nothing else, at least nothing else to which they are habituated, to do with their time. The moral is one, however, which cannot be too frequently pointed out to those who are on the threshold of life, and who are in progress of fashioning those habits which will cling to them in after life. Before all things, cultivate industrious habits; commence early that physical and intellectual training which renders men fit to sustain the burden cast upon them in after life; avoid

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