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Pall Mall Gazette.


GULF STREAM-MR. LECKY, in his " History best, to make out a case of unknown and unof Rationalism," has some very acute observa- measured hypothetical equatorial currents, tions on the manner in which established and re- which may impinge on our shores, not to reinspectable impostures usually disappear from state the object of our ancient belief. among mankind. The instance which he selects as an example is that of witchcraft, but others might be cited. As he shows, impostures of this class and magnitude do not generally lose their influence by slow degrees, as might have been expected. They break down all at once, with little warning beforehand, and they never The Metaphors of St. Paul. By John S. seem so vigorous as just before they break down. Howson, D. D., Dean of Chester. (Strahan). The belief in witchcraft was never more com- - This little book may be reckoned among the pletely received as orthodox, or more solidly de- recreations of a divine who has done a great fended by ecclesiastics and lawyers, than in the deal of serious work in the way of Biblical study, middle of the seventeenth century. By the end and has done it very well. Mr. Howson takes of that century it had ceased to exist altogether four subjects, "Roman Soldiers," "Classical in the educated classes. Now it is clear that Architecture," "Ancient Agriculture," and some such fate as this suddenly threatens our "Greek Games," and shows how they suggest venerable friend, the Gulf Stream. Almost some of St. Paul's most striking metaphors. The down to the present year, faith in his potency four are treated in as many chapters, and of and his extraordinary manner of meddling with these the first and the fourth strike us as being the climate of these islands and North-western particularly good. St. Paul borrows, it is true, Europe in general was all but universal in sci- many illustrations from agricultural and archientific circles, and what may be termed general tectural matters; but these hardly possess the circles also. Nobody sought much for proof of picturesqueness of those which he takes from it; it was received as something self-evident. military affairs, and from the national games of Two phenomena were certain: that our winter Greece; nor is there any passage connected with climate is exceptionally warm and damp, and the former which can be altogether ranked with that a large stream of hot water is continually the two famous appeals which begins, "Put ye flowing in our direction out of the Gulf of Mex- on the whole armor of God," and "Know ye ico four thousand miles off. Whenever an effect not that they which run in a race. . is given, and a cause is wanted, it is wonderful The most common fault' of a book of this kind is how unanimously popular reasoning acquiesces a tendency to put a meaning into passage which in the first suggested. But when the eyes of is not really there. Dr. Howson seems wholly inquirers were opened to the circumstance that free from it. His applications are ingenious, to the stream of hot water flowing out of the Gulf many readers they will be novel, but they are of Mexico is only a few miles wide and of very never strained or far-fetched. He is probably moderate depth, and, moreover, that where it is right, for instance, in suggesting that "the pullhottest and strongest it exercises no appreciable ing down of strongholds," in 2 Cor. x. 3-6, reeffect at all on the winter climate of the neigh-fers to the destruction of the Cilician hill forts, boring shore-that of the Southern States of of which he must have heard from his relatives the Union, which, for the latitude, is exception- in Tarsus. Dr. Howson is sometimes didactic, ally severe --- people began to be startled by the always with plenty of good sense and good extreme inadequacy of the cause in question to taste; sometimes he takes opportunity of giving produce the effect alleged. Again, though the interpretations which are of great worth. We fact of the mildness of the climate of the north-would specially express our gratitude for what western coat of the old continent is undoubted- he says of two very difficult passages (2 Tim. ii. ly established, it seems certain that the climate 20-21, and Rom. ix. 21-23), which bear on the of corresponding latitudes on the north-western subject of predestination. Once or twice, incoast of America is quite equally mild. Even deed, we feel constrained to differ from him. in the extreme north, close to Bhering's Straits, The words "Sown in corruption," &c. in 1. forests grow luxuriously, and yet there is no Cor. xv., surely refer not to the putting of a seed Pacific Gulf Stream to produce this strictly an- into the ground, which would be but an accidenalogous temperature. Once persuaded that our tal resemblance, but to the processes of human knowledge is insufficient to form trustworthy birth. On another matter, we think that he is conclusions, we readily drop preconceived opin- scarcely correct. Rome was certainly a great ions; and the Gulf Stream has, it may be feared, military monarchy, but it can scarcely be corcollapsed. Mr. Findlay, at the Geographical rect that, as Dr. Howson suggests, the sight of Society a few weeks ago, pronounced its doom. soldiers was anything like as common in the Of course there was some hesitation in that sci- provincial towns as it is now on the Continent. entific body, and there have been partial at- All the Roman provinces were held by a force tempts to set up our old idol again: the latest which was not equal to the present French. may be read in a letter of Dr. Wallich, addressed Army. St. Paul, however, had personally suffito the Times of Tuesday. But any one may see cient experience of soldiers to make military that these well-meant efforts are calculated, at metaphors very ready to his use. Spectator.

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HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE REIGN OF Greek and Latin at their fingers' end, not



to speak of youth, and vivacity, and high
spirits, and knowledge of the world. There
was Henry Fielding, for instance, writing
bad plays, and painfully casting about what
to do with his genuis. What was he to do
with it? having at the same time an ailing
wife and little children, burdens which Pe-
gasus can take lightly en croupe, when he is
aware what he is about, and has his course
clear before him, but terrible drawbacks to
the stumbling steed which is seeking a path
for itself across the untrodden ways. It is
impossible to give any sketch of one of the
two great novelists of the age without intro-
ducing the other. Fielding has a thousand
advantages to start with over our homely
forefather. He is so genial, so jovial, such
a fine gentleman; so high an impulse of life
and current of spirit run through his books.
His wickednesses are not wicked, but mere
accidents - warmth of blood and rapidity
of movement carrying him away. And then
his knowledge of the world! Richardson's
knowledge was only of good sort of people,
and secondary litterateurs, and
who are not the world, as everybody knows.
This curious distinction of what is life and
what is not, which has prevailed so widely
since then, probably originated in the eigh-
teenth century; though the observers of the
present day might be tempted, in the spirit
of an age which inquires into everything, to
ask why Covent Garden should teach knowl-
edge of the world more effectually than
Salisbury Court, and whether players and
debauchees throw more light upon the work-
ings of human nature than honest and
reasonable souls, - this is so entirely taken
for granted by critics, that it would be in
vain to make any stand against so all-pre-
vailing a theory; and yet the question is
one which will suggest itself now and then


Of all the many branches in which literature flourishes, there is none which has been so widely and universally developed in our own generation as that of fiction. We are informed on all sides that we have made immense progress in positive knowledge of every description; but we can see for ourselves the astonishing progress which has been made in that special track of art, which demands, some people think, the minimum of knowledge, cultivation, or training. It has come to be a common doctrine that everybody can write a novel, just as it used to be that everybody, or rather anybody, might keep a school; and in point of fact, nowadays most people do write novels, with a result which can scarcely be called satisfactory. The art is as old as human nature; and yet it is not so old in its present shape but that we can identify the fountain from which so many springs have flowed. The similitude is one too energetic, too violent, however, for the subject. The modern English novel, which is in everybody's hands nowadays; which gives employment to crowds of workpeople, almost qualifying itself to rank among the great industries of the day; which keeps paper-mills going, and printing-machines, and has its own army of dependants and retainers, as if it were cotton or capital, the English novel, we say, arose, not with any gush, as from a fountain, but in a certain serene pellucid pool, where a group of pretty smiling eighteenth-century faces, with elaborate heads," and powder and patches, were wont to mirror themselves in the middle of George II.'s reign; while Pope was singing his melodious couplets, and Chesterfield writing his wonderful let-to the unprejudiced. But, notwithstanding ters, and Anson fighting with the winds and the superior knowledge of the world, which seas, and Prince Charlie planning the '45. gave Fielding an advantage over RichardFrom all the confused events of which the son-notwithstanding his better acquaintworld was full-bewildering destruction of ance with polite society, and immensely the old, still more bewildering formation of greater spring and impulse of genius — it the new the spectator turns aside into the was the old printer, and not the young man quaintest homely quiet, the most domestic, of the world, who found out the mode of least emotional, of all household scenes, employing his gift. The path once opened and there finds Samuel Richardson, a good was soon filled with many passengers; but printer, a comfortable, affectionate, father- to Richardson must be given the credit of Îy tradesman, kind to everybody about him, having directed the stream towards it and and very much applauded by his admiring opening the way. friends, but with no special marks of genius that any one can see. Other men of far greater personal note breathed the same air with this active, pottering, and virtuous bourgeois; men with good blood in their veins, and gold lace on their coats, and




Richardson's personal history is of a kind unique in literature. He had lived half a century in the commonplace world before any one suspected him of the possession of genius. Ordinary duties, commonplace labour, had filled up his fifty years. He had

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wa kay with it yet a curate's Gangster. That be ba word? Se one on y corumon school learizz." si st sakay que elimulus to epar him on Creen chose a business, was no denka a The dark na judurement at all, except the great deal better for Samuel, as well as for perumprings of that band vain, half venevos his future readers. He describes himself Tent impulses to benefit, others which has in-¦as being "not fond of play," and of being deed produced much print but little litera-called "Serious and Gravity by the other The triumph of the old fogy over boys, who, however, sought his society as the splendid young adventurer is complete a teller of stories, some of which were from ** Fry probar It may be said that his memory, but others, "of which they Bihardann did not mean it, but that in no would be most fond, and often were way debrarta from the glory of his original-affected by them," of his own invenMy Shakespeare probably did not mean it tion. "All my stories carried with them, witter While the young man, torn with a I am bold to say, a useful moral," says the thomeand carca, tried ineffectual hackneyed virtuous romancer. And we may be sure ways of working, such as every needy wit they did; for whatever may be the objecFrampted fo poor comedies in the taste of tion of the precocious modern child to an the day, inferior even to the previously ex-over-demonstrative moral, there can be no elting ruddish, and utterly unworthy of his doubt that stern poetic justice, and the nwn powers this hundrum old printer most rigid awards of morality, are always ploded calmly into the undiscovered path most congenial to the primitive intelliwhich was to bring fame to both of them. gence. It was not only schoolboys, how

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