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disparait dans l'église. Le désespoir de la foule éclate alors en crescendo final, les femmes jettent des cris aigus et tiraillent leur chevelure, les hommes hurlent et déchirent leur vêtements; les enfants, effrayés par la douleur de leurs parents, piaillent d'une façon lamentable, et les chiens, renchérissant sur le tapage, aboient avec

fureur.

poussée par un flot furieux de têtes humaines, the Acolhus, the Tlastlecs, and the Aztecs, who in the early centuries of our era occupied New Spain. These tribes in turn traced back their religion, their architecture, and their customs, including the peculiar method of noting dates by their QuiOlmecs and Xicalanques, two powerful pus or variously coloured threads, to the races of immense antiquity. Driven out by From Arequipa to Cuzco the traveller's the Incas, the Aymaras dispersed, partly route lies over the lofty passes and glaciers towards the Pacific, where they mingled of the Andes, of which an impressive pano- with the fish-eating tribes of the coast, rama is given by our artist. Striking near partly into the vast sierras of the interior. this point the head waters of the Amazon, Two hundred thousand of these aborigines he followed downwards the course of that are computed to survive at this day, tomightiest of rivers to its outfall into the wards the Bolivo-Peruvian frontier and the Atlantic. In the terrible drifts and storms seven departments of Upper Peru. The of the Sierra Nevada the traveller meets with great ossuary or burial plains of the Aymabut rare and rude halting posts, such as the ras, the discovery of which M. Marcoy lonely hut we see figured at Huallatá. Often claims for his party, lies four leagues southhis sole refuge lies in the rude but solidly-east of Islay, in the centre of the zone wrought tombs of the old Aymaras. The of trachytic ashes which extends from that history of this early race offers an interest-part of the entrance of the valley of Tambo. ing, though in many respects a vague and The mummies are found in groups huddled indecisive, chapter in the ethnology of the together in their pyramidal tomb of rock, Western continent. When the Children of the knees touching the chin, and the head the Sun came to establish themselves in exposed. The head is flattened in the manFeru, they found the great Aymara race in ner usual with all these tribes, and this is possession of the wide plateau which extends to be depended upon as a distinctive mark from Lampa to the confines of the Desagua- of their common origin. In most of these dero, comprising, under the name of Collas, huacas ears of maize have been discovered, the region of the Punas to the east of the together with traces of chicha, the popular Western Andes. This district, some ninety liquor distilled from the same cereal, at the leagues in length by thirty in breadth, bottom of the rude jars of clay lying by the showed here and there temples and other side of the corpse. In tombs of the Incasic monuments of an advanced civilization more period, greater art of construction is apparor less in decay. The then existing Ayma-ent. Vases of terra cotta, bizarre, yet ra inhabitants assigned these to a very highly artistic in form, are met with in abunearly date, and to the Collahua race from dance. The architecture, which is well ilwhom they themselves claimed to have lustrated in M. Marcoy's pages, passes sprung. This race, which came from a dis- from the rude cyclopean layers of an early tant source north of Peru, and spread over date to the regular courses of squarely the high plateaux of the interior, left the wrought masonry. Sketches of such temtrace of their name in the existing coast ples as have survived the pillage of three town of Callao. Together with the secret centuries, as well as of the curious fortressof hieroglyphic painting, they brought with es, sometimes eircular in shape, sometimes them a singular cosmological legend. Be- suggestive of Egyptian types of structure, fore the present sun, four other luminaries give a clear idea of the state of the arts in in succession gave light to the firmament. reference to worship and warfare in the The first of these suns was extinguished by palmy days of the Incas. It is deeply inan inundation, the second by an earthquake, teresting to see still facing each other in the the third by a general conflagration, and streets of Cuzco the massive but irregular the fourth by a hurricane in which all living stonework of an age of prehistoric antiquiforms perished. Total darkness next en- ty, and the trim but monotonous lines of the veloped the world for twenty-five years. mason of to-day. To the artistic eye of our In the midst of this universal night a man traveller the heterogeneous group of domes and a woman were created, for whose be- and spires, intersected by long straight hoof the great Master kindled the fifth sun, avenues and vistas, presents in a quaint which had already been formed a thousand panorama " the old capital of Manca Capac years. The system of cosmogony based revised, corrected, and augmented, but litupon this curious fiction was common to tle embellished, by Francisco Pizarro." the Toltecs, the Cicimecs, the Nahuatlucs,

M. Marcoy's stay at the capital of Peru

gave him an opportunity not only for the pearance of the first Inca (1040-42). We
study of the geological features of the coun- may pass by the still bolder hypothesis
try and the varieties of its native types, but which recognizes in the long and flowing
also for the pursuit of researches into the robes of the Mexican sculptures the surplice
anthropology and early conditions of life or albe of missionary priests despatched
belonging to these regions. His treatment from Ireland. With the reign of the Inca's
of these important problems will be found we come to the confines of trustworthy his-
deeply suggestive, as well as marked with tory, but to the present day the presence of
careful and critical erudition. Are we to the twofold elements we have spoken of is
consider the American race autochthonic, manifest upon the surface of the popular
with Morton, Blumenbach, and Pritchard, life. The facts collected by M. Marcoy
or can we hope to connect its origin with form valuable materials for the ethnologist,
the better-known races of other continents? while the student of comparative philology
Our author's convictions favour the hypoth- will find much to interest and instruct him
esis of two fixed primordial types, both in the lists of words brought together by
however of foreign introduction. The him from the principal Indian dialects.
early geographical connexion of the two These features of the book confer upon it a
continents, or the easy passage by the way scientific value far beyond that which we
of Behring's Straits, renders any amount of are wont to attach to narratives of travel.
immigration from the East readily intelli- We close M. Marcoy's handsome volumes
gible. Whether we call it indigenous or not, with a grateful sense of what he has been
the earliest and simplest of these types ex-at so much pains and cost to set before the
hibits unmistakeable analogies with an Af-public. Our regret at parting with him is
rican variety of the Mongol type of Asia, enhanced by the reflection that the bulk and
the other a no less marked resemblance expense of the work must restrict to a com-
with the Irano-Arian type. In the former paratively scanty number of readers a full
we trace the colonizing and stationary, in share of the intellectual and artistic treat
the latter the civilizing and progressive, which we have so much enjoyed ourselves.
element of the American population. Not
only in their architecture and their religion,
but in the physical peculiarities of their
race, the earliest of these colonists betray
a singular affinity with the Misraites (Chil-
dren of the Sun) upon the banks of the
Nile. Hieroglyphics and the pictorial arts ON a dark December day, three hundred
are equally seen among them, and the pap- and four years ago, a body of men assem-
yrus (maguey) is naturalized among the bled in the long gallery of Whitehall to dis-
flats of the Amazon. In addition to the cuss the darkest topic on which the wit of
red race of the earliest age, both tradition Roundhead trooper and Puritan divine had
and historic records point to a fair and ever been employed. Cromwell sat in the
bearded variety, the naumo type, of Indo-chair of state. Below him were the Lord
Iranian blood and speech. Quezalcoalt, Chief Baron, the Lord Chief Justice Glynn,
the first legislator of the Aztecs, and Boc- Lord Mayor Draper, Sheriff Thompson,
hica, founder of the civilization of Cundin- and a host of preachers - Dr. Owen, Dr.
amarca, were both of the oriental type. Goodwin, Mr. Cradock, and others, then
The ancient Mexican sculptures of Ten- known to City madams and Whitehall beau-
ochtitlan and of Culhuacan, with those of ties as the most popular preachers of their
Tiahuanacu in Upper Peru, represent beard- time. Well-worn Bibles lay before them
ed personages clothed in the ample and on the board of green cloth; old monkish
flowing robes of the people of the East. It chronicles, old Acts of Parliament, old Court
is beyond doubt to an origin of this twofold records, were also heaped about. The
kind, and to one in either case of a remote tomes had been searched for evidence; the
antiquity, rather than to a mythical Scandi- best lawyers had been employed to state the
navian infusion from Iceland or Greenland case, and the Talmudists had been consulted
in the twelfth century of our era, suggested as to facts. The purpose of the meeting
by Rafn, that we are to assign the first tra- was to deduce from the prophetical Scrip-
ces of human life upon the Western conti- tures, from the ancient Jewish writings, and
nent. Still less can we venture to defer the from the actual statues of this realm, the
period to so recent a date as that of the dis-
covery of North America by Reif, son of
Eric the Red, 1005 A. D., which has been
connected by some theorists with the ap-

From The Athenæum.
CROMWELL AND THE JEWS.*

*To his Highnesse the Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland, the Humble Address of Manasseh ben Israel, in behalfe of the Jewish Nation, 1655. (Trubner & Co.)

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duty of English statesmen, living in a right- | of Hebrews leaving money to the convents. eous commonwealth, towards the People of God.

The subject had been brought before Cromwell in a striking way. A learned Dutch Jew, called Manasseh ben Israel, had come over from Amsterdam to lay the cause of his people before the Council; and the Lord Protector, even in the stress of his great schemes, took up the tale, and sum-ceeding times. moned his big men of the law and divinity to debate the matter in his own presence.

In those days no Jew could openly live and trade in England. Now and then a Jew came over into the land; came over as a courtly physician, a princely traveller, or a wealthy goldsmith; but in order to evade the law, and deceive the mob, he had to put on a foreign air, and pass as either an Arab, an Italian, or a Portuguese. Spain herself had not whipped the holy race with sharper thongs than the island which once had been their happiest home.

No one knows when the Jews first came into England. They were here before the Norman Conquest. They were here when Hengist landed. It is probable that they were here before Cæsar came. Some writers derive the name of Britain from a Hebrew word: from Barat-anach, tin island, which would be very ingenious if either Barat meant tin, or anach island. When the Romans land, we get on safer ground. One of the edicts of Augustus speaks of the Jews in Britain. One of the Roman bricks dug up in Mark Lane has the story of Samson and the Foxes stamped upon it. Bede mentions the Jews in connexion with the great controversy on the tonsure. Egbert forbade the Saxon Christians to attend Jewish feasts; a fact which implies not only that we had synagogues and ceremonials in England, but that a friendly intercourse then existed between the native Christians and the native Jews. In the Crowland Abbey records there is an entry which proves if the record itself be genuinethat Jews could hold land, and that they were in the habit of endowing monks and nuns with some part of their wealth.

All the springs of charity were sealed. Only under the name of "King's men," and very nearly in the position of slaves, were a few wealthy and useful families permitted to hold their ground. "The Jew, and all that he has, belong to the king," runs the law of Edward the Confessor,- a law which was certainly not a dead letter in the suc

The first storm of persecution struck them when the Pagan Danes deflowered the island. Canute was not their friend. Some say he drove them from the country; and this is a legend which the Jews accept as true. It is hardly likely that all were sent away; but those who stayed behind were treated in a new and cruel spirit. The Jews were no longer free. They lost their right to hold land. They could no longer appeal to the courts of law. We hear no more of Christians going into the synagogues, and

The Jews made very slight progress in England until the Norman baron, with his strong arm and greedy maw, invited the rich traders and tiremen of that race from France. Crowds of Jews now settled in Stamford and in York; afterwards they came to Oxford and London; and during the first golden period of their return they occupied and enriched these cities by art and trade. In London they dwelt in two several places; both of which localities were determined by the fact of Jews being considered as "the King's men,"—not as ordinary citizens,- free of the ordinary law. One of their quarters lay in the City proper, the quarter off Cheapside, in which stood the ancient London Palace. This quarter was called from them the Jewry. They clustered about the old palace, because they were "the King's men," and found their only protection under the palace walls. The second-quarter, which lay beyond the City towards the east, was also a royal quarter, being close to the king's Tower, a part of London over which the Mayor and Aldermen had only a limited right of sway. When the prince was weak, the Jews fled into the Tower, which was sometimes crowded with Jews so closely that pestilence broke out, and scattered both the fugitives and their protectors to the four winds. When the prince was strong, his "men multiplied in number-swarming backward from the Tower ditch into the district now known as the Minories, and the swamp called Hounds' Ditch. The great merchants of the sacred race dwelt in the City, the poor hucksters and chapmen near the Tower. Hence the first quarter is called Old Jewry, the second quarter Poor Jewry.

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Policy led the earlier Norman kings to befriend this gifted and useful race against monks and against the mob. Rufas, indeed, was so far attached to them that some writers fancy he had thoughts of becoming a Jew himself. But this is an inference from facts which bear a totally different construction. Rufus resisted any attempt to convert the Jews; and on a notable occasion he called before him certain converts in Rouen, and bade them return to the faith of their fathers; whence it has been inferred

The The offences charged upon the Jews, and held to justify their expulsion from a country in which they had dwelt before the Norman baron and the Saxon yeoman came into the land, were such as to raise a smile in more considerate and more critical times. They debased the coin, they forestalled the markets, they gibed at images, they poisoned the wells, they strove to convert the Christians, they kidnapped young children, whom they sacrificed as burnt offerings. One accusation roused the anger of the commons, a second justified suspicion in the nobles. But our sires were far more ignorant and superstitious than unjust. Nine out of every ten men in this kingdom believed that Robert, of St. Edmund's Bury, was killed by the Jews, and that his blood was sprinkled on their altar, by the high

66

that he was in favour of that faith. truth was, Rufus was in favour of "King's men." Jews were profitable clients, and Rufus had no wish to see their number reduced by conversion, in the reality of which he was not likely to believe. The story told of him shows that the question was one of money. Stephen, a Norman Jew, came to Rufus complaining that his son had quitted the synagogue, and offering the king a purse of sixty silver marks to persuade him back. Rufus took the silver, and sent for the lad. Sirrah," he cried, " thy father here complaineth that without his licence thou art become a Christian; if this be true, I command thee to return to the religion of thy nation without more ado." "Your Grace," said the young convert, "doth but jest." On which Rufus flushed up into sudden wrath: "What! thou dung- priest. Our fathers were not singular in hill knave, should I jest with thee? Get these beliefs. No page in the long story thee hence quickly, and fulfill my command- of popular delusions is more striking than ment, or by St. Luke's face I shall cause that which tells of the widely-spread conthine eyes to be plucked out." The young viction that Jews put men - especially man would not turn from his new ways, boys and young men to death to get their even after such a threat; and when Stephen blood. This belief was found in Paris and saw that the king had failed in his promise, in Seville, in Alexandria and in Damascus, he asked for his money back. But Rufus just as it was found in Oxford and in Lonand silver marks were not to be parted. don. Nay, it is still to be found in the Why, man," said the king, "I did what South and in the East. Many persons in I could; " and on the old fellow saying that Rome, and yet more in Jerusalem, assure he must have either his son or his silver at you that the Passover cannot be properly the king's hands, Rufus gave him back thirty kept unless the cakes are mixed with Chrismarks to stop his mouth. tian blood. No Easter ever passes by without quarrels in Zion provoked by this superstition. The Greek and the Armenian cling to their old traditions, and every little fray in the Holy City between Jew and Christian leads to charge and countercharge, which the grave and impartial Turks have to decide according to their written law. A few years ago, these accusations were raised so often in Palestine, that the Sultan issued a commission of inquiry into the facts alleged and denied, when both sides were heard, the Jewish books were overhauled by muftis, and an imperial decree was issued, of which the pashas and kadis must take note, declaring that the Greek and Armenian allegations were untrue.

66

Oxford was in that time almost a Jewish city. The best houses belonged to men of this race, who boarded the English students, and established schools for the study of Hebrew law. Lombard Hall, Moses Hall, and Jacob Hall were centres of learning. A great synagogue was built, and the Jews were popular with students and learned Great rabbis lectured on their faith, and two quarters of Oxford were known as the Old Jewry and the New Jewry.

men.

The Jews grew fat, and fat men are incautious. In the reign of Henry the First the monks began to show their teeth; and from this reign downward the Church led on the mob to attack the Jews. In the reign of Stephen they were fined and imprisoned; in the reign of Richard the First The higher English knights and nobles they were massacred; in the reign of John had other reasons for their hatred of the they were cheated and robbed; and so far Jews. Some of these nobles may have forward until the reign of Edward the First, really feared as they certainly said they when they were finally expelled the king- feared that the richer Jews would bribe dom, under pain of death. Then came a the courtiers over to their faith. Such things time of silence and exclusion. For three were freely said in Italy and Spain. Still hundred years the law of England had no more, the Jews were much more "liberal,” mercy on the Jew. He was an infidel, a as it is called, than their sturdy neighbours. cagot, a leper, a thing that could not live Many of the Jews were learned men, and upon the English soil. learned men are apt to laugh at things

-

which vulgar folk hold sacred. An Oxford
Hebrew mocked St. Frideswide, saying he
could cure as many sick persons as the saint
herself. The legend runs that the mocking
Jew went mad and hung himself in his own
kitchen, which is perhaps a polite way of
telling the tumultuous story of popular ire
and priestly vengeance. Some of these
learned men were learned in the way to ex-
cite suspicion; they were alchemists, sorcer-
ers, and astrologers, and professors of ma-
gian art, dealers in charms and amulets,
agents of the Seraglio and the Court. But
their true offence was-
they were rich.
They were rich, and the world could not
forgive them. The fact is, the Jew, who is by
nature a shepherd and a vine-grower, -a
man who delights in the pasture and the
garden, and whose national poetry breathes
of the tent, the flock, and the watercourse,
- had been driven by abominable laws
from the courses which he loved into the
practice of acts which were originally for-
eign to his race. When a Hebrew could
hold land of his own, he was neither a ped-
lar nor a money-lender. He sheared his
own sheep, he planted his own olives, he
pressed his own grapes, he threshed his own
Under that Roman law, which the
Church sent into Western Europe, a Jew
was forbidden to own land; hence he was
driven into trades which his genius con-
verted into a profitable calling. Most of
all, he took to buying and selling money; to
lending on interest and security-a voca-
tion for which few men are naturally fit.
The Jews were dealers in money, and
nearly every man of influence in the Plan-
tagenet Court was in their debt.

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daughters Miriam and Hephzebah. They regarded the Commonwealth as a new Israel; and Cromwell as a modern Joshua. Some of the foreign Jews partook of these fancies. They thought the Lord Protector might prove to be their Messias, and they sent a deputation to England to make strict inquiry into Cromwell's pedigree, expecting to find in his ancestry some traces of Hebrew blood. Under his Protectorate they hoped to come back to their ancient English home.

Cromwell sat in his chair of state, with the open Bible before him, and with a petition from a learned Jew in his hand. It was a very adroit petition, and the writer of it was a very ingenious_man. The petition began, in its queer English, referring to the words of Daniel "Thou that removest kings and settest up kings," -facts which he hinted were allowed, "to the end the living might know that the Highest hath dominion in man's kingdom and giveth the same to whom he pleases." It went on to say that no man becomes a governor of men unless he be first called to that office by God. It then proceeded to show that no ruler of men had ever been stable in his seat of power who was inimical to the holy race; and cited in proof of this strong assertion the cases of Pharaoh, Nebuchadnezzar, Antiochus, Epiphanius, and Pompey. The paper went on to say that no country which favoured that race had ever failed to flourish, though it refrained from citing the examples of his second proposition. Lastly, it prayed the Lord Protector to repeal the laws, passed under the Kings, against the Jews, and to permit a synaof-gogue to be built in London.

That was offence enough, and for this fence they were driven into foreign lands. The author of this petition was Manasseh They were driven away from this island with ben Israel, a Jew of Portuguese descent, as much cruelty as their brethren afterwards then living in Amsterdam- a man of fine underwent in Spain. The Church put them culture and unquestionable piety. English to the ban-cursed them, plundered them, ambassadors had been received in the and drove them forth. For four hundred Dutch capital, not only by the Government, years that stern decree was held. But a but by the churches. Not the least eager change was coming for the holy race. The to hail the new Commonwealth were the Iron Age was almost past; and though the Hebrew merchants, and a grand reception golden prime was yet far off, the wiser spir- was accorded to her ministers in the synaits were looking for a brighter day. Lu-gogue. Manasseh took advantage of this ther, Cranmer, Calvin, - all the great visit to urge upon Cromwell the recall of spirits of the Reformation had been the his people from their long exile. unconscious friends of Israel; and when the sentiment of respect for private judgment in affairs of faith had entered deeply into men's minds, a habit of toleration followed in its wake, of which the Hebrew found his share.

Cromwell favoured the petition. The Lord Chief Justice and the Lord Chief Baron reported against maintaining the old statute of exclusion. The Lord Mayor and Sheriff declared that the City was willing to receive the Jews as brethren. But the old enemies of the Jews were still strong. The clergy, even the Puritan clergy, could not see their way to such liberal conces

The Puritans were warm admirers of the Jews. They talked Old Testament. They called their sons David and Abner; their

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