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rights, he could and would permit them to come in as "Protector's men." In that quality a few of them came back from Amsterdam and Leyden. Under Cromwell, they had no persecution to fear and no exactions to resist. They came back on suf
sions as the lawyers and citizens were prepared to make. To the divines, a Jew was a man of a stiff-necked race, who had rejected the true Messiah and put the Son of God to a shameful death. Owen, Cradock and their brethren turned over the leaves of prophecy. Manasseh had very skilfully ferance only; but they soon established a character in London which made them many friends. In a few years, opinion underwent a change; the clergy lost their power; the old abominable laws were all repealed; and the Jew, who had ventured to come home as a "Protector's man," became a peaceable and prosperous citizen of the realm.
fallen in with Puritan ways of thought; hinting that the Judgment was at hand, and the day of final reconciliation nigh. Cromwell, struck by this suggestion, urged the divines to adopt a healing policy; but the preachers held to the doctrine that the Jews were a God-abandoned people, unfit for association with Christian men. Cromwell's eloquence was highly praised; and the subject being one which he knew, he probably spoke beyond his usual style; but neither Glynn's law nor Cromwell's eloquence availed in the presence of these hot divines. The clergy stood out; and even after Hugh Peters and two other advocates of Manasseh's scheme were added to the conference, the clergy were obstinate and powerful enough to defeat Cromwell's plan.
But the Lord Protector was a law unto himself. If a regular act could not be obtained, empowering the Jews to settle in England once again, not as King's men,' but as citizens and equals, men with legal
Among the Jews themselves, Cromwell is regarded as the man to whom, under God, they are chiefly indebted for their happy return to a country which had cast them out for 400 years. But Cromwell might never have called that conference in the Long Gallery of Whitehall had he not been urged by Manasseh ben Israel, the pious and able Portuguese Jew; a copy of whose rather scarce Petition to His Highness the Lord Protector has been reprinted at Melbourne in Australia; a city which is more populous than Jerusalem, and which ," is built on a continent of which Manasseh never heard the name.
COMETS' TAILS.-Theories by scores, and wild enough to make a philosopher's hair stand on end, have been proposed to account for the formation of comets' tails. Herschels and Airys are pestered with them, whenever a bearded star makes its appearance; and almost invariably the proposers are in a state of utter ignorance regarding the working of physical laws. It will be a treat to the astronomers to discuss a hypothesis which, if it should not eventually prove true, is at least philosophical, and based upon data acquired by experiment. Professor Tyndall has developed a cometary theory out of his late researches upon the actinic power of light. It will be remembered, says Once a Week, that he has found that a beam of light is capable of forming a bright glowing cloud in its course through a space containing a modicum of vapour, the said cloud being first reduced by the chemical action of the light, and then rendered visible by illumination of the condensed particles. The application of this principle to the explanation of cometary phenomena is as follows:- A comet is held to be a mass of vapour decomposable by the solar light, the visible head and tail being an actinic cloud resulting from such decomposition. The tail is not matter projected from the head, but matter precipitated on the solar beams which traverse the cometary atmosphere; nothing being carried from the
comet to form the tail, but something being deposited from the interplanetary space through which the body is coursing. But this explanation supposes that the sunlight has a different power when it has passed through a vapoury comet to that which it possesses when it has traversed no such medium; otherwise all space would be lit up like a comet's tail. To account for such a peculiar property, Professor Tydall assumes that the sun's heating and chemical powers are antagonistic, and that the calorific rays are absorbed more copiously by the head and nucleus than the actinic rays. This augments the relative superiority of the actinic rays behind the head and nucleus, and enables them to bring down the cloud which constitutes the tail. Thus the caudal appendage is in a perpetual state of renovation as the comet moves through space; the old tails being dissipated by the solar heat as soon as they cease to be screened by the nucleus. Nearly all the phenomena observed in those mysterious bodies are accounted for by Dr. Tyndall. One, however, be has not yet mentioned: I allude to the peculiar luminous envelopes, familiar to comet-gazers, which surround the nucleus like a series of cloudy glass cases. No theory can be called complete which does not account for those remarkable and evidently important features. Public Opinion.
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From The British Quarterly Review.
The Macaulays of posterity, if there be any gratitude in them, will surely avow themselves indebted to this generation for the mass of solid, reliable, social history embodied in its novels. Supposing a case: Should the Church of England, as a State religion, not see the century out -an eventuality we could not affect to deplore — the clerical annals of Mr. Thackeray, Mr..Anthony Trollope, George Eliot, and Mrs. Oliphant will be of some service. As long as any library preserves a copy of them, it will be difficult to assert, without risk of
If we may judge from the publishers' advertising lists and from the critical columns of the reviews, there is at this moment a sensible decline in the power of Women's Novels, an indication that the feminine genius of this generation has touched its highwater mark, and that the ebb has begun. No general vote of popularity has exalted any young authoress into sudden fame and fortune for some years past. We who remember the acclaim that greeted Currer Bell' and 'George Eliot,' listen in vain for contradiction, that it fell by the corruption any thrill of the same universal voice. Mr. of its parish clergy; from amongst them Thackeray's daughter has draped his man-came the Puritans of Elizabeth's and James's tle very gracefully on her shoulders, but she days, the Nonconformists of the Restoration requires a cultivated taste for her due ap- Period, and the Methodists of the Georgian preciation, and a cultivated taste is not the Era; leaving in the Church, it cannot be taste of the majority; Miss Braddon keeps honestly denied, with many of a different up her name and multiplies her editions, character, as good livers and as pious dibut her clients are of the lower intellectual vines as themselves, who were yet sincerely order. In default, therefore, of any new attached to its constitution. star of the first magnitude in the literary firmament, we are truly thankful for the favourite old luminaries who rose above the horizon twenty years since, and still go on mildly shining over the waste of literary waters that heave and rock all round this restless and reforming age; and for none are we more thankful than for Mrs. Oliphant, perhaps the fullest, steadiest light of them
Most of us can admit, now that we are far enough away and safe from the fires of Roman bigotry, that the Roman monks and missionaries did some excellent work; so, possibly, when the old Church of England is gone, and the generations to come review it in the living pictures of these nineteenth century novelists, they may feel that its past is worthy of much respect. The poet and the imaginative writer of Nonconformity, the Milton and the Defoe of this generation,
(15.) The Quiet Heart.
(16.) The Days of my Life.
(17.) A Son of the Soil.
(18.) The Brownlows.
(1.) Passages in the Life of Mrs. Margaret Mait-have yet to arise; and surely in the ancient land, of Sunnyside., Written by Herself.
(4.) The House on the Moor.
(5.) Harry Muir.
(6.) Adam Græme of Mossgray.
(7.) Magdalen Hepburn.
(8.) Laird of Norlaw.
(9.) The Atherlings. (10.) Zaidee.
trials and persecutions of Nonconformists and in their present life there are true elements of poetry for talent to combine. In 'Rufus Lyon,' George Eliot has done justice to a somewhat eccentric type of Nonconformist minister, but the majority of the best-known sketches of Nonconformity, lay or clerical, are mere caricatures by persons who know it only from the outside. For a true and sympathetic view of modern life amongst Dissenters, we want a writer born and bred in dissent, and with that endowment of genius which is the gift of God. We shall give him a warm welcome when he appears; and the world beyond us will, no doubt, give him a warm welcome too.
(11.) Madonna Mary.
(14.) Katie Stewart.
(19.) Agnes Hopetoun's Schools and Holidays. (20.) The Life of Edward Irving.
(21.) Religious Life in France. (22.) Chronicles of Carlingford.
Mrs. Oliphant manifests a lively interest in every system of ecclesiasticism with which she is acquainted; and, as she expounds.