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forcements of the eccentric discipline* of the Isle of Man, carefully recorded, but all those various shades of his character which bring out his connexion with the tendencies of his time least loved by modern High Churchmen. Such were his admiration for William III.; his indifference to scenery and architecture; his " suffering the holy and venerable building in which he was enthroned to fall into hopeless decay; " his willingness to let his people look at the different aspects in which truths, and religious truths especially, are sure to present themselves to different minds;" his near approach to the allowance of the validity of Presbyterian orders; his appeal to the Privy Council, and his deliverance by the scholastic subtleties respecting the soits intervention; his acceptance of a high called "Real Presence" in the Eucharist. office in the Moravian Church; his permis- It was his sermon on "National Apossion to dissenters to receive the Commu-tasy," in 1834, which Dr. Newman always nion sitting. Keble hmself, as he pro- regarded as the birthday of the Oxford ceeds, seems to warm with Bishop Wilson's High Church movement - the "National own warmth towards the " despised eigh-Apostasy" being the suppression of the ten teenth century," marked by "the move- Irish bishoprics, of which its author lived ment of the great and good men who had to take so different a view that, if we may formed the Societies for the "Propagation accept the whispered approbation * of the Gospel, the Promotion of Christian veyed to Dr. Newman in 1865, he at last Knowledge, and the Reformation of Man- acquiesced without a murmur in the supners." pression of the whole Establishment.

most fantastic interpretations of the Fathers, he rejected, without examination, without thought, the inquiries of scholars, the most deeply learned in Hebrew and Biblical lore that Christendom has ever seen, declining to consider any variations from the received view of Biblical inspiration as proceeding from "men too wicked to be reasoned with." Whilst advocating to the last the extremely lax view of the Articles on behalf of the High Church school as expressed in Tract XC., he was sternly opposed to any relaxation of subscription in any direction which might favour other views than his own. His powerful mind was for years absorbed in the revival of

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It is not for the disparagement of a sacred and venerable memory that we have noticed these theological extremes in the author of the "Christian Year." It is in order to show what would be the results to the English Church of the series of legal prosecutions and judgments of late set on foot and threatened by one ecclesiastical party against the other. These prosecutions, from whichever side they start, have in common one most unpleasing and ungenerous peculiarity. Professing to wish to ascertain the law of the Church of England on some disputed doctrine, they choose for

Again, if, in Keble's published letters, there is an almost total absence of the world-wide strength and originality of Arnold, or the pungent wit and fire of Whately, there is yet a saintly simplicity and sweetness in even the most trivial of them, which disarms criticism and wins attention even where the matter itself deserves attention. Even in his remarks on the ritual questions which now so much agitate the ecclesiastical world, and were beginning to do so before his death, it is impossible not to be struck by his moderation and forbearance.

But not the less is it true that he embraced, in all their rigidity, the peculiar views which marked the Oxford movement of 1834. The letters which touch on those matters rarely move beyond this orbit. On these grounds he broke off intercourse with Arnold, in spite of Arnold's own solemn remonstrance, though, with a happy inconsistency, he renewed a kindly connexion after the heat of the first agitation had passed away. With a curious mixture of humanity and unconscious arrogance, whilst he accepted without scruple the

See the humorous but painful description of dealing with the poor idiot penitent, vol. i. p. 298. †There are two or three exceptions, as, for example, the description of Arnold's" merry defiant moods in his younger days: "-"He only cackles and crows at anything anybody can say to him.” — P. 131.

The passage is somewhat ambiguous. Dr. Newman (in his Letter, p. 518) seems to say that, "Had he been a member of the University of Oxford, he must have voted against Mr. Gladstone, because he was giving up the Irish Establishment." On this Keble whispered in his ear (he cannot recollect the exact words, but he took them to be), And is not that just?" An earlier passage (p. 512) might sug gest some doubt as to whether this really was his "Might not what says about the Irish Church have somewhat the effect of a firebrand? I should have thought it discreet not to put the matter forward so prominently, unless a man saw his way to the mending of it." Besides the temporary interest of these passages, it is worth while to quote them as showing how small in Keble's eyes had in 1865 become the offence which in 1834 he regarded as "apostasy," and which had given the impetus to the whole movement of the "Tracts for the Times." These extreme oscillations of view are remarkable. Whilst they convey consolation to alarmists of all kinds, they show an instability of view not uncommon in all theological controversy, and seriously detracting from the oracular value of Keble's utterances.

the case in which to try it some person or from the pale of the Church of England. circumstance which presents the matter, We ask, without fear of contradiction, Is not in the most abstract or inoffensive form, there any English Churchman - nay, we such as would really tend to the discovery might almost say, is there any English Nonof truth and law in its clearest, calmest conformist who would not have regretted aspect, but in the most exaggerated and ex- such a consummation? What would the citing shape, such is most likely to raise a Church of England have gained by losing from its ranks one of its most distinguished luminaries- one who has done more than any other man in our generation to endear its devotions to the nation? What would the country have gained, what would the lamented and respected victim himself have gained, by becoming the member, perhaps the leader perhaps even the bishop-of a small exclusive bitter sect, which would have exaggerated all those inferior qualities which we have felt bound to notice, and

cloud of passion and prejudice-capable, if it be possible, of obscuring the atmosphere even of the most serene tribunal. And the effect is that, whilst it is but a "vile body" in which "the experiment" is made, the hostile conclusion sought to be arrived at would strike right and left at conscientious and scrupulous minds, too generous to turn aside from a brother in distress, too high-minded to avoid applying to themselves what was, in the first instance, meant for another. Thus, Mr. Gorham, dwarfed all those lofty qualities which have with a somewhat peculiar tinge of Calvinis- made his poetry and his character a treastic opinion, was to be made the engine ure of the whole nation? It may be that which was to expel the whole Evangelical these sinister internecine struggles of party party. Thus, Dr. Williams and Mr. Wil- against party will succeed in their attempt. son, labouring under the accumulated odium There are many expressions in Articles and of the 66 'Essays and Reviews," and the Rubrics which, if taken literally, would exBishop of Natal, suffering from the extra- clude every eminent man in the Church of ordinary personal virulence excited in some England from its ministrations. Di meliora degree by some needlessly trenchant ex- piis. Let us hope that these miserable pressions of his own, have been made the efforts to narrow the National Church on objects of attacks which, if the truth or either side may meet with their deserved falsehood of the doctrine and principles frustration. Let us hope that the Supreme were at issue, must include in their range Court of Appeal, if indeed the litigation persons whom, for various reasons, no one should ever reach that point, will act as a ventures to assail. bulwark of liberty to those who have eagerly sought to restrain true freedom, as to those who have thankfully availed themselves of it. The point in dispute between the two parties is one which admits of no settlement, so long as they each insist on using scholastic words which have lost their meaning, or Biblical words which they have never defined. By taking the system as a whole-by balancing one part with another, by the forbearance which in private life all gentlemen and all Christians feel bound to exercise towards each other-the Church of England can still be maintained as a Catholic and as a national institution. Let us hope that in some future age there may yet, as far as our institutions are concerned, be room for another Arnold, another Milman, another Keble, to admire and revere each other, in the same Church, as at least by two of them the third was admired and revered.

――

Thus, in the present case, the batteries have been opened against an eccentric clergymen in Somersetshire, whose bald statements may have accidentally laid him open to assaults which, if they are sincerely aimed not against the person but the doctrine, must include not to speak of great living names - the venerable author of the "Christian Year." The "Real Presence" in the Sacrament whatever those two most ambiguous words may mean and 66 the adoration" of that Real Presence- - whatever that third equally ambiguous word may mean was held by John Keble, if ever it was held by any one. It is true that he thought that there was no difference between saying, "Not in the hands but in the heart," or, "In the hands and not in the heart; " but this only proves, if it proves anything, the entirely futile character of the whole logomachy. If a judgment had been pronounced in his lifetime which had rendered it penal for an English clergyman to profess his belief in the Real Presence in the Eucharist, and in the lawfulness and duty of adoring that Real Presence, John Keble, if any man, would have been struck at, and excluded

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These three men, amongst the departed lights of the English hierarchy in this century, were unquestionably the chief. Of these three, as of those other three whose*

See the very interesting letter by Dr. Newman

describing the interview between himself, Koble, and Dr. Pusey at Hursley. (Memoir of Keble, p. 520.)

:

last meeting is recorded in this volume, the | Or, as his biographer feelingly adds in
thought arises in a still stronger and more Keble's own words:
significant form, as was expressed by Keble
after that singular meeting and parting:

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MR. SYKES obtained leave last week to bring in a Bill for the preservation of seagulls and other sea-birds from wanton destruction, by making the slaughter of them during the breeding months, namely, between the 1st May and the 1st August, a penal offence against the law, except for the bona fide purpose of being used as food. He stated that the wanton shooting of these birds, merely for the sake of shooting them, or for the sake of their feathers, not for food, in the breeding months, has already to a considerable extent deprived the English coast of its sea-fowl, and that the East Riding of Yorkshire especially, and all the maritime counties of England to some extent, are really suffering from their destruction. Their disappearance injures three great interests, that of the farmers, the sailors, and the fishers, the sea-gulls serving the tillers of the soil in maritime counties by following the track of the plough in early spring and picking from the soil the grubs and worms, serving the merchantmen in dark and misty weather by warning them by their screams of the approach to a rocky coast long before a signal gun could be heard or a beacon light seen, so that near Flamborough Head they are called "the Flamborough pilots," and serving the fishers by congregating in clouds above a shoal of fish, and so guiding the fishermen to their proper field of work. In the name of these interests, therefore, Mr. Sykes appealed to the House to protect the sea-birds in breeding time, just as salmon, partridges, pheasants, and other game are protected in breeding time by our game laws; but he added that though he brought forward his Bill mainly on the ground of the usefulness of these birds to man, he thought it had sufficient ground to rest upon on merely humanitarian grounds as well. This last hint of Mr. Sykes's opens a very interesting discussion as to the political du

From The Spectator.

ties of men towards the lower tribes of ani

MONS.

THE SEA-GULLS IN THE HOUSE OF COM-mals, which are, at best, very indirectly
and accidentally represented in the House
of Commons, if at all. It is fortunate for
the sea-birds that they can establish a cer-
tain amount of identity of tangible interests
with farmers, sailors, and fishermen, for the
voices of farmers, sailors, and fishermen
will count for a good deal in the House, if
there be no organized hostile interest.
But how far would there be a reasonable
and just claim on behalf of these creatures,
if no such subtle tie could be discovered
between their interests and ours?
Can we
go so far as to say that every kind of living
creature has a certain claim upon the pro-
tection of the State unless its existence can
either be shown to be harmful to man, or
its destruction can be shown to be useful to
him? That we have a right to kill sharks
which eat us, and for the matter of that,
even bottle-nosed whales, if they really run
away with the herrings and other fishes
which our fishermen catch and all of us like
to eat, is not, we suppose, disputable.
That, for the same reasons, we may fairly
protect the sea-gulls on the ground that
they destroy worms and grubs which injure
our corn and root-crops, that is, on the
ground that they compete for existence
with other living creatures which are, un-
less their multiplication is so checked, posi-
tively injurious to man, is also, we suppose,
indisputable. But, so far, the argument
for sparing them rests solely on their ten-
dency to contribute to our benefit, or at
least their tendency to contribute relatively
more to our benefit, than the creatures upon
which they feed, and the numbers of which
would be more or less fostered by their de-
struction. But can we safely go any fur-
ther, and say with Mr. Sykes, that on
purely humanitarian grounds, there is a
fair case against their destruction? In the
case at least of all creatures which prey
upon other creatures, all birds, for in-
stance, which live on fish, and insects, and
worms, is it tenable to say that they have
any absolute claim on our protection, when

"When before the Judgment-seat,

Though changed, and glorified each face,
Not unremember'd ye may meet,
For endless ages to embrace."

A. P. S.

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in reality that protection means withholding | of sea-birds has any kind of bonâ fide justiprotection from the creatures which they fication on the ground that they live on destroy? If their animal tissues are solely other creatures. Those who destroy them supported out of other animal tissues, the for the sake of a mark to practise their quantity of life will perhaps not be greater skill upon, of course never for a moment if they are preserved than if they are de- even think of the prey that escape in constroyed; the only difference will be in the sequence of the birds' destruction. All distribution of life between different tribes they think of is the pleasure of the act of of animals; and, if the number of individual destruction itself, or at best, the pleasure centres of enjoyment counts for anything, of the skill which is exercised in the act of it may fairly be maintained that as one destruction. If the latter be the motive, it oyster-catcher must catch a great many fish is precisely the same as the motive of in order to support its own life, a plausible sportsmen in general, except so far as the humanitarian argument could be made out sportsman does intend to use what he kills for the slaughter of such birds of prey. for food. But then even the sportsman Will any one be bold enough to say which recognizes that there is a point where his has the most moral claim on man's protec- sport may become wanton, and that tion, the pelican, or the host of fishes with point is where he destroys a great deal which, during his term of life, he fills and more life by his exercise of skill than is at refills his pouch? Can we even go so far all involved in the special shot, if, for as to establish an equation between the instance, by shooting in the breeding season claim on us of ten thousand worms and one he destroys not only the partridge he shoots robin redbreast? If we trust the plan of at, but all the nest of young partridges as nature as a whole, there may be a pruden- well. It may be said that the limitations tial argument against disturbing, blindly, imposed by the game laws are imposed the 'natural' balance between one existing solely as a protection to the amusement, tribe of living creatures and another on not for the sake of the creatures themselves which the former feeds, without knowing or at all, only lest the sport should fail by in any way forecasting the results. It may the failure of the breeds which the sportsbe said that we are in danger of interfering man pursues. And this may be more or with a balance of life that is more likely to less true in fact. Still we believe that be favourable to us than not, seeing that so there is a still more important and legitimany wanton interferences with it have mate political motive in these provisionsturned out really hurtful to ourselves, -as to curb the wantonness and wastefulness of in the case, for instance, of the wholesale man for the sake of curbing it, and not slaughter of small birds. But can we go solely for the sake of protecting the source higher than this, and find any really human- of his amusements. Every man who enitarian ground for protecting a tribe of ani- tails perfectly needless suffering by a shot, mals from destruction, apart from calcula- who sacrifices not only the individual bird tions of prudence as regards our own in- aimed at, but also five or six others, — and terests ? that perhaps in a very miserable way, by starving them to death, is fostering a sort of artificial contempt for the life of the creatures beneath him, which is likely enough to end in contempt for other higher creatures of his own species. It may be right to say that human skill and capacity for field sport are of more importance than the individual lives of birds, or other animals which are taken in training it. But it seems to us quite certain that, even in sport, there ought to be a certain consideration for the creatures sacrificed, that all unnecessary pain and injury should be sedulously avoided, and that it is a worthy political object even to curb the almost insolent wastefulness to which men are much more

One step higher we think we can go, though we admit at once that we are utterly unable to measure the relative claims of different kinds of animals to our protection, until at least they reach a level high enough to be associated in some degree with man by common sympathies, and a sort of mutual regard. Every one feels that in the case of the horse, and the dog, and all domestic animals that attach themselves to man, there arises a certain amount of moral claim upon us, though one very inferior in kind to any corresponding claim of human beings. But without approaching this level, we think we may lay it down that, quite apart from mere prudential regard to human interests, it is a just and wise political object liable in following out their enjoyments, to curb the wanton and wasteful impulses than in prosecuting the duties of their ordiof men, however displayed. It is impossi-nary life. ble to contend that the wholesale slaughter

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CHAPTER VII.

NOT EASILY DIGESTED BY ONE OF THE GUESTS.

Ir Claus had heard in prison that Sonnenkamp had bought another country-house, he would certainly have exclaimed,

"Yes, indeed. Of course he'll buy up the whole Rhineland yet." But he learned nothing of it.

The legal inquiry was protracted, and the Judge was sufficiently well disposed to draw up new papers for the interrogation of Eric and Roland at the villa; yet this unpleasant occurrence interrupted the course of instruction more than one could have believed.

Entertainments also were not wanting, for Roland one day announced to Eric: :"Count Wolfsgarten is to give a grand fête; father and mother are rejoiced; and you and I are also invited."

66

Sonnenkamp was very well satisfied with Pranken for having brought this about; Eric's cooperation was no longer of any account. It was settled with Pranken, that Clodwig, who was the most influential member of the Committee for conferring nobility, should be gained over to favor the object now exclusively occupying their attention, and induced to take actively the initiative.

Sonnenkamp stood before his armory, and before the large money-safe built into the walls; here were many potent agencies, but they were of no help in this matter, where personal influence alone availed. He was despondent for a short time; then he proudly drew himself up, thinking that he had already succeeded in other undertakings, and here also there would not be wanting to him the requisite means.

He had a severe contest with Frau Ceres on the day they were to go to the fete; she wanted to wear all her jewelry to dinner, and even Fräulein Perini could not divert her from her purpose, by representing how irrefragably settled it was that no diamonds should be worn by daylight. Frau Ceres wept like a little child, and she preferred to remain at home if this pleasure was begrudged her.

Sonnenkamp entreated her to dress plainly, and not annoy the Countess by wearing jewels worth twenty times what she herself possessed; and it was promised her, that at the next fete given at the house, she might appear in full costume.

will send a messenger to Wolfsgarten immediately, to inform them that you will remain at home."

But Frau Ceres persisted in saying that she would not accompany them if she could not wear her jewels.

"Well, then," said Sonnenkamp, "I

He had a groom sent for at once, and gave him orders to saddle a horse, in order to ride immediately to Wolfsgarten. He went off. Frau Ceres' look followed him with a very angry glance; she was then the miserable child who must remain at home, when all the rest were going to the fete. After a time, she hastened to Sonnenkamp's room, and announced that she would go with them in the way they desired.

Sonnenkamp regretted that he had already sent the messenger off, and now Frau Ceres besought him, with tears, to send a second messenger announcing her coming. Sonnenkamp asserted that this was no longer possible, but finally yielded. He went himself to the stables, and had nothing further to do than to say to the groom,

66

Take off the saddle!" for he had not sent him away, knowing that Frau Ceres would, after a while, beseech him like a child.

They drove to Wolfsgarten. Frau Bella was extremely glad to be able to welcome the Cabinetsräthin; she was very amiable, and looked to-day lovelier than ever. She had a friendly word for everybody, and she was especially gracious to Eric. She thought that, at his last visit, he seemed to be a little out of tune, and she wished now to dissipate any such feeling by exhibiting a decided preference.

Eric received the friendly attention gratefully, but very coldly, as the sharp-eyed woman did not fail to perceive.

Sonnenkamp, who had quick perception, held his breath as a hunter does, when the game comes within range of his shot. Indeed, thought he, they know how to play a good game! The reputation of this house for virtue had hitherto weighed upon him somewhat, but now he moved about with a sort of home feeling.

It was a little court assembled here, and the etiquette, though savoring of rural freedom, was not the less precise. A large number of prominent personages were collected, and the fact was the more striking, because they were brought together from scattered points of country life; it was a group of separate and independent individuals drawn hither from their retirement. The larger portion were officers who had retired on pensions, or been honorably discharged from the service; there were red, yellow, and blue ribbons of different orders modestly tied in the button-holes; the old gentlemen had their hair carefully dressed, and their beards freshly colored;

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