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passeth away, and the lust thereof: but he that doeth the will of God abideth for ever!"
4. When living in constant preparation for our final departure. Hear again the apostle, "I am now ready to be offered, and the time of my departure is at hand." He was not only conscious that his end was near, but he had indubitable testimony that he was prepared for it, in whatever form it might appear. The fire, the gibbet, the rack, the block could not daunt him. In holy triumph, and in view of the martyr's crown, he could exclaim, “O death, where is thy sting! O grave, where is thy victory!" Sin, the sting of death, was destroyed, and grace enabled him to exult over the last enemy, as if that enemy was a vanquished foe. The "king of terrors" could not have found him unprepared.
How tranquil and elevated must be the state of such as are constantly living in readiness and with earnest expectation for their final change! They have even conquered their last enemy. Death has lost its sting! The "valley and shadow of death" is now viewed as the gate to endless joy. When I pass through it, "I will fear no evil. His rod and his staff shall go with me.” Unutterable glories now begin to burst forth; pains, afflictions, persecutions, wants, distresses, and sickness may have been their portion here, but they now look just across "Death's cold flood," and behold the ineffable glo
ries of the "better land." How enviable must be such a state! They are "servants waiting for the coming of their Lord, whom when he cometh, he shall bid go into the wedding and sit down to meat."
But though the Christian is prepared to die, yet he should not be impatient, nor even wish to die, while Providence protracts his existence. This world is the place for Christians to live in until their release is granted. When they are prepared to die, they are then just prepared to live. Christians are not saved from sin that they might be taken immediately to heaven, but that for a season they might "so let their light shine before men, that others seeing their good works may be led to glorify their Father which is in heaven."
I pray not," said Jesus, "that thou shouldest take them out of the world, but that thou shouldest keep them from the evil" in the world. Are you, Christian reader, living in constant readiness for death? If so, then you are prepared for usefulness while "the lamp holds out to burn." You are also "walking by faith." This will enable you to pass triumphantly "the narrow flood." It will enable you also to exclaim, when on life's utmost verge, with the pious Bishop M'Kendree, "All is well!" life's trials and sufferings are now lost in the effulgence of heavenly bliss. O glorious prospect of sharing for ever the glories of an eternal heaven!
III. The superior advantages of those who walk by faith to those who walk by sight.
Some of these advantages have already appeared. But we will here notice some points not particularly noticed under the preceding divisions.
1. Those who walk by faith have an inward and abiding testi
mony of their acceptance with God. They are enabled to say with confidence, that "the Spirit itself beareth witness with our spirit that we are the children of God:" and also, that "God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into our hearts, whereby we cry, Abba, Father." All doubts and fears respecting their heirship now disappear. The attestation of the divine Spirit to their consciences leaves the indubitable assurance that they are "heirs of God, and joint heirs with Jesus Christ." They therefore have the utmost evidence of their adoption which they can possibly have: they have the Spirit of God witnessing with their own spirits to this fact. Nor is this testimony momentary or evanescent; so long as they walk by faith, it is permanent and abiding. Day by day they feel this inward testimony. They have now in possession what they could not have attained by logical argument or human hypothesis. The Holy Spirit in the soul of the believer is God's seal; and this teaches what human philosophy or reasoning is wholly inadequate to teach. This assurance must be experienced or never known.
How different with those who walk by sight? They have no assurance of their adoption. All is doubt and fear. They feel not that spirit whereby they can cry "Abba, Father!" O, will you any longer walk by sight! Will you go in darkness, while you may walk in the light of the Sun of righteousness!
2. They are enabled to rejoice and triumph in the day of adversity. "For our light affliction, which is but for a moment, worketh for us a far more exceeding and eternal weight of glory; while we look not at the things which are seen," i. e., walk by sight, "but at the things which are not seen," i. e., walk by faith, "for the things which are seen are temporal; but the things which are not seen are eternal." God never permits tribulation to befall his people which they are not able to bear. "My grace is sufficient for thee," is an unchangeable truth. But he not only assures his followers that they shall have grace to support them under all their trials, but that they shall rejoice under their heaviest afflictions. "Patient in tribulation; rejoicing in hope." While walking by faith, the Christian is enabled to see the end of all his afflictions. They often wean us from the world, and fix our affections on "nobler things." If God permits us to hunger, it is that we may more clearly see his mercy in providing us with the necessaries of life. Privations in the way of providence are precursors of great blessings which will soon follow. Thine afflictions will soon "bring forth the peaceable fruits of righteousness." "Endure as seeing Him who is invisible," and soon you will know why you have been thus afflicted. "God is his own interpreter, and he will make it plain."
It is far otherwise with those who walk by sight. In the day of adversity they find themselves cast down and forsaken. They say, "God is a hard master, reaping where he has not sown, and gathering where he has not strewed." How dreadful the state of such! In death no support; and all beyond dark and gloomy. O live no longer according to the "flesh!"
3. And lastly, Those who walk by faith are living in constant expectation of future glory. Faith enables them to behold the infinite beatitudes of the future world, "as through a glass darkly." They have an earnest or pledge of their inheritance, 66 a pledge of joys to come." They are living on the shore of the "river" over
which they are soon to pass, and beyond which they behold the full blaze of endless felicity. O happy condition! emphasis exclaim,
They can with
"On all the grov'ling kings of earth,
But how deplorable the condition of such as walk by sight! Sight carries them not beyond this world. "They are of all men the most miserable." Faith alone can unfold the glories of the better world. O seek this! live and walk by it; and soon thou shalt sit down with Jesus on his throne, as he, having overcome, is set down with the Father on his throne. Hallelujah! The Lord God Omnipotent reigneth! And his children, those who walk by faith, shall reign with him for ever and ever!
ART. VIII-A BRIEF VIEW OF THE CAUSES OF THE EXISTING PREJUDICES AGAINST CLASSICAL LEARNING.
BY CHARLES H. LYON,
Associate Principal of the Irving Institute, Tarrytown, New-York.
THE following is an able vindication of the cause of classical learning, which in this country has for some time been falling into comparative neglect. An essay to discover the causes of this, is worthy of the best minds of our literati. And such seems to be the object of Professor Moore, whose lectures are reviewed in the article we now offer to the public. That the author has furnished some of the causes we have no doubt. Of others introduced by him we express no decided opinion. Both the work reviewed and the review are able productions, and place the cause they are intended to advocate in the strongest and most favorable point of light. Having, however, for ourselves, inclined to the side of the question favorable to utility, we are not prepared to receive implicitly all they say. We do not believe that the motives for commending a study of the sciences and arts-our own language and what may be learned by means of it only to the neglect of the ancient languages and ancient literature, have their origin in either ignorance or envy. The fact seems to be, that as only comparative attainments could be hoped to be made by the youth of this country, prudence would dictate to select such branches as might be most useful to students generally. This would imply a neglect of other branches, it is true, but not an opposition to them. But it must be admitted that a plea for a limited education, on the ground above named, very naturally assumes the ap. pearance of a direct opposition to what is at first left out of the catalogue as only less important than that which is retained. In this way, the cause of classical literature may be likely to suffer, VOL. IX.-April, 1838.
and finally fall into entire neglect, without some such friendly interposition to rescue it as is manifested by Dr. Moore and his reviewer. We cannot omit to remark, however, that the same danger with respect to other branches which we deem (we must be excused for expressing our partiality thus freely) of more importance, may lurk in the specious plea here offered for classical literature. While, then, we admit with much pleasure this splendid vindication of one side of the question, we invite some of the disciples of the illustrious Rush to an examination of the other. We are persuaded that such a discussion would be of use to the cause of literature in general, and would be both interesting and profitable to the readers of the Magazine and Review in particular.
"Lectures on the Greek Language and Literature." By N. F. MOORE, LL.D., Professor of the Greek and Latin Languages in Columbia College, New-York. Windt & Conrad: 1835.
In an age and country like ours, in which the value and importance of occupations are chiefly estimated by their emoluments, and the advantages of an avocation are seriously questioned, unless its results be immediate and sensible-in which even personal qualities and traits of character are prized according to their adaptation to the pursuit of gain, and intellectual culture itself finds its chief recommendation in the fact, that it is fitted to facilitate the acquisition of wealth-in such a state of public sentiment it is cheering to the friends of sound learning to find that the cause of classical literature is still not abandoned-that it is asserted and defended with undiminished zeal, and not without success. The public mind has not unfrequently been directed to this subject by the champions of good letters, and their efforts have been attended with beneficial results.
In the first lecture of the volume before us, the author has eloquently pleaded the cause of classical learning; and though his production be not the latest of its kind, we have no hesitation in pronouncing it one of the ablest defences of that neglected department of education that have yet appeared. Within the space of a single lecture, Professor Moore has comprised a variety and weight of argument in favor of ancient literature, which ought to obtain for it a higher regard, and secure to it a more prominent place in our systems of learning, than have hitherto been conceded. He has vindicated with great felicity the department of letters, to which he was long and ardently devoted by his profession, and the worth of which he justly appreciates. His reasoning is directed, not so much against the blind and indiscriminate hostility to the literature of antiquity manifested by some of its opposers, as against the more serious and plausible, but yet unfounded objections, preferred by some of the votaries of science.
"There are, indeed," he observes, "some points of view from which this subject has been less examined, and which, belonging as they do more especially to our own country, and the state of society among ourselves, may possess for us a greater interest, as well as some share of novelty. To these features of it I shall hereafter call your notice. For the present, my intention is to point out the
natural connection that subsists between science and letters, and attempt a vindication of those literary pursuits which seem to be everywhere falling into comparative neglect."
The intention thus avowed is satisfactorily accomplished. The intimate union between letters and science is clearly pointed out, and their interests are shown to be so blended-their destinies so linked together, that no one who is partial to the one can prudently or consistently assail the other. As it is not, however, our present purpose to discuss the merits of classical learning, or the reasonableness of its claim to a higher degree of favor than it now enjoys, we must forego the pleasure of introducing and commenting upon the arguments of our author. We have placed the title of his work at the head of this article, with the view of inquiring into the causes of the "comparative neglect" of ancient literature, which is justly complained of.
That there does exist among us a deep-seated and growing prejudice against the study of this literature-that it is considered by many an unnecessary element in the education of youth, and by some as even positively injurious in its tendency, are facts too obvious, and confirmed by too many indications, to require any illustration. We are by no means to infer, however, that such facts are in themselves evidence of the little importance due to those studies. This would be to prejudge the question. It has been well observed in another country, and is equally true in our own, that "the only melancholy manifestation in the opposition now raised to the established course of classical instruction is not the fact of such opposition, but that arguments in themselves so futile should not have been wholly harmless. If such attacks have had their influence on the public mind, this affords only another proof: not that ancient literature is with us studied too much, but that it is studied far too little."
If we trace to its source this hostility to letters, (which is, indeed, variously modified by local causes,) it will be found to be implanted in the constitution of our nature. There are certain descriptions of character in which it is inherent, and from which it cannot be eradicated. Those who possess it as a birth-right cherish it as such. Every plant is the spontaneous growth of its congenial soil, and it is not to be expected that the noxious sort should form an exception to this law. The peculiarity of constitution, however, which more than any other gives birth to this prejudice, consists in that unequal combination and one-sided development of the faculties in which the active predominate over the contemplative. This condition is indeed to some extent the result of education, and is so far to be regarded, not as a cause of hostility to the studies in question, but as a consequence, rather, of neglecting them. We speak of it, however, only so far as it is natural and inherent. Where it exists independently of education, it is a necessary cause of partiality for the practical pursuits, and of aversion to the intellectual. The reverse of this condition, which also sometimes occurs, gives rise to the opposite extreme a preference for literary avocations, and a distaste for the active pursuits. Though both extremes are but the proofs of an imperfectly formed mind, (and therefore to be deplored,) yet the former exists more extensively than the latter, and is far more injurious in its tendency.
It was this disproportion in the original combination and subse