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Add now, to make this fecond Fruit of FriendShip complete, that other Point, which lieth more open, and falleth within vulgar Obfervation; which is Faithful Counsel from a Friend. Heraclitus faith well, in one of his Enigmas; Dry Light is ever the best. And certain it is, that the Light, that a man receiveth, by Counsel from another, is drier, and purer, than that which cometh from his own Understanding, and Judgement; which is ever infufed and drenched in his Affections and Cuf toms. So as, there is as much difference, between the Counsel, that a Friend giveth, and that a Man giveth himself, as there is between the Counsel of a Friend, and of a Flatterer. For there is no fuch Flatterer, as is a Man's Self; and there is no fuch Remedy, against Flattery of a Man's Self, as the Liberty of a Friend. Counfel is of two forts; the one concerning Manners, the other concerning Bufinefs. For the First; the best Preservative to keep the Mind in Health, is the faithful Admonition of a Friend. The calling of a Man's Self to a ftrict Account, is a Medicine, fometime, too piercing and corrofive. Reading good Books of Morality, is a little flat, and dead. Obferving our Faults in others, is fometimes improper for our cafe. But the best Receipt (beft, I say, to work, and beft to take) is the Admonition of a Friend. It is a strange thing to behold, what grofs Errors, and extreme Abfurdities, many (especially of the greater Sort) do commit, for want of a Friend, to tell them of them; to the great damage, both of their Fame and Fortune. For as S. James faith;


They look fometimes into a Glafs, and presently forget their own Shape and Favour. As for Business, a Man may think, if he will, that two Eyes fee no more than one; or that a Gamefter feeth always more than a Looker on; or that a Man in Anger, is as Wife as he, that hath said over the four and twenty Letters; or that a Musket may be shot off, as well upon the Arm, as upon a Reft; and fuch other fond and high Imaginations, to think himself all in all. But when all is done, the Help of good Counsel, is that which fetteth Business straight. And if any Man think that he will take Counsel, but it fhall be by pieces; asking Counsel in one Bufiness of one man, and in another Business of another man; it is well, (that is to say, better perhaps than if he asked none at all ;) but he runneth two dangers: one, that he shall not be faithfully counselled; for it is a rare Thing except it be from a perfect and entire Friend, to have Counsel given, but fuch as fhall be bowed and crooked to fome ends, which he hath that giveth it. The other, that he shall have Counsel given, hurtful, and unsafe, (though with good meaning) and mixt, partly of Mischief, and partly of Remedy: Even as if you would call a Physician, that is thought good, for the Cure of the Disease, you complain of, but is unacquainted with your body; and therefore, may put you in way for a prefent Cure, but overthroweth your Health in some other kind; and so fo cure the Disease, and kill the Patient. But a Friend, that is wholly acquainted with a man's estate, will beware by furthering any present Business, how he

dasheth upon other Inconvenience. And therefore, reft not upon scattered Counsels: they will rather diftract, and mislead, than fettle, and direct.

After these two noble Fruits of Friendship; (Peace in the Affections, and Support of the Judgement,) followeth the last Fruit; which is like the Pomegranate, full of many kernels; I mean Aid, and bearing a Part, in all Actions and Occafions. Here, the best way, to represent to life the manifold use of Friendship, is to cast and fee, how many things there are, which a Man cannot do himself; and then it will appear, that it was a sparing Speech of the Ancients, to fay, That a Friend is another himself: For that a Friend is far more than himfelf. Men have their time, and die many times in defire of some things, which they principally take to Heart; the bestowing of a Child, the finishing of a Work, or the like. If a Man have a true Friend, he may reft almoft fecure, that the Care

of those things, will continue after him. So that a man hath as it were two Lives in his defires. A Man hath a Body, and that Body is confined to a Place; but where Friendship is, all Offices of Life, are as it were granted to him, and his deputy. For he may exercise them by his Friend, How many things are there, which a Man cannot, with any face or comeliness, fay or do himself? A Man can fcarce allege his own Merits with modefty, much lefs extol them: A Man cannot sometimes brook to fupplicate or beg: And a number of the like. But all these things, are graceful in a Friend's Mouth, which are blushing in a Man's own.



again, a Man's person hath many proper Relations, which he cannot put off. A Man cannot speak to his Son, but as a Father; to his Wife, but as a Husband; to his Enemy, but upon Terms: Whereas a Friend may fpeak, as the cafe requires, and not as it forteth with the perfon. But to enumerate these things were endless: I have given the Rule, where a Man cannot fitly play his own Part: If he have not a Friend, he may quit the stage.

XXVIII. Of Expense.

ICHES are for Spending; and Spending for Honour and good Actions. Therefore extraordinary Expenfe must be limited by the worth of the occafion: For voluntary Undoing may be as well for a Man's Country, as for the Kingdom of Heaven. But ordinary Expenfe ought to be limited by a man's Eftate; and governed with fuch regard, as it be within his compass; and not fubject to Deceit and Abuse of Servants; and ordered to the best Shew, that the Bills may be lefs, than the Eftimation abroad. Certainly, if a Man will keep but of Even Hand, his ordinary Expenfes ought to be, but to the Half of his Receipts; and if he think to wax Rich, but to the third part. It is no Baseness, for the Greateft, to defcend and look, into their own Eftate. Some forbear it, not upon Negligence alone, but doubting to bring themselves into Melancholy,


in respect they shall find it broken. But Wounds cannot be cured without fearching. He that cannot look into his own Estate at all, had need both choose well those whom he employeth, and change them often: For New are more timorous, and less fubtile. He that can look into his Estate but feldom, it behoveth him to turn all to certainties. A Man had need, if he be plentiful, in some kind of Expenfe, to be as faving again, in fome other. As if he be plentiful in Diet, to be saving in Apparel : if he be plentiful in the Hall, to be saving in the Stable: And the like. For he that is plentiful in Expenfes of all kinds, will hardly be preserved from decay. In clearing of a Man's Eftate, he may as well hurt himself in being too sudden, as in letting it run on too long. For hafty Selling is commonly as disadvantageable as intereft. Befides, he that clears at once, will relapse; for finding himself out of Straights, he will revert to his Cuftoms: But he that cleareth by Degrees, induceth a Habit of Frugality, and gaineth as well upon his Mind, as upon his Estate. Certainly, who hath a State to repair, may not despise small things: And commonly, it is less dishonourable, to abridge petty Charges, than to stoop to petty gettings. A Man ought warily to begin Charges which once begun will continue: but in Matters that return not, he may be more magnificent.

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