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that are, as it were, forgotten, who many times, nevertheless, prove the beft. The Illiberality of Parents, in allowance towards their Children, is an harmful Error; makes them bafe; acquaints them with Shifts; makes them fort with mean Company; and makes them furfeit more, when they come to Plenty: And therefore, the Proof is beft, when Men keep their Authority towards their Children, but not their Purfe. Men have a foolish manner (both Parents, and Schoolmasters, and Servants) in creating and breeding an Emulation between Brothers, during Childhood, which many times forteth to Difcord, when they are Men; and disturbeth Families. The Italians make little difference between Children, and Nephews, or near Kinsfolk; but fo they be of the Lump, they care not, though they pass not through their own Body. And, to fay Truth, in Nature, it is much a like matter; In fo much that we fee a Nephew, fometimes, resembleth an Uncle, or a Kinsman, more than his own Parent; as the Blood happens. Let Parents choose betimes, the Vocations and Courses, they mean their Children should take ; for then they are most flexible: And let them not too much apply themselves to the disposition of their Children, as thinking they will take best to that, which they have moft Mind to. It is true, that if the Affection, or Aptness of the Children, be extraordinary, then it is good not to cross it : But generally the Precept is good; Optimum elige, fuave et facile illud faciet Confuetudo. Younger Brothers are commonly fortunate; but seldom or never, where the Elder are difinherited.

viii. Of Marriage and Single Life.

E that hath Wife and Children, hath given Hoftages to Fortune; for they are Impediments to great Enterprises, either of Virtue, or Mischief. Certainly, the best Works, and of greatest Merit for the Public, have proceeded from the unmarried, or Childless Men; which, both in Affection, and Means, have married and endowed the Public. Yet it were great Reason, that those that have Children, fhould have greatest Care of future Times; unto which, they know, they must tranfmit their dearest Pledges. Some there are, who though they lead a Single Life, yet their Thoughts do end with themselves, and account future Times, Impertinences. Nay, there are fome other, that account Wife and Children, but as Bills of Charges. Nay more, there are some foolish rich covetous Men, that take a pride in having no Children, because they may be thought fo much the richer. For perhaps they have heard some talk; Such an one is a great rich Man; And another except to it; Yea, but he hath a great Charge of Children: As if it were an Abatement to his Riches. But the most ordinary cause of a Single Life, is Liberty; especially, in certain Self-pleafing, and humorous Minds, which are so fenfible of every Restraint,

as they will go near, to think their Girdles, and Garters, to be Bonds and Shackles. Unmarried Men are best Friends, best Masters, best Servants; but not always best Subjects: For they are light to run away; and almost all Fugitives are of that Condition. A Single Life doth well with Churchmen: For Charity will hardly water the Ground, where it must firft fill a Pool. It is indifferent for Judges and Magistrates: For if they be facile, and corrupt, you shall have a Servant, five times worse than a Wife. For Soldiers, I find the Generals commonly in their Hortatives, put Men in mind of their Wives and Children. And I think the Defpifing of Marriage, amongst the Turks, maketh the vulgar Soldier more base. Certainly, Wife and Children are a kind of Discipline of Humanity And Single Men, though they be many times more Charitable, because their Means are less exhaust; yet, on the other fide, they are more cruel, and hardhearted, (good to make severe Inquifitors); because their Tenderness is not fo oft called upon. Grave Natures, led by Custom, and therefore constant, are commonly loving Hufbands as was faid of Ulyffes; Vetulam fuam prætulit Immortalitati. Chafte Women are often proud, and froward, as presuming upon the Merit of their Chastity. It is one of the best Bonds, both of Chastity and Obedience, in the Wife, if fhe think her Husband wife; which she will never do, if she find him Jealous. Wives are young Men's Miftreffes; Companions for middle Age; and old Men's Nurfes. So as a Man may

have a

Quarrel to marry, when he will. But yet, he was reputed one of the wife Men, that made Answer to the Question; When a Man fhould marry? A Young Man not yet, an Elder Man not at all. It is often feen, that bad Husbands have very good Wives: Whether it be, that it raiseth the Price of their Hufbands' Kindness, when it comes; or that the Wives take a Pride, in their Patience. But this never fails, if the bad Hufbands were of their own choofing, againft their Friends' Confent: For then, they will be fure to make good their own Folly.

IX. Of Envy.

HERE be none of the Affections, which have been noted to fafcinate, or bewitch, but Love, and Envy. They both have vehement Wishes; they frame themselves readily into Imaginations, and Suggestions; and they come eafily into the Eye, especially upon the prefence of the Objects; which are the Points that conduce to Fafcination, if any fuch Thing there be. We fee likewise, the Scripture calleth Envy, An Evil Eye: And the Aftrologers call the evil Influences of the Stars, Evil Afpects; fo that ftill, there feemeth to be acknowledged, in the Act of Envy, an Ejaculation, or Irradiation of the Eye. Nay, fome have been fo curious as to note, that the Times, when the Stroke, or Percuffion of an Envious Eye doth most


hurt, are when the Party envied is beheld in Glory, or Triumph; for that fets an Edge upon Envy: And befides, at fuch times, the Spirits of the Perfon envied, do come forth most into the outward Parts, and fo meet the Blow.

But leaving these Curiofities, (though not unworthy to be thought on, in fit place,) we will handle, what Perfons are apt to Envy others; what Perfons are most subject to be envied themselves; and, what is the Difference between public, and private Envy.

A Man, that hath no Virtue in himself, ever envieth Virtue in others. For Men's Minds will either feed upon their own Good, or upon other's Evil; and who wanteth the one, will prey upon the other: And whofo is out of Hope to attain to another's Virtue, will feek to come at even hand, by depreffing another's Fortune.

A Man that is Bufy, and Inquifitive, is commonly Envious: For to know much of other Men's Matters, cannot be; because all that Ado may concern his own Eftate: Therefore it must needs be, that he taketh a kind of Play-pleasure in looking upon the Fortunes of others: Neither can he, that mindeth but his own Business, find much matter for Envy. For Envy is a Gadding Paffion, and walketh the Streets, and doth not keep home; Non eft Curiofus, quin idem fit Malevolus.

Men of Noble Birth, are noted to be envious towards New Men, when they rife; for the diftance is altered: And it is like a Deceit of the

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