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fo much is to be observed, for the most part, they omit it; as if Chance were fitter to be registered than Obfervation. Let Diaries, therefore, be brought in use. The Things to be feen and observed are: The Courts of Princes, specially when they give Audience to Ambaffadors: the Courts of Juftice, while they fit and hear Causes; and fo of Confiftories Ecclefiaftic: the Churches, and Monafteries, with the Monuments which are therein extant: the Walls and Fortifications of Cities and Towns; and fo the Havens and Harbours : Antiquities, and Ruins: Libraries; Colleges, Dif putations, and Lectures, where any are: Shipping and Navies: Houses, and Gardens of State, and Pleasure, near great Cities: Armories: Arsenals: Magazines: Exchanges: Burfes; Warehouses: Exercises of Horsemanship; Fencing; Training of Soldiers; and the like: Comedies; fuch whereunto the better Sort of perfons do refort; Treafuries of Jewels, and Robes; Cabinets, and Rarities : and to conclude, whatsoever is memorable in the Places, where they go. After all which, the Tutors, or Servants, ought to make diligent Enquiry. As for Triumphs; Masques; Feasts; Weddings; Funerals; Capital Executions; and fuch Shows; Men need not to be put in mind of them; yet are they not to be neglected. If you will have a Young Man to put his Travel into a little Room, and in short time to gather much, this you must do: First, as was faid, he must have fome Entrance into the Language, before he goeth: then he must have fuch a Servant, or Tutor, as knoweth the
Country, as was likewife faid. Let him carry with him alfo fome Card or Book describing the Country, where he travelleth; which will be a good Key to his Enquiry. Let him keep also a Diary. Let him not stay long in one City, or Town; more or less as the place deserveth, but not long: nay, when he stayeth in one City or Town, let him change his Lodging, from one End and Part of the Town to another; which is a great Adamant of Acquaintance. Let him fequefter himself from the Company of his Countrymen, and diet in fuch Places, where there is good Company of the Nation, where he travelleth. Let him upon his Removes, from one place to another, procure Recommendation, to some person of Quality, refiding in the Place, whither he removeth; that he may use his Favour, in those things, he defireth to fee or know. Thus he may abridge his Travel, with much profit. As for the acquaintance, which is to be fought in Travel; that which is moft of all profitable is Acquaintance with the Secretaries, and Employed Men of Ambaffadors; for fo in Travelling in one Country he fhall fuck the Experience of many. Let him alfo fee and visit Eminent Persons, in all Kinds, which are of great Name abroad; that he may be able to tell, how the Life agreeth with the Fame. For Quarrels, they are with Care and Discretion to be avoided: they are, commonly, for Mistresses; Healths; Place; and Words. And let a Man beware, how he keepeth Company with Choleric and Quarrelfome Perfons; for they will engage
him into their own Quarrels. When a Traveller returneth home, let him not leave the Countries, where he hath Travelled, altogether behind him; but maintain a Correfpondence, by letters, with thofe of his Acquaintance, which are of moft Worth. And let his Travel appear rather in his Discourse, than in his Apparel, or Gesture and in his Discourse, let him be rather advised in his Answers, than forward to tell Stories: and let it appear, that he doth not change his Country Manners for thofe of Foreign Parts; but only prick in fome Flowers, of that he hath learned abroad, into the Customs of his own Country.
XIX. Of Empire.
T is a miferable State of Mind, to have few Things to defire, and many Things to fear and yet that commonly is the Cafe of Kings: Who being at the higheft, want Matter of defire, which makes their Minds more languishing; and have many Reprefentations of Perils and Shadows, which makes their Minds the lefs clear. And this is one Reason alfo of that Effect, which the Scripture fpeaketh of; That the King's Heart is infcrutable. For Multitude of Jealoufies, and Lack of fome predominant Defire, that fhould marshal and put in order all the reft, maketh any Man's Heart, hard to find, or found. Hence it comes likewife, that
Princes, many times, make themselves Defires, and set their Hearts upon Toys: sometimes upon a Building: sometimes upon erecting of an Order; sometimes upon the advancing of a Person; sometimes upon obtaining Excellency in fome Art, or Feat of the Hand: as Nero for playing on the Harp, Domitian for Certainty of the Hand with the Arrow, Commodus for playing at Fence, Caracalla for driving Chariots, and the like. This feemeth incredible, unto those that know not the Principle; That the Mind of Man is more cheered and refreshed by profiting in small things, than by Standing at a stay in great. We fee also that Kings, that have been fortunate Conquerors in their first years, it being not poffible for them to go forward infinitely, but that they must have some Check or Arreft in their Fortunes, turn in their latter years to be superstitious and melancholy : as did Alexander the Great; Dioclefian; and in our memory, Charles the Fifth; and others: for he that is used to go forward, and findeth a Stop, falleth out of his own favour, and is not the thing he was. To speak now of the true Temper of Empire: It is a Thing rare, and hard to keep: For both Temper and Diftemper confift of Contraries. But it is one thing to mingle Contraries, another to interchange them. The answer of Apollonius to Vefpafian, is full of excellent Inftruction: Vefpafian asked him; What was Nero's overthrow? He anfwered; Nero could touch and tune the Harp well; but in Government sometimes he used to wind the Pins too high, fometimes to let
them down too low. And certain it is, that Nothing destroyeth Authority fo much, as the unequal and untimely Interchange of Power pressed too far, and relaxed too much.
This is true, that the Wisdom of all these latter Times in Princes' Affairs, is rather fine Deliveries, and Shiftings of Dangers and Mischiefs, when they are near; than folid and grounded Courses to keep them aloof. But this is but to try Masteries with Fortune. And let men beware, how they neglect, and fuffer Matter of Trouble, to be prepared: for no Man can forbid the Spark, nor tell whence it may come. The Difficulties in Princes' Bufinefs, are many and great; but the greatest Difficulty is often in their own Mind. For it is common with Princes, (faith Tacitus) to will Contradictories. Sunt plerumque Regum voluntates vehementes, et inter fe contraria. For it is the Solecifm of Power, to think to command the End, and yet not to endure the Mean.
Kings have to deal with their Neighbours, their Wives, their Children, their Prelates or Clergy, their Nobles, their Second Nobles or Gentlemen, their Merchants, their Commons, and their Men of War: And from all these arife Dangers, if Care and Circumfpection be not used.
First for their Neighbours; There can no general Rule be given, (the Occafions are fo variable,) fave one; which ever holdeth: which is, That Princes do keep due Sentinel, that none of their Neighbours do overgrow fo, (by increase of Territory, by embracing of Trade, by Approaches,