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or the like) as they become more able to annoy them, than they were. And this is, generally, the Work of Standing Counfels to foresee, and to hinder it. During that Triumvirate of Kings (King Henry the Eighth of England, Francis the First King of France, and Charles the Fifth Emperor), there was such a Watch kept, that none of the Three could win a Palm of Ground, but the other two would straightways balance it, either by Confederation, or, if need were, by a War: and would not, in any wife, take up Peace at Interest. And the like was done by that League (which, Guicciardini faith, was the Security of Italy) made between Ferdinando King of Naples; Lorenzius Medicis, and Ludovicus Sforza, Potentates, the one of Florence, the other of Milan. Neither is the Opinion, of fome of the Schoolmen, to be received; That a War cannot justly be made, but upon a precedent Injury, or Provocation. For there is no Question, but a just Fear of an imminent Danger, though there be no Blow given, is a lawful Caufe of a War.

For Wives; There are cruel Examples of them. Livia is infamed for the poisoning of her Hufband: Roxalana, Solyman's Wife, was the Deftruction of that renowned Prince, Sultan Mustapha; and otherwise troubled his Houfe, and Succeffion : Edward the Second of England, his Queen had the principal hand in the Depofing and Murder of her Husband. This kind of Danger is then to be feared, chiefly, when the Wives have Plots, for the raifing of their own Children, or else that they be Advoutreffes.

For their Children; The Tragedies likewise of Dangers from them, have been many. And generally, the Entering of Fathers into Suspicion of their Children, hath been ever Unfortunate. The Destruction of Mustapha, (that we named before) was fo fatal to Solyman's Line, as the Succeffion of the Turks, from Solyman, until this day, is sufpected to be untrue, and of strange Blood; for that Selymus the Second, was thought to be suppofititious. The Destruction of Crispus, a young Prince, of rare Towardness, by Conftantinus the Great, his Father, was in like manner fatal to his House; for both Conftantinus and Conftance, his Sons, died violent deaths; and Conftantius his other Son, did little better; who died, indeed, of Sickness, but after that Julianus had taken Arms against him. The Destruction of Demetrius, Son to Philip the Second, of Macedon, turned upon the Father, who died of Repentance. And many like Examples there are: but few, or none, where the Fathers had good by fuch Diftruft; except it were, where the Sons were up, in open Arms against them, as was Selymus the First against Bajazet: and the three Sons of Henry the Second, King of England.

For their Prelates; When they are proud and great, there is alfo Danger from them: as it was in the times of Anfelmus, and Thomas Becket, Archbishops of Canterbury; who with their Crofiers did almost try it with the King's Sword; and yet they had to deal with ftout and haughty Kings; William Rufus, Henry the First, and Henry the

Second. The Danger is not from that State, but where it hath a Dependence of foreign Authority; or where the Churchmen come in, and are elected, not by the Collation of the King, or particular Patrons, but by the People.

For their Nobles; To keep them at a diftance, it is not amifs; But to depress them, may make a King more Abfolute, but lefs Safe; and lefs able to perform any thing that he defires. I have noted it, in my History of King Henry the Seventh, of England, who depreffed his Nobility; whereupon, it came to pass, that his Times were full of Difficulties, and Troubles; for the Nobility, though they continued loyal unto him, yet did they not co-operate with him, in his Bufinefs. So that in effect, he was fain to do all things himself.

For their Second Nobles; There is not much Danger from them, being a Body dispersed. They may fometimes discourse high, but that doth little Hurt: befides, they are a Counterpoife to the Higher Nobility, that they grow not too Potent: and lastly, being the most immediate in Authority with the Common People, they do beft temper Popular Commotions.

For their Merchants; They are Vena Porta; and if they flourish not, a Kingdom may have good Limbs, but will have empty Veins, and nourish little. Taxes, and Impofts upon them, do feldom good to the King's Revenue; for that that he wins in the Hundred, he lofeth in the Shire; the particular Rates being increased, but the total Bulk of Trading rather decreased.

For their Commons; There is little Danger from them, except it be, where they have Great and Potent Heads; or where you meddle with the Point of Religion; or their Cuftoms, or Means of Life.

For their Men of War; It is a dangerous State, where they live and remain in a Body, and are ufed to Donatives; whereof we fee Examples in the Fanizaries, and Pretorian Bands of Rome: but Trainings of Men, and Arming them in feveral places, and under feveral Commanders, and without Donatives, are Things of Defence, and no Danger.

Princes are like to Heavenly Bodies, which caufe good or evil Times; and which have much Veneration, but no Reft. All precepts concerning Kings, are in effect comprehended in those two Remembrances: Memento quod es Homo; And Memento quod es Deus, or Vice Dei: The one bridleth their Power, and the other their Will.

xx. Of Counsel.

HE greateft Truft, between Man and
Man, is the Truft of giving Cornfel.
For in other Confidences, Men com-

[graphic]

mit the parts of life; their Lands, their Goods, their Children, their Credit, fome particular Affair: but to fuch, as they make their Counsellors, they commit the whole. By how much the more,

they are obliged to all Faith and Integrity. The wifeft Princes need not think it any Diminution to their Greatness, or Derogation to their Sufficiency, to rely upon Counsel. God himself is not without: but hath made it one of the great Names, of his bleffed Son; The Counsellor. Solomon hath pronounced, that In Counfel is Stability. Things will have their first, or fecond Agitation; if they be not toffed upon the Arguments of Counsel, they will be toffed upon the Waves of Fortune; and be full of Inconftancy, doing and undoing, like the Reeling of a drunken Man. Solomon's Son found the Force of Counfel, as his Father saw the Neceffity of it. For the beloved Kingdom of God was first rent, and broken by ill Counsel; upon which Counsel there are fet, for our Inftruction, the two Marks, whereby Bad Counsel is, for ever, best discerned: that it was young Counsel, for the Persons; and violent Counsel for the Matter.

The ancient Times do set forth in Figure, both the Incorporation, and inseparable Conjunction of Counsel with Kings; and the wise and politic use of Counsel by Kings: the one, in that they say, Jupiter did marry Metis, which fignifieth Counsel; whereby they intend, that Sovereignty is married to Counsel: The other, in that which followeth, which was thus: They say after Jupiter was married to Metis, she conceived by him, and was with Child; but Jupiter suffered her not to stay, till she brought forth, but eat her up; whereby he became himself with Child, and was delivered of Pallas Armed, out of his Head. Which monftrous Fa

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