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359

221

221

138

486

Baldwin, W. A., Poultry-Raising as a School Occupation.
Barnes, Earl, Fundamental Factors in the Making of a Kindergarten
Curriculum

57
Bigelow, Luna E., Social Life in Geography...

I13
The Individual Assignments in Geography.

250
Black, Jessie Elizabeth, Review of: Baldwin's Gulliver's Travels for

Children
Lansing's Rhymes and Stories and Fairy Tales..
Hix's First Year in United States History...

394
Breckinridge, Sophonisba P., Child-Labor Legislation.

511
Brown, R. M., An Outline for the Presentation of a Country—Africa. 293
Buchner, Edward Franklin, Review of Earheart's Systematic Study
in the Elementary Schools.....

439
Burks, Jesse D., A New Demand upon Professional Schools for
Teachers

17
Getting Our Bearings on Industrial Education..

445
Burnham, Ernest, Michigan's Preparation of Teachers for Rural

Schools
Caldwell, 0. W., Editorial Notes....

384
Review of Bailey and Coleman's First Course in Biology.
Hall's A Little Land and a Living.

279
Houston's The Boy Geologist.....

281
Sogard's Public School Relationships.

487
Winterburn's Methods in Teaching...

280
Cameron, E. H., Review of: McMurray's Special Method of Reading
in the Grades.....

390
Shaylor's Book of Alphabets.

390
Carley, Pearl Backus, A Morning Exercise..
Carroll, Michalena, A Play Festival by the Seventh Grade...
Clark, Anna M., Review of Swift's Joseph, A Three-Scene Play for

Children
Crowe, J. M., Review of: Kratz's Studies and Observations in the
Schoolroom

164
Snedden and Allen's School Reports and School Efficiency.

164
Cushman, Lillian S., Editorial Notes.....

269
A Report of the Second Annual Meeting of the National Society for
the Promotion of Industrial Education...

233
Dresden, Arnold, Review of the "Appleton" Arithmetics.

485
Elliott, Edward C., Review of Dutton and Snedden's Administration
of Public Education in the United States....

524
French, Walter H., Agriculture in the Public School.

186
Goodlander, Mabel Ray, Primitive Songs and Dances: A Second

Grade Assembly
Griswold, Florence K., The Open Schoolhouse: Its Part in the Vaca-
tion of the Stay-at-Home. ...

517
Hall, Jennie, Reading Leaflets, Francis Parker School. .43, 106, 146, 202
Hart, J. K., Review of Sadler's Moral Instruction and Training in the
Schools

333
Hill, Patty Smith, Editorial Notes.

38
76

391

65

46

PAGE

I 21

The Value and Limitations of Froebel's Gifts as Educative Materials 129, 192
Judd, C. H., Editorial Notes..

520
Judson, Harry Pratt, Religion in the Public Schools....

223
Kent, Ernest B., The Elementary School and Industrial Occupations.. 178
Kern, Mary R., Review of: The Eleanor Smith Music Course..

441
Valentine and Claxton's A Baker's Dozen for City Children.....

282
Kirkpatrick, E. A., Review of Graves' History of Education before
the Middle Ages ...

484
Koch, Fritz, The Conservation of Childhood.
Laing, Mary E., Field Notes in Reading, I.

504
Langley, Euphrosyne, Constructive Activities as an Essential and
Important Factor in the Elementary School Course. ...

32
Leather, Herbert, Medical Inspection in English Primary Schools...

455
Manny, Frank A., American Schools as Seen by a Belgian Educator

322
Vanderwalker's The Kindergarten in American Education......

54
Mead, George H., Editorial Notes..

.156, 212, 327, 433
Industrial Education, the Working-Man, and the School..

369
Miller, George J., Review of Everly, Blount, and Walton's Laboratory
Lessons in Physical Geography....

394
Millis, J. F., Review of Stone's Arithmetical Abilities...

525
Myers, G. W., Review of Hedrick's Algebra for Secondary Schools..

439
O'Grady, Alice, Review of Bigham's Merry Animal Tales.

219
Bryant's Stories to Tell to Children..

219
Poulsson's Father and Baby Plays.

218
Owen, W. B., Review of: Maennel and Dresslar's The Auxiliary
Schools of Germany...

53
O'Shea's Linguistic Development and Education.

53
Page, Mary Boomer, The Present Point of View of the Plays and
Games of the Kindergarten.....

341
Palmer, Luella, The Relation between the Ideal and the Practical
in the Kindergarten Programme...

25
Payne, Bertha, The Kindergarten Programme.

257, 309
Review of: Davis and Leung's Chinese Fables and Folk Stories.... 278
Dutton's The Tortoise and the Geese and Other Fables of Bidpai... 393
Lansing's Fairy Tales, II....

393
The Louisa Alcott Reader..

279
Murray's The Wide-Ax'ake Third Reader.

393
Nixon-Roulet's Folk Stories and Fairy Tales.

278
Richards' The Pig Brother and Other Stories,

337
The Summers Readers....

392
Payne, William C., Review of Chamberlain's The Condition and Tend-
encies of Technical Education in Germany..

218
Probst, Albert F., Consolidation and Transportation: A Rural-School

Problem
Putnam, Alice H., Moral “Controls” in the Nursery and the Kinder-
garten

493
Rankin, Jean Sherwood, Helen Keller and the Language-Teaching

Problem
The Sentence and the Verb.

410

1

84

PAGE

94

1......

Raymond, Ruth, Decorative Designing as a Study for Children.
Selvig, Conrad G., Review of Johnson's History in the Elementary
School

334
Short, R. L., The Seventh to Tenth Grades a Unit in Mathematics.

471
Siebel, Emma, A Language Exercise in Dramatization....

463
Spink, Josette E., Review of: Chouville and Savory's Trois Semaines
en France

281
Tuckerman's Simplicité

282
Stowe, A. Monroe, The School Club: Its Relation to Several Educa-
tional Ideals

364
The School Club: The School Garden, and Correlated School Activi-

ties
Temple, Alice, The Occupations of the Kindergarten.

397
Thorne-Thomsen, Gudrun, History Stories Written by Third-Grade
Children

70
Tufts, James H., Editorial Notes...

108
Dr. Meyer on the Dangers of Knowing Things without Doing Things 153
Review of Swift's Mind in the Making...

162
Warren, Irene, Current Educational Literature in the Periodicals

284, 338, 395, 443, 489, 527
Review of The Welfare of Children..

54
Washburn, Marion Foster, A “New School" in America..
Whitaker, Nellie Comins, The Physical Needs of the Grammar-School

Girl

416

100

287

INDEX TO BOOK REVIEWS

282

484

279

439

525
390

A Baker's Dozen for City Children, Isabel Valentine and Lileon

Claxton, M. R. Kern....
A History of Education before the Middle Ages, Frank P. Graves,

E. A. Kirkpatrick
A Little Land and a Living, Bolton Hall, O. W. Caldwell..
An Algebra for Secondary Schools, E. R. Hedrick, G. W. Myers....
Arithmetical Abilities and Some Factors Determining Them, Cliff

Winfield Stone, J. F. Millis...
Book of Alphabets, H. W. Shaylor, E. H. Cameron.
Chinese Fables and Folk-Stories, Mary H. Davis and Chow Leung,

Bertha Payne
Fairy Tales, Vol. II, Marion F. Lansing, Bertha Payne.
Father and Baby Plays, Millie Poulsson, Alice O'Grady..
First Course in Biology, L. H. Bailey and W. M. Coleman, O. W.

Caldwell
First Year in United States History, Melvin Hix, Jessie E. Black..
Gulliver's Travels for Children, James Baldwin, Jessie E. Black.
History in the Elementary School, Henry Johnson, Conrad G. Selvig..
Japanese Folk-Stories and Fairy Tales, Mary F. Nixon-Roulet, Bertha

Payne
Joseph, A Three-Scene Play for Children, F. H. Swift, Anna M. Clark

278

393

218

486

394

221

334

278

391

PAGE

394

53
219
280

162

333
487

221

164
282

219

164

390

439

524

Laboratory Lessons in Physical Geography, L. L. Everly, R. E. Blount,

and C. L. Walton, George J. Miller..
Linguistic Development and Education, M. V. O'Shea, W. B. Owen
Merry Animal Tales, Madge Bigham, Alice O'Grady..
Methods in Teaching, Rosa V. Winterburn, O. W. Caldwell...
Mind in the Making, A Study in Mental Development, Edgar James

Swift, James H. Tufts...
Moral Instruction and Training in the Schools, M. E, Sadler, J. K. Hart
Public School Relationships, John Sogard, O. W. Caldwell..
Rhymes and Stories and Fairy Tales, Mary Florence Lansing, Jessie

Elizabeth Black
School Reports and School Efficiency, David S. Snedden and William

H. Allen, J. M. Crowe..
Simplicité, Julius Tuckerman, Josette E. Spink....
Stories to Tell to Children, Sara Cone Bryant, Alice O'Grady......
Studies and Observations in the Schoolroom, Henry Elton Kratz,

J. M. Crowe.....
Special Method in Reading in the Grades, Charles A. McMurray,

E. H. Cameron...
Systematic Study in the Elementary Schools, Lida B. Earhart, E. F.

Buchner
The Administration of Public Education in the United States, Samuel

T, Dutton and David Snedden, E. C. Elliott.....
The "Appleton" Arithmetics, J. W. A. Young and Lambert L. Jackson,

Arnold Dresden....
The Auxiliary Schools of Germany, M. Maennel and F. B. Dresslar,

W. B. Owen.
The Boy Geologist, Edwin J. Houston, O. W. Caldwell..
The Condition and Tendencies of Technical Education in Germany,

Arthur H. Chamberlain, Wm. C. Payne....
The Eleanor Smith Music Course, Eleanor Smith, M. R. Kern.....
The First Book, Song and Story for Little Children, E. E. Speight,

and Clara L. Thompson, E. A. W.
The Kindergarten in American Education, Nina C. Vandewalker,

Frank A. Manny..
The Louisa Alcott Reader, Bertha Payne..
The Pig Brother, and Other Fables and Stories, Laura E. Richards,

Bertha Payne.
The Summers Readers, Maud Summers, Bertha Payne...
The Tortoise and the Geese, and Other Fables of Bidpai, Maude B.

Dutton, Bertha Payne. ...
The Welfare of Children, A Reading-List on the Care of Dependent

Children, Irene Warren...
The Wide-Awake Third Reader, Clara Murray, Bertha Payne.
Trois Semaines en France, L. Chouville and D. L. Savory, Josette

E. Spink
When the World Was Young, Elisabeth V. Brown, E. A. W..

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THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER

SEPTEMBER, 1908

CONSOLIDATION AND TRANSPORTATION: A RURAL

SCHOOL PROBLEM

ALBERT FREDERICK PROBST

School of Education

I. ORIGIN AND EXTENT OF THE CONSOLIDATED SYSTEM

It was Massachusetts that led the way in the development of the district system and to her is also due the credit of pointing out the way for consolidation. As early as 1869 Massachusetts passed a law which provided for the transportation of pupils to and from the public schools at public cost. Probably Quincy was the first town in the state to act under the law of 1869, having closed two schools in 1874 and transported the children to other schools. Consolidation was complete in Montague Township, Massachusetts, as early as 1875, and was begun in Concord in 1879. From this time on, consolidation spread rapidly throughout the state until in 1904-5, her expenditure for transportation alone amounted to $213,221. . Other neighboring states have readily adopted the Massachusetts plan until now the movement reaches not only every one of the New England States but extends to the northern, middle, southern, and western states as well, while the question of consolidation is being agitated in every state in the Union.

State Superintendent H. A. Ustrud, of South Dakota, reports May 5, 1908, that South Dakota has about fifteen centralized schools. Superintendent Ustrud adds the following: “A number of townships have voted this spring to centralize, so that in a short time we hope to be right along with other states with the plan.'

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