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Church, by his protection of its oppressed children."


"The Ambassadors of the King of Portugal had already sent their sons, with numerous coaches and gentlemen, to congratulate his Excellency on the choice his Sovereign had made of such a proper representative amidst a nation so mutinous and difficult to manage; and they expressed such feelings and zeal, that the language of their hearts surpassed that of their faces and eyes.

"The coaches of the King, Queen, of the three Princes, and of the Elector Palatine, of the Dukes of Lennox and of Northumberland, and of the Ambassadors of Venice, Sweden, and Holland, were all in attendance on our arrival, in number about 60 or 80, each drawn by six horses. This grand train passed very slowly a space of about three miles through the chief mercantile street of the city, conveying his Excellency to his residence, where all separated, after a short compliment, that he might prepare for his audience, appointed the very next day at two o'clock, when all the same train again appeared.

"It seemed that all the elements conspired for the satisfaction of our Ambassador, the splendour of his suite, and the glory of our Master, as, in five days, he passed the sea, travelled sixty miles, and delivered his dispatches; so much had he at heart the liberty of a million of poor Catholies, who languished under the tyranny of the Parliament.

lency, at the distance of only eight or ten paces. They had not forgotten their practice at the court of France on such occasions, and, after consulting their mirrors a thousand times, had each an idea of being favourably viewed by a sex not always mortal foes of our nation.

"We not only imparted serenity to the countenances of those unhappy people, but to the very land, for this day and the following ones, allotted to visits of ceremony, were the finest in the year. His Excellency henceforth rode in the royal coaches, leaving his to a part of his suite, though, flattery apart, they were better drawn and more superb than those of their British Majesties, and our very horses seemed conscious of such a solemnity. All admired our handsome order and appearance, when eight pages preceded, all clothed in scarlet, enriched with strips of velvet of various colours, and loaded with vast plumes, followed by twenty-four tall lacqueys in the same livery. Eighteen handsome gentlemen preceded his Excel

* Braganza, 1640.

"The Earl of Lindsay, Grand Chamberlain, Holland, Master of the Stole and General, came to receive the Ambassador at the entrance of the grand hall, without hyperbole, the finest and largest in Europe, as well by its architecture as by the exquisite paintings of Rubens."

The audience is reserved for another article. J. P. Paris, June 1818.


No. II.

Maxims and Reflections.

THERE are men who measure their own height from the length of their shadow; from the quantity of light they intercept from other people. Dwarfs often thus make themselves giants.

Precedents in favour of what is unjust prove that your predecessors were fools or knaves, and that you aspire to the same character. Against our fathers, indeed, the conclusion may not be always just. That may have been wisdom in a former period which is now weakness and wickedness, and in this case to act from precedent is to make wisdom the shelter of selfishness and folly.

Which is most ridiculous; on such reasoning, to decide by such votes, or to reason with such voters?

The miser puts all his money into bad hands, from which he will never recover it. To him a penny saved is a penny lost.

No body gets so much for his mo◄ ney as the generous man.

There is no being lucky at last but by being wise.

There are many things in which woman too seeth not as man seeth.

It must not be forgotten that the account is inscribed in verse to a lady whom the author courted in the view of marriage. The MS. is richly bound, and probably the copy presented to her.

If you would tie down others to labour, because you labour, there would be no means of escape to your self. The more people there are rich, it will be the more easy for you to become so. Leave, then, the egress from poverty open; let not envy, reproach, dislike, stand in the way. It is not for want of hands labour is heavy, but because oppression so often prescribes the task, or, aided by luxury and vice, so often consumes the fruits.

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where the rich sacrifice not the dignity of their rank to mere appetite, become not the dupcs of selfish address ; where the poor sell rot themselves to weakness and worthlessness for the sake of wealth.

"To enjoy is to obey," says Pope. The maxim is less exceptionable reversed. A good conscience only can be happy. To obey is to enjoy.

He is happy in proportion to his fortune whose beneficence and affections expand with it. The fortune of a vicious man is the measure of what he takes from the public good, from his own happiness.

It is pernicious to society when the poor become rich by avarice or injus tice, great by mean services; when they carry not up with them the sentiments which make wealth beneficent, and rank respectable: it is beneficial to society when worth, and skill, and industry obtain their due reward,when all aid the successful efforts of the generous man who loves to do good to all. It is pernicious to society when the rich, becoming poor from extravagance and dissipation, or neglect of their affairs, carry into the lower ranks the sentiments and propensities which ruined them; not when becoming poor by misfortune, they carry into poverty generous and independent minds.

What is the proper mixture of ranks by marriage? That which raises the worthy and the amiable to influence and happiness; which rewards generous affection, in merit and love deserving its condescension; which gives the rich an affectionate interest in the poor; which gives the poor spirit and consequence without insolence or vanity; which unites without confounding; where the parties are capable of the same pleasures and interests, of pursuits adapted to their fortune;

That is not darkness in which my mind sees; in which I can look back, forward, to all that is in the heavens, to all that is in the deep. Night hides from me only the present scene, day shews me no more but this.

In moonlight Nature wakes and wears a gentle smile. Her bosom expands not as under the sun's ray; the flower feels no influence, displays not its colours, opens not its cup, sheds not its fragrance. This light is a thin veil spread over her form, half to discover, half to conceal. It gives the shadow of Nature the remembrance of yesterday.

The light we receive from the moon is what her day can spare to our night.

Consider what a mass of noxious vapours was condensed and absorbed by the dark ages. Give Monboddo, Warburton, &c. the Alexandrian library, and they would have blinded us with its dust. If it had not been destroyed, should we by this time have been immortal or still spoken Greek? We must have another blaze.

Where we enjoy all our pleasure, the greater the number who share it, the more powerful is the force of sympathy. Where our pleasures are not of this kind, the greater the crowd, the more disagreeable will be the confusion.

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"O that I were as in months past,' must at last be the unavailing prayer of beauty, where it seeks not the aid of other charms. Without this, nothing so short-lived as its influence, even while it lasts. To have beauty only is the courtezan's portion:-it may captivate a succession of admirers:-it will retain none of them. Suche woman is not qualified for a wife. Vith sense, affection, virtue, a man soon ceases to miss in his wife a greater share of beauty. After the honey-moon, how great may become the effect of the former;-of the lat ter how small!

If men who are not skilful to touch the delicate chords of feeling would but let them alone-If they would tell us what they have to say in plain prose, if less pleased or interested, we should not at least feel disgust.




IN the gloomy period of German history which the last twenty years unfold; when the selfish and interested policy of the native princes shewed them apostates to the independence of their country, it is impossible not to contemplate, with feelings of the deepest interest, every particular in the history of that small portion of the community which, in the very worst period of the subjugation of the empire, boldly attempted to vindicate the national character from that pusillanimous lethargy into which it seemed to have fallen.

was abolished by an express law of their new sovereign.

The Tyrolese, like the inhabitants of most other mountainous countries, have ever been remarkable for that pure love of freedom which characterizes man in an unpolished, but uncorrupted, state of society; and, accordingly, when the rest of Germany seemed quietly to submit to the sway of the conqueror, the Tyrolese appeared to have the greatest difficulty in accommodating themselves to the yoke of their Gallo-Bavarian oppressors. From the commencement of the war against the French republic by the Emperor Francis in 1796, till the peace of Paris in 1814, the history of the Tyrolese presents almost a constant succession of gallant exertions for the recovery of their independence, and the former representative constitution of their country, which had been abolished by an ordinance of the King of Bavaria, subsequent to the treaty of Presburg in 1805, by which the Emperor of Austria agreed to the cession of the Tyrol to that prince,-part of the reward which he received in recompense of his alliance with France, and his treachery to his country.

During the three years immediate ly following the treaty of Presburg, the Tyrolese suffered all the miseries attendant on a state of bondage. The property of their religious houses was seized, their ancient and public buildings destroyed,-themselves impoverished by rigorous impositions, and, to crown all, the last resource of petitioning against their grievances,


When Austria recommenced hostilities against France in 1809, the Marquis of Chastellar, on the part of Austria, entered the Tyrol on the 9th of May, where he was received with open arms; and a general insurrection of the people, conducted and organized by Hofer and Speckbacher, was the immediate consequence. The efforts of the Tyrolese were at first unsuccessful; but afterwards, defeating the French and Bavarians at Stergingen, at Innsbruck, and at Halle, they attacked General Deroy on the 25th of May, who retreated fighting to Kufstein. At this time the Emperor of Austria, in a proclamation to the Tyrolese, dated Wolkersdorf, 29th May, declared, "That they should be no longer separated from the Austrian States, and that he would sign no peace which did not attach them indissolubly to his monarchy." When they received intelligence of the armistice of Znaim, which took place on the 12th July, the Austrians and Tyrolese were masters of the whole country, with the exception of Kufstein. The fourth article of this armistice stipulated that the Austrians should evacuate the Tyrol and Voralberg, thus abandoning them to the discretion of an exasperated enemy. It is hardly possible to suppose, that the Emperor of Austria could have been so base as to abandon his best and bravest subjects, without feelings of deep regret; but it is also a striking instance of that torpid and sluggish policy, which is the most remarkable feature of the Austrian government, that no provision appears to have been made for the safety of the Tyrolese until the conclusion of the treaty of Schoenbrun,* October 15th, wherein the Emperor of the French engages to procure for them a full and complete pardon.

The manner in which the Emperor Francis announced the intelligence of his having ceded them to another power, in a rescript dated Halisch, 29th December, is simple and affecting. "The sad moment is arrived when the power of circumstances forces me to renounce the sovereignty of the Tyrol. The brave Tyrolese know how much it costs my heart to con

* Article X.


form myself to this sacrifice. I shall say nothing more; my words can only increase the affliction of a separation, rendered necessary by a series of disastrous events, painful and affecting to me, as well as the subjects so worthy of my love."

In the interval between this peace and the armistice at Znaim, the Tyrolese still continued their hostile operations against the French and Bavarians. At this period the Duke of Dantzic (General Lefebvre) issued a proclamation, declaring, that all the communes in which the militia had not laid down their arms within eight days, should be treated with military rigour. This threat was executed in a most cruel manner. In the town of Schwatz, 1200 persons, 800 of whom were women and children, perished in the flames. A party of children, returning from school, were driven by the Bavarian and French soldiers into a barn, to which they set fire, and consumed the whole to ashes.

The town still presents a very ruinous and melancholy appearance, which the romantic beauty and quiet of the surrounding country serves very much to heighten and increase.

This unfortunate people were now compelled to remain unwilling subjects of the King of Bavaria, until the disasters of the French army in Russia, and its subsequent retreat, afforded them once more an opportunity to emancipate themselves, by joining the allied powers in their efforts for the liberation of Germany. The following very spirited address, translated from the German original, was at this time widely circulated among the Tyrolese peasantry. * "Tyrolese! Countrymen! Brothers!


"Twice already has an unfortu"nate destiny extinguished the dear name of Fatherland,-twice have "long years of slavery followed our "glorious exertions for the just cause "of the Tyrol. Providence has long "tried our love for our native land, "-for the Emperor Francis, and for


"Austria. We are found true; and "the day of retribution for protracted wrongs has dawned upon us. The proposals of our good emperor for peace have been unavailing. War is "declared. The old eagle of Austria





expands his wings;-we require not "to be called ;-the eagle from the mountains of the Tyrol flies to meet "him. Here and every where, amid our native mountains, there glows in every bosom the sacred fire of former enthusiasm. We want no sig"nal,-no call to arms,-no sworn

conspiracy. What we have done "through so many centuries, we will


now repeat. Those who have fallen "to the Crown of Italy;-those who "have struggled under the Bavarian


yoke;-those who in Illyria expect "liberation ;-those who found an "hospitable asylum in Austria ;"those who wander far from hence "in a foreign country;-all are the more firmly united, the more cruelly fate has torn us from each other. "We are Tyrolese ;-war is declared; "-and we are once more the Aus"trian Tyrol.





"It is not hatred against Bavaria or France that urges us on; it is not altogether the insupportable pressure under which we smart. "It is that pure proud struggle a"gainst the base and servile treat


* The little tract from which this address is translated, was procured at Innsbruck. It has neither the name of the place, nor the date when printed; and consists only of six pages. The present copy was found on the person of a Tyrolese soldier who had fallen in the late Italian campaign.




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ment of a noble people; it is at"tachment to the ancestral house of "Austria! The Tyrolese can never "forget the constitution of their fa"thers, so long as their native moun"tains remain, and one sprig of the "house of Hapsburg still lives.

"We have also good reason to hate our oppressors. Has Bavaria ful"filled to the Tyrolese what she pro


nised at the peace of Presburg? "Where are our rights and privi

leges? Where is the very name of "the Tyrol, otherwise than in the "hearts of her oppressed sons; in the "hearts of the most high minded peo"ple of the earth, who respect us, "and in the bosom of our father "Francis? Where is the flower of "the Tyrolese youth? Wherefore


must they bleed in foreign lands for "interests not their own? Where "is the prosperity of our country? "Where the riches of our cities, and "the contented happiness and merriment of our lowest huts?


"What do our oppressors care for


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"us farther than for the unheard of "taxes in men and cattle which they "extort from hence?-and what ad"vantage do they derive from the Tyrol but a pleasant road from the "Valois to the North, over which "they continually drive away their "slaves to subdue other nations? "The Tyrolese officers are removed, "and foreigners are substituted in "their place, who have no affection "for the country. Every thing which "the people respected in the religion "and customs of their ancestors is "annihilated. The sanctity of our temples is profaned;-our cloisters "pillaged;-and with cruel severity "the servants of the altar sent help"less into banishment.

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"ment of a general and durable peace, "for the interests of humanity, call "Austria to arms.

"Her people are clad in the armour "of a most heavenly union: Love "for their native country and their "princes emboldens all ranks.

"The Britons, proud of their liberty, (freiheitstolzen Britten,) fight at our side, the victorious "Alexander,-the generous Prus"sians,--the brave troops of Sweden, "the Spaniards, and Portuguese, all "unite for the same great and sacred 66 purpose. It is not armies,—it is "the people, who renew the wär "with France!

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"The flower of the French legions "has already expiated the attempt on "the independence of the North; "hundreds of thousands have fallen on both sides of the Vistula, on the "Elbe, and on the Ebro. Spain has "gloriously maintained her freedom, "and transported her banners over "the Pyrenees into the south of "France. The belief in the invinci"bility of the French arms is vanish"ed. The forced levies of French "conscripts are driven together from "the plough, and the manufactories, "unexercised in arms. You your"selves have seen these troops. So "little to be feared on their march "during the last month, you know "their military, prowess, their cour


age, their feeling. The result of "the contest cannot be uncertain.

"Finally, Have the provisions made "in the treaty of Schoenbrun been "fulfilled?—The amnesty stipulated" "for by Austria was trodden under "foot,-its operation frustrated by a contemptible perversion of its mean"ing; fire and sword have raged over. us, while every peace has promised "a balsam for our wounds.



"Where is the generous Andrew "Hofer? Where are the hundreds "of our brave companions in arms, "whom cunning and revenge have "hurried hence? It is not a disor"derly love of liberty which animates "us. We aim at that liberty which "is indigenous to the Alps; where high and low live together in peace"ful harmony, as the Almighty has "ordained it for ages; where no one "disturbs his neighbours, because all "obey the law with that same proud "feeling which they inherited from "their ancestors. It is that liberty "which we love, because we inhaled "it like the free mountain air, since "our youth,-because, like every true "blessing, it comes from Heaven, "from our Emperor, and from God! "To serve and to obey every master "who esteems and respects us, according to the ancient customs and "venerable laws of our fathers,-that "" is our liberty and our pride.



"In vain did Austria, who, for centuries, honourably-amid the strug"gle of all passions, and during the "revolutions of Europe, herself the "only remaining Imperial house, in


terpose her mediation :-With su"percilious pride, the French Empe"ror rejected the peaceful proposi"tions of our Court. Sacred duties, " for the maintenance of the integri"ty of her states, for the accomplish


"Tyrolese! Countrymen! Bro"thers! Emperor Francis, your for"mer sovereign, comes; you have at "last the long-wished for hour of li"beration; your oppression is at an "end.

Powerful assistance unfolds "itself for your protection; an Aus"trian army approaches your fron"tiers, and with it arms, ammuni"tion, money, and every thing neces"C sary for war.


"Arise! ye free born sons of the Alps, scare sorrow, that emblem of 66 your misfortunes, from among you! "Give yourselves up to joy, when loud "from mountain and valley the voice "of enfranchisement resounds! The "mild sceptre of Austria beckons you,


your fatherland, the world, and "Francis the much beloved, look to"wards you! Prove your heroic


courage! Rise! Enter on the great "work of deliverance with self-com"mand and composure, with genero"sity and humanity, for


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