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the ground by the blow of a musket. He, however, escaped, and fled with the remnant of his men to the mountains, where his enemies could not follow him. His little son, Andrew, who had shown courage and intrepidity far beyond his years, had loitered behind, for the purpose of taking a shot at the Bavarian general, and had succeeded in bringing him down, when he was taken prisoner, and carried to Munich. He was here presented to the King, who is said to have treated him kindly.

After the treaty of Schoenbrun, the French and Bavarians again entered the Tyrol, notwithstanding the opposition of the peasantry, and Hofer was again compelled to evacuate Innsbruck. He had sent a deputation to the Emperor, which returned with the following answer, written by the Emperor himself:- Tyrolese, I wish you to be tranquil. I have been obliged to make peace, partly on account of the disunion of my brothers, and partly because Russia took the field against me." On the 4th of November, after receiving this notification, he wrote to Speckbacher, "that he had sad news to communicate. Austria had signed a treaty of peace with France, in which the Tyrol is altogether forgot." He then communicated the intelligence to his countrymen, exhorting them to submit to their fate, at the same time demanding of the enemy a cessation of hostilities, and that his countrymen might return in peace to their homes; and, seeing now no further prospect of success, he resigned the command.

were delivered over to a military tribunal, and shot, under the pretence of rebellion. Their contemptible revenge was even carried so far, as to dig up the bodies of those brave men who had fallen in the defence of their country, throwing their bodies into holes dug in the highway, and tearing down the frail wooden memorials which had been erected over their half-perished remains. Another monument has fallen to their lot; they are entombed in the hearts and remembrance of their countrymen. "Nor shall one tear less sacred fall

On the 7th of November, before the peasantry were quite dispersed, the Bavarians had advanced to Zirl, a village of considerable size, to which they set fire. The Tyrolese were roused by this new act of hostility, and, led on by Hierler, commandant of the Upper Innthal, attacked the enemy with great fury, taking six pieces of cannon, and two chests of money. In this action 320 females, fighting resolutely, were cut down by a body of Italian cavalry. This was the last opportunity afforded to the Tyrolese of satisfying their revenge. The enemy, commanded by the Duke of Dantzic, continued the work of havoc and destruction; the villages were plundered and burnt; and numbers of those patriots who had distinguished themselves during the war

VOL. III.

Upon the grave of worth,
Because unblazoned is its pall,
And titleless its birth.

Away! away! the herald's scorn
Full many a noble heart was humbly born!"

Hofer now appears to have fallen into a state of gloomy melancholy. He concealed himself in a hut not far distant from his own house, in the mountains, where he was fed by some of his most trusty friends; and, al-. though a great reward had been offered for his head, he remained safe, until the end of January, when a vile priest, named How Donay, for a bribe of 200 louis-d'ors, discovered his retreat. Two thousand men were sent to secure him. On their arrival, he, offered no resistance, and submitted quietly to be bound. In this manner he was conducted, barefoot, through the snow, accompanied by his wife and daughter, and a little son twelve years old, to Botzen. From this place he was hurried off, under a strong escort, to Mantua, where a court-martial was immediately assembled for his trial. His advocate, Ba-, sevi, is said to have made an eloquent but unavailing defence; and a telegraph from Milan pronounced judgment, by decreeing death within' twenty-four hours. He received the communication of this sentence with the most undaunted firmness, and requested that he might be allowed the attendance of a priest.

At eleven o clock on the morning following his condemnation, he was conducted from his prison, guarded by a company of grenadiers. On his way to the place of execution, he passed by the barracks on the Porta Molina, where his countrymen were confined. When they perceived him, they fell on their faces, and wept aloud. Those who were at large threw themselves on the ground, and implored his blessing. He re

quested their forgiveness for the share he might have had in bringing about their present misfortunes, and consoled them with the assurance, that they would once again return under the dominion of the Emperor, to whom he cried out the last vivat with a clear and steady voice. The commanding officer halted his men on the broad bastion near the Porta Ceresa. The grenadiers formed a square open to the rear, and twelve of the privates and a corporal stepped forward, Hofer remaining in the midst. He delivered to Manifesti, the priest, every thing he had, to be distributed among his countrymen; and to his last and faithful attendant Manifesti, he gave his crucifix of silver. The drummer handed to him a white handkerchief to bind his eyes, and observed, that it was necessary he should kneel; but Hofer threw it away, and refused peremptorily to kneel, observing, "that he was used to stand upright in the presence of his Creator, and in that posture he was determined to deliver up his spirit to him." After giving the corporal a piece of Tyrolese money, and cautioning him to take aim, he gave the order to fire in a loud and articulate voice. He fell!-and the narrative* which recites these affecting minute particulars adds, the spot on which he suffered is still considered sacred by his countrymen and former companions; and his enemies testified their respect for his remains by the ceremony of a public funeral.

Hofer perished in the forty-third year of his age; and the firm and undaunted manner of his death accorded well with the character which he sustained during his life. Virtue and simplicity were the leading features of his public character, and his honesty and integrity commanded the esteem of his countrymen. It has been said that his efforts were directed more with a view to the re-establishment of the Tyrol, under the House of Austria, than from any enlarged views which he entertained for the prosperity of his country; but it should not be forgot, that, although the Austrian Government is not the most vigorous or active in promoting the improvement of the countries subject to its dominion, it nevertheless exercises over them a spirit of mildness and pa

rental affection, which the Tyrolese have always experienced in a high degree; and the free representative constitution of their country has always been respected by that Government, and is well suited to the character of the people and their mode of life.

The elevated station which Hofer attained did not excite a restless ambition, nor influence the even course of his career. He still preserved his original dress, that of a Tyrolese peasant, with a broad hat, (to which he only added a black feather,) a short green jacket, red waistcoat, with the neck and a part of the breast open, and a black leathern girdle, with the initials of his name embroidered in large letters. He wore also about his neck a large silver medal of St George, and the gold medal and chain sent to him by the Emperor. It has been denied by some that he ever received the order of Maria Theresa,—a matter of little moment, since he now possesses that imperishable honour so well expressed by the Roman Lawgiver: "Hi enim qui pro republica ceciderunt in perpetuum per gloriam vivere intelliguntur.

Geschichte Andreas Hofer, 8vo. Leipg, 1817.

Speckbacher had eluded the attempt which the Bavarians made at Muhleg to surround him. They made every possible effort to take him, and set a price of 1000 ducats on his head. The bribe tempted a poor wretch, who had served in his ranks, to endeavour his destruction; but Speckbacher escaped by leaping from the roof of the house where he was concealed, and betook himself to an adjoining forest, where he remained nearly a month. Here he met with his wife and children, who had also fled for safety from their dwelling. He was tempted to enter Voldersburg with them, where he placed them under the protection of a friend. He himself was compelled to seek shelter in a cavern near the summit of a rock, which his friend George Zoppel had taken care to furnish with food, and ammunition, in case he should be attacked. He lived here till the beginning of March, when an accident, occasioned by the falling of an avalanche, which dislocated his thigh-bone, compelled him to return to Voldersburg, after a most painful journey. He procured surgical assistance through the means of Zoppel, who carried him on his back to Rinn, where his wife. at that time lived in the house of a

friend. Zoppel did not, however,
at first impart the intelligence to her,
lest her anxiety should betray him,
and dug a hole for Speckbacher in the
cow-house, which he covered over
with straw; in this situation he re-
mained seven weeks. When he had
sufficiently recovered, he succeeded
in crossing the Austrian frontier, and
arrived in safety at Vienna.

The Emperor offered him lands in
Hungary, where he seems disposed to
have settled; but his wife does not
appear to have been favourable to this
proposal. A very interesting letter is
preserved, which she wrote to her
husband on this occasion, and where
she thus addresses him: "Let me
"implore your forgiveness if I do not
"come after you; you know yourself
"that I am sickly, and perhaps could
"not go through so long a journey; it
is not only from old women that I
"have heard it, for sensible men have
"told me, that, for those who are not
" of a strong constitution, and habit of
body, Hungary is a bad place to live
"in, and you love your wife, I am sure,
too tenderly, to contribute to her
death. Do but ask this the way you
"ought to do, and I will pray to the
saints in Heaven that our gracious
Sovereign the Emperor may yet re-
lieve us, and then God will set all
matters to rights. But, if his correc-
"tions must be inflicted on us for a
"longer time, do you implore for that
"which you may be able to obtain;
"you may have something allotted to

46

Quarterly Review, July 1817.

46

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66 you in Styria, or in that neighbour"hood;-and then, if all hope is at an "end, of our dear country again becom"C ing Austrian, and of thy return to "the Tyrol, then will I come to thee, "beloved of my heart. I thank you, "dearest Joseph, for your New Year's "wish. God grant that we may again 66 meet under Austrian government in our own dear Tyrol." Speckbacher remained in Upper Austria till the treaty of Paris confirmed the Tyrol and Voralberg to the Emperor, and once more restored him to his family and friends.

66

At present he resides at Halle, where he is much respected. His father had been one of the superintendents of the saltworks in the neighbourhood of this town. His grandfather is said to have distinguished himself against the Bavarians under Maximilian Emanuel; and Speckbacher, when a child, often listened to the recital of his adventures, with an interest, which he himself admits, created in him the desire of having an opportunity to fight against them as he had done. On the death of his father, he left his hunting companions, and succeeded his father as superintendent of the saltworks at Halle. Here he married, and the extract which we have given, will be found to contain sufficient proof that he was fortunate in his choice of a wife. She has since taught him to write, and we are happy in being able to present our readers with a fac-simile of his autograph.

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“Hall in Tyrol, Oct. 3, 1817. Joseph Speckbacher, Major in the Tyrolese Landwehr.”

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Speckbacher is a man rather above the middle size, with dark hair and piercing black eyes. His features have considerable resemblance to those of Mr John Kemble; and he speaks slowly, but correctly. He is particularly fond of horticulture, and dedicates much of his leisure time to this peaceful and healthy amusement. His military genius, had it been fostered amid the destruction of more regular and scientific warfare, might have rendered his name more terrible, but could have added nothing to his well earned renown.

The narrative of these transactions cannot, indeed, boast of the pomp and circumstance of glorious war; but it is one in which some of the best and noblest of the human passions were engaged, and in which superstition herself, gloomy as indeed she is in her general character, seems, on this occasion at least, to have associated herself with virtue and free dom. The accomplishment of the destruction of these hostile armies in succession, by mountaineers determined to defend their country against a most fearful adversary, with a very small supply of arms and ammunition, and conducted by obscure individuals, contains, in its detail, an example of greatness and true patriotism, which deserves to be placed by the side of the brightest actions of either ancient or modern times.

NOTICE OF THE ADMIRABLE CRICHTON; PUBLISHED AT VENICE IN 1580.

MR EDITOR,

WHATEVER light can be thrown upon the history of the celebrated James Crichton, (whose extraordinary qualifications justly obtained for him from his contemporaries the appellation of the Admirable Crichton,) will be welcomed by your readers, and by those more especially who feel proud that he was a Scotchman. A book lately came into my possession, from the collection of an amiable and accomplished amateur of Italian literature, into which has been inserted a single printed leaf, of genuine date and originality, published when Crichton was at Venice in 1580. Of this

* Mr S. W. Singer of Fulham.

leaf, as it serves to clear up what has been matter of doubt, and to give credibility to what has been thought exaggerated concerning that wonderful man, I send you an exact copy. The book in which it is inserted, is the second Aldine folio edition of the Cortegiano of Castig lione, printed in 1545. The book belonged to Francesco Melchiori of Venice, who made it the depository of some other curious papers, as well as of this interesting document. *

It will be seen that Lord Buchan's account of Crichton's age is here confirmed, and that even the day of his birth, the 19th of August 1560, is ascertained. Lord Buchan has not, I believe, cited upon what ground he differs as to this point from Mackenzie and others; but his inquiries seem to have been made with diligence, and his authorities good. The paper was, no doubt, one of those challenges which were placarded, and probably too circulated by hand, in Venice, inviting the scrutiny of an in-` telligent public into the merit and solidity of those various pretensions, both mental and corporeal, which Crichton did not affect to conceal. After suppressing what may surpass credibility, his qualifications appear, upon incontestible evidence, to have been (as Dr Hawkesworth has observed) "enough to rank him among prodigies." I am, Sir, your most obedient servant, GEORGE HIBBERT. Clapham Common, 15th June 1818.

"Lo Scozzese, detto Giacomo Critonio, è giovane di 20 anni finiti ä 19 di Agosto passato; ha una voglia nell' occhio destro ; possiede dieci lingue; la Latina et l'Italiana in eccellenza, Greca et ne fa epigrammi; Hebrea; Caldea; Spagnuola; Frantende anche la Tedesca. Intendentissimo cese; Fiaminga; Inglese; Scota; et in

manuscript, a complimentary sonnet, ad* At the end of the book is preserved, in dressed by Melchiori to Torquato Tasso, Gierusaleme by Camillo, together with Tason the publication of a continuation of the so's sonnet in reply, in his own hand-writing. These verses Mr Singer has given to the public, in his new edition of the transla. tion of Tasso by Fairfax.

+ Biographia Britannica, new edition, Vol. IV. p. 442. The account of Crichton in this article is comprehensive and judicious.

Adventurer, No. 18.

di filosofia, di teologia, di matematica, astrologia; e tiene tutti i calcoli fatti sin' hoggi per falsi; di filosofia et teologia ha moltissime volte disputato con valent' huomini con stupore di tutti. Ha cognitione perfettissima della cabala, di memoria tale che non sa che cosa sia il dimenticarsi et ogni oratione udita da lui recita a parola a parola, fa versi Latini improvisi in qual si voglia sorte di versi e materia; e ne fa anche comminciando dall' ultima parola del verso, pur improvisi: orationi improvise e belle; ragiona di cose di stato con fondamento di bellissimo aspetto; cortigiano compitissimo a maraviglia; et è il più gratioso che si possa desiderare nella conversatione. Soldato a tutta botta, et due anni ha spesi alla guerra di Francia con carico honorato. Salta, balla, eccelentemente; armeggia, gioca di ogni sorte d'armi et ne ha fatto prove. Maneggiator di cavalli; giostratore singolare; di sangue nobile; anzi per Madre Regale, Stuardo. Ha disputato con Greci nella materia della processione dello Spirito Santo con grande applauso et con grandissima copia di auttorità di dottori Greci, e Latini e concilij, come anco fa quando tratta di filosofia e teologia, havendo tutto Aristotele e commentatori alle mani, e recitandone le fac ciate, non che le righe, Greche. Ha tutto S. Tomaso Scoto, Tomisti et Scotisti, a mente, e disputa in utramque partein. I che ha fatto molte volte felicemente. Nè ragiona mai di materia alcuna che non sia proposta da altri. Volle il principe et la Signoria udirlo et ne stupirono: fu honorato da S. serenita di un presente. In somma è un mostro de' mostri; et tale che alcuni vedendo cosi fatte qualita ridotte in un solo corpo, benessimo proportionato et lontano dalla maninconia, fanno di molte chimere. Hora si è ridotto fuori in villa, per stendere 2000 conclusioni le quali, in tutte le professioni, vuol sostenere in Venetia, nella Chiesa di San Gio e Paolo, fra due mesi; non potendo egli sopplire alla volontà delle persone che desideranno udir. lo tutto giorno et a suoi studi.

"In Venetia, appresso Domenico et Gio Battista Guerra fratelli, MDLXXX.”

Translation.

James Crichton, a native of Scotland, is a youth who, on the 19th of August last, completed his twentieth year. He has a birthmark over his right eye. He is master of ten languages. The Latin and Italian in perfection; the Greek so as to compose epigrams in that tongue; Hebrew, Chaldee, Spanish, French, Flemish, English, Scotch, and understands also the German. He is most skilful in philosophy, theology, the mathematics, and astrology, and holds all the calculations hitherto made in this last to be false. He has frequently maintained philosophical and theological disputes with learned pro

fessors, to the admiration of all present. He is well acquainted with magic ;—of a memory so retentive that he knows not what it is to want recollection; and can recite word for word that which he has once heard. Latin verses, whatever the subject or the measure, he produces extempore ; and these, too, (equally extemporaneous,) commencing with the last word of any verse. His orations are fluent and beautiful; and he reasons profoundly upon political subjects. In his person he is eminently handsome; most courteous in his manners; and winning, to the height of your wish, in conversation. A soldier at all points, he served two years with distinction in the French wars; unrivalled in the dance, and all feats of activity; most dexterous (as he has sufficiently proved) in the use of arms of every description, in horsemanship, and in tilting at the ring.

He is noble-by the mother, indeed, (who was a Stuart,) of royal blood. On occasion of the procession of the Holy Ghost, he maintained, with signal applause, a dispute with learned Greeks, adducing, in his argument, a host of authorities from Greek and Latin doctors, and from councils, as he is wont to do when treating of philosophy or theology, having, at his fingers' ends, all Aristotle and his commentators, and placing before us not an outline merely, but the full front of the Greek doctrine. † Saint Thomas and Duns Scotus, with their adherents, the Scotists and Thomists, he has all by heart, and is ready to engage on either side the contest, as he has often done; nor, indeed, does he enter upon discussion except when the subject has been dictated by others. It has pleased the Doge and his illustrious lady to hear him, when they were struck with astonishment; and he received from his Serene Highness a present. In a word, he is a prodigy of prodigies, insomuch that some persons, observing qualities so wonderful and various united in one body, so elegantly formed, and of habits so amiable, have thought the phenomenon supernatural. He is now shut up in retirement for the purpose of

There is an early testimonial in favour of Crichton's power of memory, in a work entituled Gazophylacium artis Memoriæ, per Lambertum Schenckelium Dusilvium. Argentorati, 1610, p. 35, in the following terms: "Jacobus Clirithon, Scotus, in omni scientiarum genere, et nobilium artibus clarus, tam fuit in eadem (arte memoriæ) excellens, ut nulli veterum aut recentiorum cederet; miraculum mundi futurus, nisi in ipso ætatis flore in Italia obiisset."

+ Of the dispute here alluded to, I do not see any explicit mention in the memorials we have of Crichton. The passage in the original is, I confess, to me somewhat obscure.

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