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ON comparing the month of October with September, it will be found, that the mean temperature has declined only about one degree, whereas, in 1817, the temperature of October was no less than eleven degrees and a half below that of September. Nothing can afford a clearer proof than this fact does, of the variable nature of our climate, and the impossibility of determining the mean temperature of a place, from the average of any given month. The mean of October, or rather of the last fortnight of October, is generally supposed to approach the average of the year; but even were this rule adopted, it appears that this average may sometimes vary to the extent of ten degrees. The mean of October 1817 was 41, this year it is about 51. During the former, the thermometer never rose above 514, and frequently sunk below the freezing point; during the latter it rose to 624, and only once fell below 40. In October last year, the average of no one day ever exceeded 46; this year it was frequently 55, and on one occasion 58. The barometer, during October 1817, both rose higher and sunk lower than it did last month, but the average was, upon the whole, considerably higher. The atmosphere, during October, has been a good deal more moist than it was in September, as indicated by Leslie's hygrometer. The apparent difference is about 5 degrees, which is greater, however, than the actual difference, owing to the diminution of temperature. compared with October last year, there is scarcely any apparent difference, the average of Leslie being about 10 degrees in both. If allowance be made, however, for the great difference of temperature, it will be found that October last year was much drier even than September this year. Since the beginning of September, spring water, at the depth of 34 feet, has diminished in temperature 5 degrees.
Extracted from the Register kept on the Banks of the Tay, four miles east from Perth, Latitude 56° 25', Elevation 185 feet.
Mean of greatest daily heat,
. temperature, 10 A. M. 10 P. M.
of daily extremes, 10 A. M. and 10 P. M. 4 daily observations, Whole range of Thermometer, Mean daily ditto,
temperature of spring water,
Mean of 10 A. M.
10 P. M. both, Rain in Inches, Evaporation in ditto,
Mean of 10 A. M. (temp. of mer. 57)
WILSON'S HYGROMETER. Mean of 10 A. M.
Highest 10 A. M.
Highest 10 P. M.
Greatest range in 24 hours, 5th,
Highest 10 A. M.
Greatest range in 21 hours,
Highest 10 A. M.
Highest 10 P. M.
Greatest dryness, 3d, 10 A. M.
10 P. M. : : : :
N. B.-The Observations are made twice every day, namely, at eight o'clock in the morning, and four 'clock in the afternoon. The observations in the first column are taken from the Register Thermometer.
M. 40 UA. 59
M. 4729.371M. 54|W.
.91 1. 51nod
.261 M. 50w.
.470 M. 49N. W. Dull day,
Dull all day
Dull foren. sun aftern. Rain morn. full day Showers and sunshine Dull, fair
.351 M. 56 A. 57580 A. 56 M. 5128.994 M. 58 A. 57 .999 A. 57 11M. 4529.129 M. 531 W.
A. 57 .129A. 53) mod
M. 4028.994 M. 51 S. Wun foren. 12. A. 5729.318. 50 high rain aftern. .261 M. 52 S. W.vy rain, 13 M. 42 461A. 51 high tall.
UA. 57 14 M. 48 UA. 57 M. 51
.565 M. 56S. W.Mild, sun.489A. 59 high shine .458 M. 59 S. W. Rainy all 11. 57.527A. 58 mod day 16 M. 50
.479 M. 58S. W.[Mild and '(la. 57] .611A. 57 high fair
Day dull,rn. mrn. & even Clear, sunshine.
Ther. Baro. Attach. Wini. Remarks.
Rain, foren. fair aft.
M. 46,29.763 M. 56) S. W. Mild, sun-
Ru. for. fair, lull aft. Mild and fair
Ditto, ditto. Mild but dull
Ditto, ditto Mild day, cold even.
HITHERTO we have had no winter; the young wheats grow vigorously; turnips have improved to the size of a good crop in Scotland; and cattle are still abroad on their usual pastures. Barley is certainly a defective crop in the south of England; and oats, even where the quantity is nearly a medium produce, do not yield so much meal with us as in ordinary seasons; but if the present prices, in which there has been little fluctuation for several weeks, should continue through the winter, farmers will receive more money for their whole produce than for some years past. Cattle and sheep were, probably, never dearer the demand had fallen off in July, and early in August, owing to the severe drought, but it revived with the abundance of grass which followed the rains of the last three months; and at Hallow Fair, held in the neighbourhood of this city, the beginning of this week, and other late fairs in Scotland, prices have gone beyond all expectation; especially when it is considered that straw and hay are far from being abundant any where, and turnips a poor crop in some of the southern counties of England. In the west of Scotland cheese brings about 63s. per cwt., and the best English as high as 90s. Hops improved wonderfully for a few weeks before picking, and the crop throughout England is fully double what was expected in July,—best parcels L. 10 to L. 11, 5s. per cwt., inferior, as low as L.6. An extraordinary large quantity was shown at Retford on the 2d and 3d ult., and but few parcels were taken away unsold.
Potatoes have been sent to London from different parts of Scotland in great quantities, but the demand seems to have ceased. One individual, we hear, has made a contract for 10,000 tons of yellow and Swedish turnips for the use of the London cowkeepers, to be shipped at ports on the Forth; and hay has been carried to the same market, from Aberdeenshire and others of our northern counties. The two last articles have rarely been supplied in any quantity from such a distance, yet prices at home are not much higher than usual, potatoes being from 10d. to 1s. per peck of 28 lb., and turnips, a few miles from town, are sold for sheep and cattle at Trom L.6 to L. 8 an English acre. In Edinburgh market, by retail, beef and mutton bring 5d. to 8d. veal, 8d. to 10d, and pork 7d. per lb. of 17 oz. Butter 1s. 6d. per ib. of 22 oz., and eggs 1s. 4d. per dozen.-14th November.
Average Prices of Grain in Scotland for the Four Weeks immediately preceding 15th October. Wheat, 77s. d.-Rye, 55s. 7d.-Barley, 48s. 1d.-Oats, 31s. 1d.-Beans, 55s. 11d.-Pease, 55s. 18. Qatineal, per boll, 26s. 1d.-Bear or Big, 44s. 8d.
COLONIAL PRODUCE.-Sugars.-The demand for Muscovadoes still continues limited, and purchases are made a shade lower, although no general depression can be stated. The business in Refined is also limited, and generally at a small reduction. The sale at the india house, in the last week of October, was 8207 bags and 424 baskets; yellow sold 2s. to 3s. lower; and white at a reduction of 3s. to 4s. Cotton. The market continues very depressed; the only purchasers, and these on a limited scale, are the export houses. The comparative statement of the total imports into Great Britain in the present and last year, shows an increase this year of 170,000 bags. East India cottons are 4d. to 5d. per lb. lower than at this period last year. Coffee. The market has fluctuated during the month; but generally the prices have been declining, and are at present chiefly supported by speculation. The Continental markets have for some time past been generally 10 to 15 per cent. under the London prices. Rum has been heavy during the month. A sale this forenoon of 323 puncheons Jamaica, affords a criterion of the market prices, which are 3d. to 6d. per gallon under what had been previously considered the nominal prices. Tobacco. The prices are entirely nominal; little business being done. The stock, particularly of Virginia, is now large, greatly beyond the quantity anticipated; amounting to 5006 hhds. Oils.-The demand for Whale Oil continues limited and prices declining. In other descriptions little variation; market generally heavy.
EUROPEAN PRODUCE.--Tallow.-The prices have fluctuated a little during the month; and the demand continues limited. Hemp and Fiar are little in request. Brandy is entirely nominal; the vintage is reported to be most luxuriant, and as the brandies will be sooner at market than was expected, buyers anticipate a decline. Geneva is without alteration.
The increase of the revenue, noticed in a preceding page of this Number, clearly indicates a corresponding increase in the commerce and manufactures of the country; which is corroborated by statements recently published regarding the commerce of our principal ports, and the increasing activity in the manufacturing districts. Between the 1st of January and 30th September, 1727 vessels sailed from the port of Liverpool, exclusive of Irish traders and coasters; and in the same period 289 vessels, about 58,000 tons, arrived at Bristol; being at the latter place 62 vessels, 16,000 tons, above the arrivals in the corresponding period of last year. The foreign trade of Leith has also greatly increased; 680 vessels with foreign cargoes having arrived since the commencement of the year, making an increase, compared with the year preceding, of 177 vessels. The last quarter's receipt at the customhouse there exceeded that of the quarter preceding by L. 29,000. In the east ports of Scotland, and in the ports of the Clyde on the west, there are 220,900 tons of shipping, which being averaged at L. 10 a ton, gives upwards of L. 2,200,000.
The accounts from the manufacturing districts are not less flattering. At Leeds, and other clothing towns in Yorkshire, the orders were never known to be greater than at present. And at Glasgow and Paisley the weavers are in full employment, and the muslin and quilting branches peculiarly brisk. At Glasgow considerable orders are in progress of execution, both for Portuguese and Spanish America.- Nov. 10.
Ditto at sight,
Course of Exchange, London, Nov. 10.-Amsterdam, 11: 9 C. F. 11 : 6. Rotterdam, 11:10: 2 U. Antwerp, 11: 13. Agio of the Bank on Holland, 2. Hamburgh, 34: 0:24 U. Altona, 34: 1 : 2 U. Paris, 3 days sight, 23: 70. Bourdeaux, 24 : 20. Frankfort on the Maine, 141 Ex. M. Madrid, 394. effect. Cadiz, 394 effect. Gibraltar, 34. Leghorn, 513. Genoa, 463. Lisbon, 58. Rio Janeiro, 67. Dublin, 94 per cent. Cork, 94 per cent.
Prices of Bullion per oz.-Portugul Gold in coin, L. 4:2:0. Foreign Gold in bars, L. 4:2:0. New doubloons, L 4: 2: 0. New dollars, L.0 : 5 : 5.
In Premiums of Insurance no alteration since our last.
Weekly Prices of the Public Funds, from October 14 to November 11, 1813.
Oct. 14th. | Oct. 21st. Oct. 27th Nov. 3d. Nov. 11th.
PRICES CURRENT.-Nov. 7.
INDIGO, Caraccas fine, lb. TIMBER, Amer. Pine, foot, Ditto Oak,
BRISTLES, Peters. Firsts, ASHES, Petersburgh Pearl, Montreal ditto, cwt. Pot.
OIL, Whale, tun, Cod, TOBACCO, Virg. fine, lb. inferior. COTTONS, Bowed Georgia,
Sea Island, fine,
Demerara and Berbice,
TALLOW, Rus. Yel. Candle,
FLAX, Riga Th. & Dr. Ra. 84 Dutch,
3s 8d 3 10
Portugal Red, pipe, 48
LOGWOOD, Jamaica, ton,
9s 6d 11 6
1 8 0 10 1 8
114 110 66
15 0 16 0
4 4 3 11 4 0
126 137 129
8 10 8 15
1 3 (Ib.) 1 5
13 10 14 0
1 24 1 6
16 0 17 0
19 0 20
0 90 10
2s 5d 2 6 30 31
10 15 11 0 £11 0£12 6
3s 4d 6 3 8
35 0 65 48 0
30 0 65
£8 8 £8 10
8 10 8 15
10s 6d 11s Od
36 3 9
1 114 2 1 2021 20 2 11 10 1 11 1 10 1 11