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LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE.
MR ROBERT AIKEN, merchant, Stranraer, has discovered a mode of curing herring, so as effectually to prevent the yellow rust, and to preserve the fish in its original whiteness. After having accomplished his purpose in regard to herring, he applied generally the same mode of curing and preserving to mutton, beef, pork, and butter, in which application he has also succeeded. Some months ago he corresponded on this subject with the Commissioners for Victualling his Majesty's Navy, sending to them specimens of meat cured after his manner. He in due time received their acknowledgment of the great value of his discovery, with permission to use the name of the Board in support of his claim to public notice. He likewise communicated, in general te:ms, the nature of his discovery to the Commissioners of Customs, Excise, and the Fisheries, in this city, who examined, in the shop of Messrs Murray, grocers, High Street, specimens of the herring, mutton, pork, and beef cured by Mr Aiken in November last. The result of their examination was the most unqualified admission, that Mr Aiken's discovery is calculated to produce very great benefit, not on ly to fish-curers and victuallers in particular, but to society in general. The specimens exhibited by the Messrs Murray show, when cut, the fat and the lean of the several kinds of meat almost as fresh as newly killed meat, and the taste is particularly pleasant. Mr Aiken intends to publish his discovery, in a small treatise, by subscription. We hope he will receive the reward of his labours in the patronage of the public.
Dr Balfour, in a work just published, on the Sedative and Febrifuge Powers of Emetic Tartar, gives a great variety of cases of inflammation which he cured without blood-letting, or with the loss of so small a quantity of blood as could not affect the strength of the patient in any sensible de
gree If he succeeds in establishing this practice, it must be regarded as one of the most important improvements ever made in the practice of medicine. This is not all. From trials he has already made, and is now prosecuting, he is quite confident, we understand, that emetic tartar, judiciously exhibited, will prevent scrofulous inflammation and ulceration of the lymphatic glands; and, therefore, concludes, that it (emetic tartar) will prove not only a cure, but a preventive of consumption.
Attempts to penetrate into the Interior of Africa. In the Journal of Science and the Arts, Vol. CXLVI. we have the following account, which we believe is the on
ly authentic document that has yet been published of the unfortunate termination of the expedition under Major Peddie.
"A letter from Sierra Leone mentions the return to that place of the scientific expedition for exploring the interior of Africa. They were completely unsuccessful, having advanced only about 150 miles into the interior from Rio Nunez. Their progress was then stopped by a chief of the country; and, after unavailing endeavours, for the space of four months, to obtain liberty to proceed, they abandoned the enterprise, and returned. Nearly all the animals perished. Several officers died, and but one private, besides one drowned, of about 200. Captain Campbell died two days after their return to Rio Nunez, and was buried in the same spot where Major Peddie and one of his officers were buried on their advance."
Our expectation of penetrating into the interior of Africa has received a still more cruel disappointment in the death of that intrepid and adventurous traveller Burckhardt, which took place on 15th October last, at Cairo. He had resided nearly eight years in Egypt and Syria, and had diligently occupied himself in exploring these countries, and in making himself thoroughly acquainted with the language, manners, and religious ceremonies of the Arabs. He had so far attained this object as to have adopted their dress and costume, and, under the denomination of Sheich Ibrahim, had effectually concealed his European origin. Having completed all his preliminary arrangements, he was anxiously waiting for the arrival of a caravan from Mourzouk, which he proposed to accompany on its return, when he was seized with an attack of dysentery, which in ten days terminated fatally.
This succession of disappointments has not, however, repressed the ardour of adventure, and we learn that Mr Ritchie, late private secretary to Sir Charles Stuart, has undertaken to reach the Niger and Tombuctoo by a new route, which seems indeed to hold out peculiar advantages. The present Bashaw of Tripoli has intimated his readiness to co-operate with the British government in the promotion of their plans; Fezzan is a dependency of Tripoli, and is at this time governed by a Bey, who is the son of the Bashaw; and it appears that there is a constant communication between Fezzan and Kashna, Bournou, and even Tombuctoo itself. It seems that the French are likewise turning their attention to the same object, and that the traveller Bahdia, who is so well known under his assumed
name of Ali Bey, is now entering upon an expedition, which is stated to be nearly the same with that which had been projected by Burckhardt.
Plate presented to Dr Paris.-On Tuesday, the 16th instant, a deputation of noblemen and gentlemen of the county of Cornwall waited upon Dr Paris, at his house in Dover Street, with a magnificent present of plate for his acceptance. The inscription, which is engraved on a massy silver waiter, records the services for which it was given. "To John Ayrton Paris, M. D. F. L. S. Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians of London, this plate is in scribed by the noblemen, representatives in Parliament, and gentlemen of the county of Cornwall, in testimony of their grateful sense of his services, in originating the plan, and promoting the institution of the Royal Geological Society of the county, which has rendered their home the school of science, and their native riches increasing sources of prosperity."
Mr Belzoni, a learned Italian, is at this time engaged for the British government in collecting antiquities for the British Museum. He lately addressed the following interesting account of his labours to M. Visconti, at Paris :
"Cairo, January 9, 1818. "I have just arrived from Upper Egypt, and am preparing to return to Nubia for the third time.
"In my first journey to Thebes, in 1816, I had succeeded in embarking on the Nile the upper part of the famous statue of Memnon. This grand wreck, which has lain for so many centuries amidst the ruins of the palace destroyed by Cambyses, is now on its way to the British Museum. It is a colossal bust, of a single block of granite, ten feet in height from the breast to the top of the head, and twelve tons in weight. Other travellers before me had conceived the design of transporting it to Europe, and renounced it only from not conceiving the means of effecting it. The great difficulty was in moving such a mass for the space of two miles, until its arrival at the Nile, whereby alone it could be conveyed to Alexandria. I succeeded in effecting it, without the aid of any machine, by the sole power of the arms of some Arabs, however ill qualified this people, now sunk into the indolence of savage lite, may be for such rude labours. As such, it has been the work of six months.
advanced, was my sole motive in deferring this enterprise to another time.
"From Thebes I went up towards Nubia, to examine the great Temple of Ybsambul, which is buried more than double its height in the sands, near the second cataract. There I found the inhabitants very ill-disposed towards my projects, and from whom I prepared to encounter some difficulties. However, the season being too
"In the mean time, I returned to Thebes, where I occupied myself in new searches at the temple of Karnack. There I found, several feet under ground, a range of sphinxes surrounded by a wall. These sphinxes, with heads of lions on the busts of women, are of black granite, of the usual size, and, for the most part, of beautiful execution. There was, in the same place, a statue of Jupiter Ammon, in white marble. It was not until my second journey, in 1817, that I discovered the head of a colossus much greater than that of Memnon. This head of granite, and of a single block, is by itself ten feet from the neck to the top of the mitre, with which it is crowned. Nothing can be in better preservation. The polish is still as beautiful as if it had but just come from the hands of the statuary.
"After this I again took the road to Nubia, where some severe trials awaited The people of this country are quite savages, without any idea of hospitality. They refused us things the most necessary; entreaties and promises had no effect on them. We were reduced to live upon Turkish corn soaked in water. At length, by dint of patience and courage, after twenty-two days' persevering labour, I had the joy of finding myself in the temple of Ybsanbul, where no European has ever before entered, and which presents the greatest excavation in Nubia or in Egypt, if we except the tombs which I have since discovered at Thebes.
"The Temple of Ybsambul is 152 feet long, and contains fourteen apartments, and an immense court, where we discovered eight colossal figures thirty feet high. The columns and the walls are covered with hieroglyphics and figures very well preserved. This temple has then been spared by Cambyses, and the other ravagers who came after him. I brought some antiquities from thence-two lions with the heads of vultures, and a small statue of Jupiter Ammon.
an ox found there. This mummy is filled with asphaltes. For the rest, nothing that I can say would enable you to conceive the grandeur and magnificence of this tomb.
"This is, undoubtedly, the most curious and the most astonishing thing in Egypt, and which gives the highest idea of the labours of its ancient inhabitants. The interior, from one extremity to the other, is 309 feet, and contains a great number of chambers and corridors. The walls are entirely covered with hieroglyphics and bas-reliefs, painted in fresco. The colours are of a brightness to which nothing, with in our knowledge, is to be compared, and are so well preserved, that they appear to have been just laid on. But the most beautiful antiquity of this place, in the principal chamber, is a sarcophagus of a single piece of alabaster, nine feet seven inches long, by three feet nine inches wide, within and without equally covered with hieroglyphics and carved figures. This large vessel has the sound of a silver bell, and the transparency of glass. There can be no doubt, that, when I shall have transported it to England, as I hope to do, it will be esteemed one of the most precious articles in our European museums.'
Much discussion having lately taken place on the subject of an alleged change of climate in Great Britain, we have subjoined, for the information of our readers, a table of the AVERAGE HEAT in the open air of every year, from 1774, when the journals of the Royal Society were first kept, to 1817; and, as a point of curiosity, we have annexed some periods on which, during the 43 years, the thermometer was at the highest and the lowest.
50.6 1799............48.5 .51.5
the thermometer was 93.5: other hot days were, in July 1793, at 89; and June 1804 at 87. The coldest days in the period were, in December 1796, at 5; and in January 1795 at 8.
From observations made by Mr Bevan, at Leighton, Bedfordshire, during last year, it appears that there were 614 hours of actual rain, that the average rate at which the rain fell was .68 of an inch in a day; the heaviest rain was on the 27th of June, which was at the rate of nine inches a-day.
A curious case has recently been communicated to Dr Thomas Forster, of three children, successively born of the same mother, having each five fingers and a thumb on each hand. They are the sons of a labouring man in Buckinghamshire, and the family are in all other respects perfect. The extra finger was situated on the outside of the little finger, and on the same bone. It was, in all the three cases, amputated close to the joint during the first three days of infancy. This kind of monstrosity is frequently hereditary, and appears again and again in successive genera1812............49.2 tions of the same family; but, in the pre
The Rev. R. Morrison, who has for ten years been collecting the materials, is printing, at Macao, an extensive Chinese and English Dictionary, containing forty thousand characters. It will be printed at the expence of the East India Company, who have liberally authorized Mr Morrison to vend, for his own recompence, 650 of the 750 copies of which the edition is to consist. The three parts,-1 the Radicals or Keys.-2. The English and Chinese, and, 3. the Chinese and English, will extend to upwards of 40 half-yearly numbers; but it is proposed that the total cost shall not exceed 20 guineas to subscribers. If, therefore, Mr Morrison should live long enough, this great desideratum of European literature is, at length, likely to be achieved.
Ale brewed by Sir Joseph Banks being analyzed, at his desire, by Mr Brande, gave the following proportion of alcohol:
1. Malt to the hogshead, eight strike or bushel. Hops to the hogshead, 8 lbs.contained 9.85 per cent. of alcohol.
2. Malt to the hogshead, ten strike. Hops to the hogshead, 11 lbs.-contained 10.84 per cent. of alcohol.
.49.9 ...50.5 1797 ........50. 1798............51.3
In the seven years from 1774 to 1780, the average heat was 51.68; in the thirteen years from 1787 to 1800 was 50.54; and in the sixteen, from 1801 to 1816, was 50.93, a clear proof that no deterioration of climate has taken place. The hottest day in the period was in July 1808, when
sent case, no traces can be found of any thing of the sort in the family before.
A late number of the Calcutta Magazine contains the following curious particulars respecting an invasion of locusts in India, in 1812. They are from the pen of an eye-witness, who says," About the 20th of June, a very large flight of locusts was observed hovering about Etawah, which at length settled in the fields east of the town, where they remained some time, and were seen copulating in vast numbers. They
then took their departure, but continued to hover about the place for a month afterwards. On the 18th of July, while riding in that direction, I discovered a tremendous swarm of very small, dark-coloured insects in the vicinity of a large pool of stagnant water; they were collected in heaps, and covered the ground to a considerable distance. These, on minute inspection, proved to be locusts in miniature, but without wings. In this place they remained, hourly increasing in numbers, for some days, when the great body moved off in the direction of Etawah. They crept and hopped along at a slow rate, until they reached the town, where they divided into different bodies, still keeping nearly the same direction, covering and destroying every thing green in their progress, and distributing themselves all over the neighbourhood. The devastation daily committed by them being almost incalculable, the farmers were under the necessity of collecting as many people as they could, in the vain hope that they might preserve the crop, by sweeping the swarm backwards; but, as often as they succeeded in repelling them in one quarter, they approached in another. Fires were then lighted all round the fields with the same view. This had the effect of keeping them off for a short time, but sufficient fuel could not be supplied, and, the moment the fires became extinguished, the insects rushed in like a torrent. Multitudes were destroyed by the birds, and many more by branches of trees, as well as by being swept into large heaps, and consumed by fire; yet their numbers seemed undiminished. So completely did they cover some mangoe trees, and the hedges surrounding the gardens, that the colour of the leaves could not be distinguished. They had no wings, and were about the size of small bees; continued to creep along the ground, or hopped when their progress was interrupted. On the 27th they were increased in size, and had overspread the country in every direction. From the want of rain, and the inroad of these insects, the farmers were nearly ruined. Nothing impeded their progress; they elimbed the highest trees, and scrambled over walls; and, notwithstanding the exertions of several people with brooms, the verandah and outer walls of the hospital were completely covered with them. They no longer continued to move in one particular direction, but paraded backward and forward wherever they could find food. On the 28th the rains set in with considerable violence; the locusts took shelter on trees and bushes, devouring every leaf within their reach; none seemed to suffer from the rain. On the 29th it did not rain, and the young swarm were again on the move, continuing their depredations; they were fast increasing in size, and as lively as be
fore the rain. It again rained on the 30th, and again the locusts took shelter on the trees and fences; several large flights passed over the cantonments; and I observed that the wings of the young ones began to appear. The head still retained the dark red colour, but the black lines on the body had become much fainter. On the 31st large flights again continued to pass, driven by the wind to the southward; of course very few alighted, and they caused but little mischief within our view. The wings of the young tribe-the whole four being now formed-were about one-eighth of an inch in length. After this time, I made no particular observations on their progress, being otherwise engaged; but they disappeared in a few days."
FRANCE-A specimen has been published of a collection of Latin Classics, with perpetual commentaries and indices, about to be commenced at Paris. It will appear at the rate of two volumes a month, commencing with the first volume of Heyne's Virgil, and of Overlin's Tacitus.
M. Lemaire, Professor of Latin Poetry in the Academy of Paris, has announced, by subscription, another collection of Latin Classics, with commentaries, principally extracted from the variorum editions, indices, portraits of the authors, plates, and maps. Twelve volumes will be published yearly.
Besides the two Biographical Dictionaries which are in progress at Paris, a third work of a similar nature is about to appear, with the title of Le Paradis des Hommes illustres, ou Abrégé de l'Histoire ancienne et moderne, with notes and observations. It will extend to 34 volum es, 8vo.
Intelligence can be received from Calais at Paris, between which there are 27 telegraphs, in three minutes; from Lille, 22 telegraphs, two minutes; from Strasburg, 45 telegraphs, six and a half minutes; from Lyons, 50 telegraphs, and from Brest, 80 telegraphs, eight minutes.
ITALY. From a memoir lately read to the Society of Georgofili, of Florence, we learn that the Government of Tuscany has ordered the immediate completion of the trigonometrical survey of that country, begun by Professor Inghirami, which is to be followed by the publication of a new and accurate map of the grand-duchy, and many other improvements in the agriculture, irrigation, management of the waters, &c. in that interesting province of Italy. At the same time, a mineral, geological, and botanical survey of the country is executing by naturalists of eminent talents.
DENMARK.-Late intelligence from this country announces, that a quarry of pitcoal, and a mine rich in iron, have been recently discovered in the island of Bornholm, which promise the Danes some recompence for their loss of Norway.
Mr A. Picquot, author of the Ancient and Modern Geography, has in the press a Chronological Abridgment of the History of Modern Europe, compiled from the best English, French, and German histo
Mr Huish, author of a Treatise on Bees, has nearly ready for publication Verezzi, a romance of former days.
A distinguished Chiropodist has in the press, the Art of preserving the Feet; or, practical Observations on the Prevention and Cure of Corns, Bunnions, Callosities, Chilblains, &c. in one small volume.
Captain Golownin, the narrative of whose Captivity in Japan has excited so much interest, is preparing for publication his Recollections of Japan. They will comprise a particular account of the Religion, Language, Government, Laws, and Manners of the People, with Observations on the Geography, Climate, Population, and Productions of the Country.
Mr F. Baily of Gray's Inn has in the press an interesting Memoir on the Annular Eclipse of the Sun, which will happen on 7th September 1820. It is printed only for private distribution amongst his friends.
Dr Carey has in the press an improved edition of his larger work on Latin Prosody and Versification.
The Rev. R. Brook proposes to publish, by subscription, the State and Progress of Religious Liberty, from the first propagation of Christianity in Britain to the pre
A work, entitled Universal Commerce, by the editor of Mortimer's Commercial Dictionary, will appear in the course of the A chiel's amang you takin notes, ensuing month.
A Mercator's Atlas of Skeleton Maps, adapted to modern Navigation and Maritime Surveying, for the u e of Naval Students, will be published in the course of the present month, in royal 4to.
The First Volume of the Transactions of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall will shortly appear.
Dr Ayre of Hull is about publishing, in one volume 8vo, Practical Observations on the Nature and Treatment of Marasmus, and of those disorders allied to it, which may be strictly denominated bilious.
Tales of my Landlord. SECOND SERIES. Collected and arranged by Jedediah Cleishbotham, Schoolmaster and Parishclerk of Gandercleugh. 4 vols. 12mo.-will be published on the 24th July. “Hear, Land o' Cakes, and brither Scots, Frae Maidenkirk to Jonny Groats, If there's a hole a' your coats, I rede ye tent it,
An' faith he'll prent it." BURNS. An Inquiry into the Nature and Origin of Public Wealth, and into the Means and Causes of its Increase. By the Earl of Lauderdale. A new edition, revised, with considerable additions. 1 vol. 8vo.
Two Essays, one upon Single Vision with Two Eyes, the other upon Dew: A Letter to the Right Hon. Lloyd Lord Kenyon: and an Account of a Female of the White Race of Mankind, part of whose Skin resembles that of a Negro, with some Observations on the Causes of the Differences in Colour and Form between the White and Negro races of Men. By the late W. C. Wells, M. D. F. R. S. L. & E. with a Memoir of his Life, written by himself. 8vo.
In a few days will be published, in one