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go about and attend to their own affairs? "Oh, no," you answer, "quite the contrary; they would have to be in the service of the state all the time, ready to go to war at any moment."

Then it would look as if somehow in those early military states, a man just belonged to the state and scarcely belonged to himself at all; it would be just as if he were owned by the state like a slave.

More than that, if the citizens had to be going to war continually and giving all their time and attention to military affairs, who would do the work? "Why, probably they would have slaves."

Yes, that is true; in the old military states, even where they had what we call a government by the people, as you know, they also had slaves, a great number of them, to do the hard work.

Do you see the difference, then, in such a military state, how the citizens would be like slaves owned by the state, and the hard work would be done by other people as slaves owned by the citizens; and yet it might be what they called a republic, a sovereignty of the people?

Contrast all this, with the conditions nowadays. Do we feel as if we were owned by the state, just like slaves? "No, quite the contrary," you assert; "we belong to the state, but we are free to do as we please in a great many ways; besides that, we can control the affairs of the state, as free citizens."

And who do the hard work nowadays,-slaves, for instance? "No, the citizens work, and there are no slaves in civilized countries."

What do you assume, more than anything else, has brought this about? "Oh, it may be because there are fewer wars nowadays." Yes, and what else?

How do we describe the present age? "As the Industrial Age?" True. Now, for instance, if you were to attend the sessions of Congress at Washing

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ton for a whole winter, what do you suppose the talk would be about, the legislation, or the new laws that are being passed,-would it be for the most part, about war and military affairs, soldiers, and things like that?

"Oh, no, quite the contrary," you say, “that would be the exception and not the rule." What, then, do you fancy, would be the subject talked about in making new laws?

"Why," you answer, "the industrial life, commerce." Yes, quite so; a good deal of the legislation in our states in modern times has to do, not with war or military affairs, but rather with industry, the industrial life, the commerce which is being carried on by the people.

Then how would you describe the state or nation to-day as contrasted with the state or nation in early times? You called the early type the "military" one; what would you call the state of to-day? You have already suggested the term in describing the age in which we are living. "The Industrial state?"

And I wonder if you have an idea what brought about the industrial state. "Oh," you tell me, "that point has already been answered: it is because there are fewer wars nowadays, and because of the use of steam and the invention of machinery."

Do you know when the change took place? Whose name is most prominently connected with the invention of the steam-engine? I think you must have heard it. "Yes," you say, "it was James Watt." True, and when did he live? "You do not quite know ?"

I am surprised at that; the change brought about by that invention is considered the most important, perhaps, in the history of the world. You know the date of our Declaration of Independence? "Oh yes,"

you smile, "1776." Well, it was just eleven years before that time, when Watts made his discovery.

And do you know in what country he lived? Was he an American? "No," you answer, "he was a Scotchman." True, he was a working engineer at Glasgow, a plain man of the people, as you see.

We speak of him as having invented the steamengine, although it is not quite correct to put it in that way. There had been engines worked by steam before that, but they had not amounted to much, and perhaps never would have amounted to much if it had not been for the great and important discovery by this man.

Do you know how the discovery came to him? "No?" Why, it seemed to have jumped into his mind all at once. He had been wondering quite a long while, why the crude old steam engine was of so little service. He went out one Sunday afternoon for a walk, and was crossing the "Green" in Glasgow, when all at once the idea came to him how to make a steam engine that would be of service to the world.

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Then, as you know, along with the steam-engine, came the invention of new machinery, and in the course of twenty-five or thirty years, the whole world was changed. There followed the locomotive, transforming the world of commerce.

Who invented the locomotive, by the way? "George Stevenson?" True, and where did he live? "Why, in Great Britain?" Yes, and what about the steamboat or steamship? "Oh, that was invented by an American, Robert Fulton," you answer.

But do you suppose that if these discoveries had been made, as I said, two thousand years ago, they would have transformed the world then? "Perhaps not," you reply.

Why not? I ask. "Because," you tell me, "as we have explained before, we have a different kind of state now, with fewer wars, more settled conditions, with a chance to have more legislation concerning the industrial life of the country."

Yes, probably the two changes influenced each other; the new kind of state which was coming, made it possible for industrial life to develop. But besides that, the new industrial life altered the type of the state. You see, great men who in early times would have given all their energies to war and fighting, now, instead, turned their thoughts to industry and commerce.

With what, then, shall we connect this rise of the industrial state? "Why, with the theme of the previous lesson," you suggest, "with the rise of the people." Yes, I think they go together; the state of the future probably will be the Industrial State.

But what about soldiers and war, will there be any military state left, do you fancy? "Something of it," you answer, "but not so much." I suppose you are right; we may continue to have wars for a long while to come, but not so many of them; and they will not be conducted in the way wars used to be conducted.

For instance, in the old days, if there was a war between two countries, do you know what used to happen when one people conquered another people? What did they do to the towns or villages or cities of the countries they had conquered?

"Burned them down or destroyed them?" Yes, alas, that was the old custom.

But would that happen nowadays in war? "Not unless it was necessary," you explain. Quite true; and that, you observe, makes a great difference. Even in war we are more civilized, and it may be

because we have the Industrial State, rather than the Military State. You see, the rise of the people has changed the world and given us not only a new kind of government, but also a new kind of state.

Points of the Lesson.

I. That one great contrast in our life to-day from early times is in our industrial system, our factories and machinery. II. That this would have been impossible in early times, because of the constant wars, if for no other reason.

III. That in early times, states or governments were obliged to be occupied more especially with military matters pertaining to wars and fighting.

IV. That the industrial state of to-day is connected not only with the use of coal and invention of machinery, but with the rise of the people and the acquisition of freedom on the part of the people.

V. That less war makes more industrial life possible; and more industrial life lessens the numbers of wars.

VI. That governments to-day have more to do with industrial problems and less with military matters.

VII. That the state of the future will tend more and more to become of the industrial type.

Duties.

I. We ought to rejoice in that warfare has been giving way to industry in the history of civilization. II. We ought to rejoice in that we have an industrial state and live in an industrial age.

Poem,

Our father's God! from out whose hand
The centuries fall like grains of sand,
We meet to-day, united, free,

And loyal to our land and Thee,
To thank Thee for the era done,
And trust Thee for the opening one.

Here, where of old, by Thy design,
The fathers spake that word of Thine
Whose echo is the glad refrain
Of rended bolt and falling chain,
To grace our festal time, from all
The zones of earth our guests we call.

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