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At that time, people may still be citizens of states which exist to-day. But they will also be citizens of a Universal State; the Federation of the World.

Duties.

I. States or nations ought to cultivate the spirit of good-fellowship with one another.

II. States or nations ought to encourage international conferences and the growth of international law.

III. States or nations ought to obey international laws, just as citizens ought to obey the laws of their own states or nations.

IV. We ought as citizens to encourage feelings of good-fellowship with citizens of other nations. V. We ought to feel that our relations to one another as fellow-men are of even higher importance than our relations to one another as citizens.

VI.

We ought to look forward to the coming of a Universal State which shall unite the whole world under a universal system of laws.

Points of the Lesson.

I. That states can die as people die, from various causes. II. That this may happen by accident, by being attacked and overcome by other states, or by becoming diseased like people.

III. That states become diseased by losing their character and the respect for law on the part of the citizens; e. g. Greece and Rome.

IV. That the growth and death of states still goes on, but less violent deaths occur than formerly because of a greater sense of justice now prevailing.

V. That even laws between states have become established, starting first, perhaps, as customs and afterwards becoming fixed as laws.

VI. That we have now, therefore, between civilized states, what we call International Law.

VII. That as the number of these laws increases there will be fewer wars and a closer coming together between states. VIII. That there is gradually forming in this way a federation of all the states of the world.

IX. That there is, therefore, an outlook toward a parliament of man and a universal state.

X. That this need not, however, destroy the individuality of separate states, as it will be more like a Voluntary Federation.

Classic for Reading or Recitation.

"History tells the mournful tale of conquering nations and conquerors. The three most celebrated conquerors in the civilized world were Alexander, Caesar and Napoleon. The first, after ruining a large portion of Asia, sighing and lamenting that there were no more worlds to subdue, met a premature and ignoble death. His lieutenants quarreled and warred with each other as to the spoils of his victories, and finally lost them all. Caesar after conquering Gaul, returned with his triumphant legion to Rome, passed the Rubicon, won the battle of Pharsalia, trampled upon the liberties of his country, and expired by the patriot hand of Brutus. But Rome ceased to be free. War and conquest had enervated and corrupted the masses. The spirit of true liberty was extinguished; a long line of emperors succeeded, some of whom were the most execrable monsters that ever existed in human form. And Napoleon, that most extraordinary man, perhaps in all history, after subjugating all continental Europe, occupying almost all its capitals, seriously threatening proud Albion itself, and decorating the brows of various members of his family with crowns torn from the heads of other monarchs, lived to behold his own dear France itself in possession of his enemies, was made himself a wretched captive, and far removed from country, family and friends, breathed his last on the distant and inhospitable rocks of St. Helena."-Henry Clay.

Further Suggestions to the Teacher.

This series of lessons closes thus with a sentiment. We should not go much into detail on the subject.

It is simply an outlook suggestive of what may happen in the future, with a sense of encouragement from a survey of the past. We do not wish to indicate that there will not always be such a thing as citizenship, but rather to encourage the suggestion that there is a permanency to the state as an Institution, just as with the institution of the Family. In what we have to say about International Law, it is to be remembered that we only introduce this in the same general way and not with any thought in view of giving instruction on this subject. But the young people should be made to realize that such a thing does actually exist and they should be led to feel that some time in the future they will need to know further about it. Once more we emphasize the point which has been repeated again and again: treat all this material not as a series of lessons on Civil Government, but as a course of instruction on the "Ethics of Citizenship."

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