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Whatever right you may have, by your agreement with him, to the provifions he has taken on board for the use of the paffengers, it is always proper to have fome private ftore, which you may make use of occafionally. You ought, therefore, to provide good water, that of the ship being often bad; but you must put it into bottles, without which you cannot expect to preferve it fweet. You ought alfo to carry with you good tea, ground coffee, chocolate, wine of that fort which you like beft, cyder, dried raifins, almonds, fugar, capillaire, citrons, rum, eggs dipped in oil, portable foup, bread twice baked. With regard to poultry, it is almoft ufelefs to carry any with you, unless you refolve to undertake the office of feeding and fattening them yourself. With the little care which is taken of them on board fhip, they are almost all fickly, and their flesh is as tough as leather.
All failors entertain an opinion, which has undoubtedly originated formerly from a want of water, and when it has been found neceffary to be fparing of it, that poultry never know when they have drank enough; and that when water is given them at difcretion, they generally kill themselves by drinking beyond meafure, In confequence of this opinion, they give them water only once in two days, and even then in fmall quantities; but as they pour this water into troughs inclining on one fide, which occafions it to run to the lower part, it thence happens that they are obliged to mount one upon the back of another in order to reach it; and there are fome which cannot even dip their beaks in it. Thus continually tantalized and tormented by thirst, they are unable to digeft their food, which is very dry, and they foon fall fick and die. Some of them are found thus every morning, and are
thrown into the fea; whilft those which are killed for the table are fcarcely fit to be eaten. To remedy this inconvenience, it will be neceffary to divide their troughs into fmall compartments, in fuch a manner that each of them may be capable of containing water; but this is feldom or never done. On this account, sheep and hogs are to be confidered as the best fresh provifion that one can have at fea; mutton there being in general very good, and pork excellent.
It may happen that fome of the provifions and ftores which I have recommended may become almost useless, by the care which the captain has taken to lay in a proper ftock: but in fuch a cafe you may difpofe of it to relieve the poor paffengers, who, paying lefs for their paffage, are ftowed among the common failors, and have no right to the captain's provifions, except fuch part of them as is ufed for feeding the crew. These paffengers
fengers are fometimes fick, melancholy, and dejected; and there are often women and children among them, neither of whom have any opportunity of procuring those things which I have mentioned, and of which, perhaps, they have the greatest need. By diftributing amongst them a part of your fuperfluity, you may be of the greatest affistance to them. You may restore their health, fave their lives, and in fhort render them happy; which always affords the livelieft fenfation to a feeling mind.
The most difagreeable thing at sea is the cookery; for there is not, properly fpeaking, any profeffed cook on board. The worst failor is generally chosen for that purpose, who for the moft part is equally dirty. Hence comes the proverb used among the English failors, that God fends meat, and the Devil fends cooks. Those, however, who have a better opinion of Providence, will think otherwife.
otherwife. Knowing that fea air, and the exercise or motion which they receive from the rolling of the fhip, have a wonderful effect in whetting the appetite, they will fay, that Providence has given failors bad cooks to prevent them from eating too much; or that knowing they would have bad cooks, he has given them a good appetite to prevent them from dying with hunger. How ever, if you have no confidence in thefe fuccours of Providence, you may your. felf, with a lamp and a boiler, by the help of a little fpirits of wine, prepare fome food, fuch as foup, hafh, &c. A fmall oven made of tin-plate is not a bad piece of furniture: your fervant may roaft in it a piece of mutton or pork. If you are ever tempted to eat falt beef, which is often very good, you will find that cyder is the best liquor to quench the thirst generally caufed by falt meat or falt fish. Sea-biscuit, which is too