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the protection of both fides, and be permitted to follow their employments in fecurity? viz.

1. Cultivators of the earth, because they labour for the subsistence of mankind.

2. Fishermen, for the fame reason. 3. Merchants and traders in unarmed ships, who accommodate different nations by communicating and exchanging the neceffaries and conveniences of life.

4. Artifts and mechanics, inhabiting and working in open towns.

It is hardly neceffary to add, that the hofpitals of enemies fhould be unmolefted-they ought to be affifted. It is for the intereft of humanity in general, that the occafions of war, and the inducements to it, should be diminished. If rapine be abolished, one of the encouragements to war is taken away; and peace therefore more likely to continue and be lafting.


The practice of robbing merchants. on the high feas—a remnant of the antient piracy-though it may be accidentally beneficial to particular perfons, is far from being profitable to all engaged in it, or to the nation that authorises it. In the beginning of a war fome rich ships are furprized and taken. This encourages the first adventurers to fit out more armed veffels; and many others to do the fame. But the enemy at the fame time become more careful arm their merchant fhips better, and render them not fo eafy to be taken : they go alfo more under the protection of convoys. Thus, while the privateers to take them are multiplied, the veffels fubject to be taken, and the chances of profit, are diminished; fo that many cruifes are made wherein the expences overgo the gains; and, as is the cafe in other lotteries, though particulars have got prizes, the mafs of adventurers


are lofers, the whole expence of fitting out all the privateers during a war being much greater than the whole amount of goods taken.

Then there is the national lofs of all the labour of fo many men during the time they have been employed in robbing; who befides spend what they get in riot, drunkenness, and debauchery; lofe their habits of industry; are rarely fit for any fober bufinefs after a peace, and ferve only to increase the number of highwaymen and housebreakers. Even the undertakers who have been fortunate, are, by fudden wealth, led into expenfive living, the habit of which continues when the means of fupporting it cease, and finally ruins them: a juft punishment for their having wantonly and unfeelingly ruined many honeft, innocent traders and their families, whofe fubftance was employed in ferving the common intereft of mankind.

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Notes copied from Dr. Franklin's writing in pencil in the margin of Judge Foster's celebrated argument in favour of the IMPRESSING OF SEAMEN (published in the folio edition of his works).

JUDGE Fofter, p. 158.

. Every

"Man."-The conclufion here from the whole to a part, does not feem to be good logic. If the alphabet should fay, Let us all fight for the defence of the whole; that is equal, and may, therefore, be juft. But if they should fay, Let A B C and D go out and fight for us, while we stay at home and fleep in whole fkins; that is not equal, and therefore cannot be just.


Ib. "Employ."-If you please. The word fignifies engaging a man to work for me, by offering him fuch wages as are fufficient to induce him to prefer my fervice. This is very different from com. pelling him to work on fuch terms as I think proper.

Ib. "This fervice and employment, "&c."-Thefe are falfe facts. His employments and fervice are not the fame. -Under the merchant he goes in an unarmed veffel, not obliged to fight, but to transport merchandize. In the king's fervice he is obliged to fight, and to hazard all the dangers of battle. Sickness on board of king's fhips is alfo more common and more mortal. The merchant's fervice too he can quit at the end of the voyage; not the king's. Alfo, the merchant's wages are much higher.

Ib. "I am very fenfible, &c."


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