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force from his honeft occupation, and compelled to imbrue his hands in perhaps innocent blood. But methinks it well behoves merchants (men more enlightened by their education, and perfectly free from any fuch force or obligation) to confider well of the justice of a war, before they voluntarily engage a gang of ruffians to attack their fellowmerchants of a neighbouring nation, to plunder them of their property, and perhaps ruin them and their families, if they yield it; or to wound, maim, and murder them, if they endeavour to defend it. Yet these things are done by Chris tian merchants, whether a war be just or unjuft; and it can hardly be just on both fides. They are done by English and American merchants, who, nevertheless, complain of private theft, and hang by dozens the thieves they have taught by their own example.

It is high time, for the fake of huma-


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nity, that a ftop were put to this enormity. The United States of America, though better fituated than any European nation to make profit by privateering (most of the trade of Europe, with the West Indies, paffing before their doors), are, as far as in them lies, endeavouring to abolish the practice, by offering, in all their treaties with other powers, an article, engaging folemnly, that, in cafe of future war, no privateer fhall be commiffioned on either fide; and that unarmed merchant-thips, on both fides, fhall pursue their voyages unmolefted*. This will be a happy improvement

This offer having been accepted by the late king of Pruffia, a treaty of amity and commerce was concluded between that monarch and the United States, containing the following humane, philanthropic article; in the formation of which Dr. Franklin, as one of the American plenipotentiaries, was principally concerned, viz.


If war fhould arife between the two contracting


provement of the law of nations. The

parties, the merchants of either country, then refiding in the other, fhall be allowed to remain nine months to collect their debts and settle their affairs, and may depart freely, carrying off all their effects without moleftation or hindrance: and all women and children, scholars of every faculty, cultivators of the earth, artifans, manufacturers, and fifhermen, unarmed and inhabiting unfortified towns, villages, or places, and in general all others whose occupations are for the common fubfiftence and benefit of mankind, fhall be allowed to continue their respective employments, and shall not be molested in their perfons, nor fhall their houfes or goods be burnt, or otherwise destroyed, nor their fields wafted, by the armed force of the enemy into whose power, by the events of war, they may happen to fall; but if any thing is neceffary to be taken from them for the use of fuch armed force, the same shall be paid for at a reasonable price. And all merchant and trading veffels employed in exchanging the products of different places, and thereby rendering the necessaries, conveniences, and comforts of human life more easy to be obtained, and more general, shall be allowed to pass free and unmolefted; and neither of the contracting powers fhall grant or iffue any commiffion to any private armed veffels, empowering them to take or deftroy fuch trading veffels, or interrupt such com



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humane and the just cannot but wish general fuccefs to the propofition.

With unchangeable esteem and affection,

I am, my dear friend,

Ever yours,




SAVAGES we call them, because their manners differ from ours, which we think the perfection of civility; they think the fame of theirs.

Perhaps, if we could examine the manners of different nations with impartiality, we should find no people fo rude as to be without any rules of politeness; nor any fo polite as not to have some remains of rudeness.

The Indian men, when young, are hunters and warriors; when old, counfellors; for all their government is by the counsel or advice of the fages; there is no force, there are no prifons, no officers to compel obedience, or inflict punishment. Hence they generally study N 3


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