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upon them, will furely find themselves disappointed.

The truth is, that though there are in that country few people fo miferable as the poor of Europe, there are also very few that in Europe would be called rich: it is rather a general happy mediocrity that prevails. There are few great proprietors of the foil, and few tenants; most people cultivate their own lands, or follow fome handicraft or merchandise; very few rich enough to live idly upon their rents or incomes, or to pay the high prices given in Europe for painting, ftatues, architecture, and the other works of art that are more curious than useful. Hence the natural geniuses that have arifen in America, with fuch talents, have uniformly quitted that country for Europe, where they can be more fuitably rewarded. It is true that letters and mathematical knowledge are in esteem there, but they are at the fame time


more common than is apprehended; there being already exifting nine colleges, or univerfities, viz. four in NewEngland, and one in each of the provinces of New-York, New-Jersey, Pennfylvania, Maryland, and Virginia, all furnished with learned profeffors; befides a number of fmaller academies: thefe educate many of their youth in the languages, and those fciences that qualify men for the profeffions of divinity, law, or phyfic. Strangers indeed are by no means excluded from exercifing those profeffions; and the quick increase of inhabitants every where gives them a chance of employ, which they have in common with the natives. Of civil offices, or employments, there are few no fuperfluous ones as in Europe; and it is a rule established in fome of the ftates, that no office fhould be fo profitable as to make it defirable. The 36th article of the conftitution of Pennsylva


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nia runs exprefsly in these words: "As every freeman, to preserve his indepen"dence (if he has not a fufficient estate), "ought to have fome profeffion, calling,

trade, or farm, whereby he may ho"neftly fubfift, there can be no neceffity "for, nor ufe in, establishing offices of "profit; the ufual effects of which are

dependence and fervility, unbecoming "freemen, in the poffeffors and: ex"pectants; faction, contention, corrup❝tion and diforder among the peo"ple. Wherefore, whenever an office,

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through increase of fees or otherwise, "becomes fo profitable as to occafion

many to apply for it, the profits ought "to be leffened by the legislature.”

These ideas prevailing more or less in all the United States, it cannot be worth any man's while, who has a means of living at home, to expatriate himself in hopes of obtaining a profitable civil office in America; and as to military offices, they


they are at an end with the war, the armies being difbanded. Much less is it adviseable for a person to go thither, who has no other quality to recommend him but his birth. In Europe it has indeed its value; but it is a commodity that cannot be carried to a worse market than to that of America, where people do not enquire concerning a ftranger, What is be? but What can be do? If he has any ufeful art, he is welcome; and if he exercises it, and behaves well, he will be refpected by all that know him; but a mere man of quality, who on that account wants to live upon the public by fome office or falary, will be despised and difregarded. The hufbandman is in honour there, and even the mechanic, because their employments are useful. The people have a faying, that God Almighty is himself a mechanic, the greatest in the universe; and he is respected and admired more for the variety, ingenuity,


and utility of his handiworks, than for the antiquity of his family. They are pleased with the obfervation of a negro, and frequently mention it, that Boccarorra (meaning the white man) make de black man workee, make de horse workee, make de ox workee, make ebery ting workee; only de hog. He de hog, no workee; he eat, he drink, he walk about, he go to fleep when he please, he libb like a gentleman. According to thefe opinions of the Americans, one of them would think himself more obliged to a genealogist, who could prove for him that his ancestors and relations for ten generations had been ploughmen, fmiths, carpenters, turners, weavers, tanners, or even shoemakers, and confequently that they were useful members of fociety; than if he could only prove that they were gentlemen, doing nothing of value, but living idly on the labour of Q 4 others,

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