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continually occurring to the player, "If "I move this piece, what will be the "advantage of my new fituation? What "ufe can my adversary make of it to

annoy me? What other moves can I "make to fupport it, and to defend my"felf from his attacks ?"

II. Circumfpection, which furveys the whole chefs-board, or scene of action, the relations of the feveral pieces and fituations, the dangers they are refpectively exposed to, the feveral poffibilities of their aiding each other, the probabilities that the adverfary may take this or that move, and attack this or the other piece, and what different means can be used to avoid his ftroke, or turn its consequences against him.

III. Caution, not to make our moves too haftily. This habit is beft acquired by obferving strictly the laws of the game, fuch as, "If you touch a piece, you must move it fomewhere; if you "fet

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"let it down, you must let it stand :' and it is therefore beft that these rules fhould be obferved, as the game thereby becomes more the image of human life, and particularly of war ; in which, if you have incautiously put yourfelf into a bad and dangerous pofition, you cannot obtain your enemy's leave to withdraw your troops, and place them more fecurely, but you must abide all the confequences of your rafhnefs.

And, laftly, we learn by chefs the habit of not being difcouraged by prefent bad appearances in the state of our affairs, the habit of hoping for a favourable change, and that of persevering in the fearch of refources. The game is fo full of events, there is fuch a variety of turns in it, the fortune of it is fo fubject to fudden viciffitudes, and one fo frequently, after long contemplation, difcovers the means of extricating oneself from afuppofed infurmountable difSculty, that one is encouraged to continue


the conteft to the last, in hopes of victory by our own skill, or at least of giving a ftale mate, by the negligence of our adverfary. And whoever confiders, what in chefs he often fees instances of, that particular pieces of fuccefs are apt to produce prefumption, and its confequent inattention, by which the lofs may be recovered, will learn not to be too much discouraged by the present fuccefs of his adversary, nor to defpair of final good fortune, upon every little check he receives in the pursuit of it.

That we may, therefore, be induced more frequently to choose this beneficial amufement, in preference to others, which are not attended with the fame advantages, every circumftance which may increase the pleasures of it should be regarded; and every action or word that is unfair, disrespectful, or that in any way may give uneafinefs, fhould be avoided, as contrary to the immediate intention

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intention of both the players, which is to pass the time agreeably.

Therefore, firft, if it is agreed to play according to the ftrict rules; then those rules are to be exactly obferved by both parties, and fhould not be infifted on for one fide, while deviated from by the other-for this is not equitable.

Secondly, If it is agreed not to obferve the rules exactly, but one party demands indulgencies, he should then be as willing to allow them to the other.

Thirdly, No falfe move fhould ever be made to extricate yourself out of a difficulty, or to gain an advantage. There can be no pleasure in playing with a perfon once detected in fuch unfair practice.

Fourthly, If your adversary is long in playing, you ought not to hurry him, or exprefs any uneafinefs at his delay. You should not fing, nor whistle, nor look at your watch, nor take up a book


to read, nor make a tapping with your feet on the floor, or with your fingers on the table, nor do any thing that may difturb his attention. For all these things displease; and they do not shew your skill in playing, but your craftiness or your rudeness.

Fifthly, You ought not to endeavour to amuse and deceive your adversary, by pretending to have made bad moves, and faying that you have now loft the game, in order to make him fecure and careless, and inattentive to your schemes : for this is fraud and deceit, not skill in

the game.

Sixthly, You must not, when you have gained a victory, ufe any triumphing or infulting expreffion, nor show too much pleasure; but endeavour to confole your adversary, and make him lefs diffatisfied with himself, by every kind of civil expreffion that may be ufed with truth, fuch as, " You under"ftand


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