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a fhip would remain feparate, if we had no pegs or nails to fasten them together. So, when it is faid, Peter and John went to the temple, it may feem, that the conjunction and connects only the two names Peter and John: but it really connects two fentences,-Peter went to the temple, -John went to the temple; for unlefs we fuppofe the words, went to the temple, to belong both to Peter and to John, the expreffion has no meaning.

In this account of the Conjunction, Scaliger, Sanctius, Voffius, Urfinus, and Mr. Harris agree. But Perizonius is of opinion, and Ruddiman feems to think, that the conjunctions do fometimes connect words, and not fentences: as in examples, like the following: Saul and Paul are the fame: This book colt a fhilling and more: There is war between England and France. Each of thefe, no doubt, is one fentence, and, if we keep to the fame phrafeology, incapable of being broken into two. For, if inftead of the first we fay, "Saul is the fame-Paul is the fame," we utter nonfenfe; because the predicate fame, though it agrees with the two fubjects in their united ftate, will not agree with either when feparate. If we fay, inftead of the fecond, "This book coft a fhilling-this book coft "more," we fpeak with little meaning, or at leaft inaccurately. And, inftead of the third, if we fay, "There is war between England-there "is war between France," we fall into nonfense as before; because the prepofition between, having a neceffary reference to more than one, cannot be used where one only is fpoken of.


Yet, from thefe and the like examples, I do not fee that any exception arifes to the general idea of this part of fpeech, as expreffed in the definition. For in each of thefe a double affirmation feems to be implied: and two affirmations certainly comprehend matter fufficient for two fentences. If, therefore, not one of the examples given can, in its prefent form, be refolved into two, it must be owing, not to the want of ideas, but to fome peculiarity in the expreffion. Let us, therefore, without adding any new idea, change the expreffion, and mark the confequence.

The first example, "Paul and Saul are the "fame," is very elliptical. Its feeming import is, either that two different names are the fame name, which cannot be; or that two different perfons are the fame perfon, which is equally abfurd. To exprefs the whole thought, therefore, in adequate language, we must fay, " Paul "and Saul are names that belong to one and "the fame man." And this plainly comprehends two fentences: Saul and Paul are names,-Saul and Paul belong to one and the fame perfon.

In the fecond example, are plainly implied two affirmations, and confequently two fentences. This book coft a fhilling"-(which is true, though not not the whole truth) and "This book coft more than a fhilling."

Even three affirmations, and of courfe three fentences, may be fuppofed to be comprehended in the third example, "France is at


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See Part i. Chap. 1. Sect. 2.


"war-England is at war-They are at war "with one another." Taking it in another view, we may fay, that here one affertion is made concerning the one country, and another of the fame import concerning the other, and that there muft by confequence be ideas to furnish out two affirmative fentences: "England "is at war with France-France is at war with England."

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In fome fentences of this nature, the conjunction may be confidered as fuperfluous. Where this happens, the meaning may be expreffed in one sentence, without the aid of any conjunction as, Peter went with John to the temple : Saul is the fame with Paul.

Copulative conjunctions, therefore, where they are not quite fuperfluous, (as if we were to say, I faw twenty and four men, instead of twenty four) will, I think, be found in moft, or perhaps in all cafes, to connect together either fentences, or words that comprehend the meaning of fentences.

Sentences may be united, even when their meanings are disjoined, or oppofed to one another. When I fay, " Peter and John went be"caufe they were called," I join three fentences in one; and the two laft are, as it were, the continuation of the firft: Peter went-John wentthey went because they were called. But if it be faid, "Peter and John went, but Thomas "would not go," though there are three fentences joined in one, as before, the import of the laft is, by means of the particle but, fet in a fort of oppofition to the two firft. Hence Conjunctions

junctions have been divided into two kinds, Conjunctive, which join fentences, and alfo connect their meanings; and Disjunctive, which, while they connect fentences, disjoin their meanings, or fet them, as it were, in oppofition.

These two claffes have been fubdivided by Grammarians into feveral fubordinate fpecies. It would be tedious to enumerate all the arrangements that have been propofed. I fhall just give the heads of Mr. Harris's fubdivifion; which will convey an idea of the various ufes to which the Conjunction may be applied.

"1. The Conjunctions, that unite both fenten"ces and their meanings, are either Copulative or "Continuative. The Copulative may join all "fentences, however incongruous in fignifica"tion as, Alexander was a conqueror, and "the loadstone is ufeful. The Continuative joins thofe fentences only which have a natu"ral connection; as, Alexander was a conqueror because he was valiant.

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"Continuatives are of two forts, Suppofitive, "and Pofitive. The former denote connection, but not actual existence: as, you will "be happy if you be good. The latter imply "connection, and actual existence too; as, You are happy because you are good.

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"Moreover Pofitive Continuatives are either Caufal or Collective. Thofe fubjoin causes to "effects; as, He is unhappy because he is O 2 "wicked:

"wicked: these fubjoin effects to caufes; as, "He is wicked, therefore unhappy.*

"2. Disjunctive Conjunctions, which unite "fentences while they disjoin their meaning, "are either Simple, which merely disjoin; as, "It is either John or James: or Adverfative, "which both disjoin, and mark an oppofition; as, It is not John, but it is James.


"Adverfative Disjunctives are divided into Ab"folute and Comparative: Abfolute, as when I fay, Socrates was wife, but Alexander was not; "Comparative, as in this example, Socrates was "wifer than Alexander.

"Adverfative Disjunctives are further divided "into Adequate and Inadequate : Adequate, as "when it is faid, He will come unless he be fick, "that is, his ficknefs only will be an adequate "cause to prevent his coming; Inadequate, as "if it were faid, He will come although he be "fick, that is, his fickness will not be a fuffici"ent or adequate caufe to prevent his coming."

That all the Conjunctions neceffary in language may be referred to one or other of these heads, I will not affirm. Perhaps it is impoffible


* Therefore was formerly mentioned as an adverb. And an adverb it is, when, without joining fentences, it only gives the fenfe of for that reafon When it both gives that fenfe, and alfo connects, as when we fay, "He is good; "therefore he is happy," it is a conjunction. The fame thing is true of confequently, accordingly, and the like. When thefe are fubjoined to and, or joined to if, fince, &c. they are adverbs, the connection being made without their help; when they appear fingle, and unfupported by any other conmective, they may be called conjunctions.

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