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tugal, we shall have occasion to mention within the limits of this work, the legation having been discontinued in June 1801. This country has never concluded a treaty or convention of any kind with Portugal, though at one period during the Peninsula war there was a great trade in provisions to Lisbon,

CONCLUSION.

T HE peace of Ghent is, properly, the first period in the diplomatic history of this country. It is most probable, that the foreign relations will, hereafter, assume a different aspect, not only on account of the extraordinary revolution in South America, but because we cannot expect, again, to witness such another revolution as was consummated in Europe, by the general pacification of 1814.

Heretofore, nearly all the commerce of the United States, together with every other sort of communication, whether relating to the arts, sciences, literature or diplomacy, has been held with Europe; for, when this country became independent, every other portion of the American continent was in a condition of severe colonial subjection and oppression. America, following only that course of trade, indicated in the stipulations of treaties, favourable in general, though not on the most liberal principles, speedily attracted the attention of the world, as a great neutral and commercial state; and asserted claims exceedingly vexatious and embarrassing to the belligerents,— though actually possessing, herself, neither the means nor the power to support and enforce her system of foreign policy. This peculiar and very remarkable anomaly in the situation and condition of the United States, imparted a very novel character to the wars in Europe, in themselves of an extraordinary description. Those wars have now ended; and (separate from some difficulties respecting the Turks and the Spanish islands in the West Indies) there is, unquestionably, the prospect of a long peace. But not one of the neutral doctrines, for which America has always contended, and from the violation of which she has suffered so much, has yet been secured by treaty stipulation. The only undoubted foundation, laid

for peace, consists in the excellent domestic arrangements, nations appear to be making, for their own prosperity, welfare and safety. Congresses have settled many other matters, that were thought necessary for the repose of the world; but regulations for the determination and preservation of neutral rights, perhaps one of the most effectual methods of preventing wars, have not yet met with that serious and solemn attention, to which they are most justly entitled.

Since the pacification of 1814, "eight sovereign and independent nations" have been erected, in South America, out of the ruins of the colonial governments. With these states, this country will probably have a great commercial and diplomatic intercourse. On the subject of neutrality, their interests will be the same; and from their situation, they will be equally removed from the power and ascendancy of Europe. The United States will naturally take the lead in all the concerns of this part of the world; and, without entering into coalitions or associations of any description, the influence of their institutions will be more extensively felt,-and the doctrines of their neutral policy and commercial intercourse will, hereafter, find a wider sympathy, and will be asserted with a greater prospect of support and encouragement. A portion of Europe is engaged in resisting and counteracting this spirit, and disposition;-in re-instating, in its ancient strength and grandeur, what, in the French idiom, is called, the monarchical principle. We have no reasons, perhaps, to expect wars from the opposition or rivalry of these systems, but different races of men will certainly be prepared under their influence; and, whatever effect the spirit of free inquiry and general education may have on the relations of nations with each other, (for the experience of the world has not yet shown, that the most enlightened states are the least exposed to wars), there can be no doubt but that changes and improvements in governments will, hereafter, be accomplished in a more gradual and satisfactory manner, and with less danger of violence and bloodshed.

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1. Of amity and commerce, of the 6th of February, 1778; negotiated at Paris, by C. A. Gerard, B. Franklin, Silas Deane, and Arthur Lee. Ratified by Congress on the 4th of May, 1778. Annulled by act of Congress of July 7, 1798.

2. Of alliance, of the 6th of February, 1778; negotiated at Paris, by C. A. Gerard, B. Franklin, Silas Deane, and Arthur Lee. Ratified by Congress on the 4th of May, 1778. Annulled by act of July 7, 1791.

3. Contract concerning the loan and re-payment of money, of the 16th of July, 1782; framed at Versailles, by Gravier de Vergennes, and B. Franklin. Ratified by Congress on the 22d of January, 1783.

4. Convention concerning consuls and vice-consuls, of the 14th of November, 1778; negotiated at Versailles, by L. C. de Montmorin and Th. Jefferson. Annulled July 7, 1798.

5. Convention for terminating differences, of the 30th of September, 1800; negotiated at Paris, by Oliver Ellsworth, William Richardson Davie, William Vans Murray, and Joseph Bonaparte, Charles Pierre Claret Fleurieu, and Pierre Louis Ræderer. Provisionally ratified on the 18th of February, 1801; and finally declared to have been ratified on the 21st of December, 1801. Expired.

6. Ceding Louisiana, of the 30th of April, 1803; negotiated at Paris, by Robert R. Livingston, James Monroe, and Barbe Marbois. Ratified on the 21st of October, 1803.

7. Convention for the payment of sixty millions of francs to France for the cession of Louisiana, of the 30th of April, 1803; negotiated at Paris, by Robert R. Livingston, James Monroe, and Barbe Marbois. Ratified on the 21st of October, 1803.

8. Convention to secure the payment of the sum due by France to citizens of the United States, of the 39th of April, 1803; negotiated at Paris, by Robert R. Livingston, James Monroe, and Barbe Marbois. Ratified on the 21st of October, 1803.

TREATIES WITH THE STATES GENERAL OF THE UNITED NETHERLANDS.

1. Of amity and commerce, of the 8th of October, 1782; negotiated at the Hague, by John Adams, George Van Randwyck, B. V. D. Santheuvel, P. V. Bleiswyk, W. C. H. Van Lynden, D. I. Van Heeckeren, Joan Van Kuffeler, F. G. Van Dedem, and H. Tjassens. Ratified by Congress on the 23d of January, 1783.

2. Convention concerning vessels re-captured, of the 8th of October, 1782; negotiated at the Hague, by John Adams, George Van Randwyck, B. V. D. Santheuvel, P. V. Bleiswvk.

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