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Here appears to be a formal apology, on the part of sir Walter Scout, not omitting in his narrative, all mention of this instance of Napoleon's mag nanimity. Would a biographer of the Black Prince think of apologisia for the mention of bis generous treatment of King Joho? Hume, the country man of Sir Walter, certainly offers no such apology in his history; por dia Polybius excuse himself for relating instances of the moderation and condi nence of Scipio. But it may be asked, to whom is this apology offered Not to the mass of his readers certainly; for he could not suppose that they people of Great Britain, or of any other country, would be unwilling to con template an act of magnanimity, by whomsoever performed. Let this ques tion be answered as it may, sir Waller not only pleads forgiveness, but endeavours to deserve it, from the tribunal to which he deemed himself an swerable, by following up this admission in favour of his hero, with an in stant effort to counteract its effect. Alleging that this creditable fact could not be omitted in his narrative, be adds “which called to stigmatize bis ambition and its consequences, etc.” Now, up to this point of his narratire. neither Napoleon's ambition nor ils consequences have been stigmalized, So that his real meaning may be fairly interpreted in these words : “ I could not have the face to suppress the mention of this generous conduct of Ne poleon. It was a fact too well known and too interesting to be omitted a misrepresented; but I have taken care to obscure its lustre by directing against him vague, violent, and prospective imputations of mischievous and execrable ambition; and by intimating that the fact in question is an instance of rare and accidental generosity in the history of this remarkable man."

By his distant reference to an event in the fourteenth centary, it would appear that he fairly despaired of finding any thing like a parallel to the conduct of Napoleon, in the recent annals of English princes ; while he seems to forget that King John was conveyed to London, there detained a prisoner several years, and not released until he had subscribed a dishonourable peace; and that the personal courtesies which he received from his conqueror were extended to him, more in his character of monarch than of captive (Ilume, Edward the 3d, chap. 16). Napoleon, on the contrary, although it was the desire of his government that he should treat Wurmser with uncommon severity; and thougb, by the confession of General Klenan, he had it in his power to compel him in three or four days to surrender unconditionally, vindicated his character, justified bis conduct, asserted his claims, and alleviated his misfortunes.

The letter of the directory, enclosing a decree against Wurmser, as a French emigrant, and authorizing Napoleon to enforce it, may be found in the 2d vol. of the Corr. inéd. (p. 53). His refusal to comply with it, is communicated in his despatch of the 3d of February 1798, published in the Moniteur of the 13th.

(5) This letter to Cardinal Mattei, appears to be dated 220 January, 1797, and is published in the Moniteur of the 22d February.

PAGE 474.

(6) The proclamation, dated “ Bologna, January 31, 1797," and the manifesto, dated the next day, are published in the Moniteur of the 17th February. The time of Victor's march to Imola is ascertained by reference to Napoleon's letter to the directory of the 1st February. (Corr. inéd. t. ii, p. 439.) “ I have caused Victor's division to march this morning for Imola, the first town in the States of the Pope."

(7) Norvins (t. i, p. 240) mentions this suggestion of Napoleon, and contrasts it with his assertion in his Memoirs, that the directory wished to put an end lo lhe temporal sovereignty of the Pope; implying, that he urged, as a reproach against his government, a design which he himself entertained and proposed. But the desire of the directory to overthrow the temporal dominion of the Pope, was originally conceived by them, was long cherished, and was repeatedly expressed in their despatches; while this proposition of Napoleon was suddenly provoked by the intercepted despatches, irritating proclamations, and hostile conduct of the Court of Rome, was but once men. lioned, and was voluntarily and immediately abandoned by its author.

PAGE 476.

(8) Napoleon's moral perceptions in war, were as clear and penetrating as his military glances. The distinction which he drew on this occasion, between the conduct of the Pavians and of the people of Faenza, and in favour of the latter, although it did not occur to his troops, appears to be perfectly just. In his noles upon Cæsar's Commentaries, published by Marchand (Précis etc. p. 52), he censures the Roman conqueror, for disregarding this noble distinction between justice and cruelty, in putting to death the senators of Vannes. It is impossible not to execrate tbe conduct of Cæsar towards the senators ot Vannes. The people of Vannes had not revolted. They had furnished hostages, and promised to live in quiet. But they were in possession of all their liberty and rights. Doubtless, they had given Cæsar cause to make war on them, but not to violate the law of nations in relation to them, and to abuse his victory in a manner so atrocious."

(9) “ The laws of war would have authorised me in delivering up this unfortunate city lo pillage; but how could I make up my mind to punish with such severity a whole city, for the fault of a few priests ?”' Report of Napoleon to the directory, dated the 4th February.- Moniteur of the 13th, 1797.

PAGE 477.

(10) The report above cited, the Memoirs of Napoleon (Montholon, t. iv., p. 9), and Jomini, (Traité des Grandes Opérations, t. viii., p. 569).

(11) Memoirs of Napoleon (Montholon, 1, iv.p. 11), confirmed by notice

from Faenza, Jinigaglia, Ravenna, Jesaro, and Ancona, published in tbe Moniteur of the 19th March, 1797.

PAGE 479.

(12) These statements respecting Ancona, found in Napoleon's Memoirs, (Montholon, t. iv. p. 12), are confirmed by his despatch to the directory of the 15th February, 1797. (Corr. inéd. t. ii, p. 540.)

(13) See the return of ordnance and military stores taken at Ancona, signed by General Dommartin, and published in the Moniteur of the 28th February, 1797.

(14) Letter of Messrs. Tinet and Monge to the directory, dated the 14th February, and inserted in the Moniteur of the 28th.

PAGE 480.

(15) This letter may be referred to in the Corr. inéd. (t. ii, p. 539). It is addressed “For our dear son, General Bonaparte," who had a fortnight be fore been represented, on the word of his Holiness, as worse than the leaders of the Goths and Vandals.

(16) See Memoirs of Napoleon (Montbolon, t. iv, p. 14), the proclamation of the same, and the decree of the directory confirming it, published in the Moniteur of the 20th February, 1797. Also the despatch of Napoleon. (Corr. inéd. t. ii, p. 541.)

Page 483. (17) From this observation it might seem that the acquisition of St. Pierre, recommended by Napoleon to the directory in his letter of the 29th April (See note ante ch. 7), was regarded solely as a means of facilitating the wish or design of the French government to obtain the mastery of the Mediterranean. But in that case, as the wish was never concealed, his language would have been more explicit. Besides, in reference to the object in view, he would never have thought St. Pierre more valuable than Sardinia and Corsica both together; the latter island containing, as he himself states (Montholon, t. iv, p. 62), “the three great roads of St. Florent, Ajaccio, and Porto Vecchio, capable of containing the largest fleets."

PAGE 489.

(18) In a communication from Rome, of the 4th March 1797, published in the Moniteur of the 2nd of April, the following observations occur: "The most singular spectacle which has been exhibited at Rome for a long time, is afforded by the Generals Victor and Lannes, visiting the wonders of the arts, escorted by their hussars and dragoons. The people could not satiale themselves with gazing at these troops. They admired their warlike appear. ance, and still more their humane and polished manners. They especled to see a species of savages like the pandours, after the description that had been given of the French, They confessed they were deceived."

PAGE 490.

(19) See the address of Monge, and the answer of the magistrates of San Marino, in the Moniteur of the 6th March 1797.

PAGE 492.

(20) In a letter of the 18th February, to the directory, Napoleon says : " I informed you in my last despatch, that the twelve regiments you have sent me, make only nineteen thousand men. The minister of war has just written to General Kellermann, to keep with him two thousand of them, and to send back a regiment of cavalry to the army of the Rhine. Thus the thirty thousand men you announced to me are reduced to seventeen thousand; a beautiful reinforcement for the army of Italy !” From this it would appear that the regiment of cavalry was not sent back. In his Memoirs (Montholon, t. iv, p. 29), the aggregate of these reinforcements is stated at nineteen thousand, without reference to the two thousand detained by Kellermann.

Page 493.

(21) In speaking of the captors of Mantua, Sir Walter Scott utters, among other bold puerilities, this that follows:-" Their cupidity was evinced by their artists exercising their ingenuity, in devising means to cut from the wall and carry off the fresco paintings by Titian, of the wars between the Gods and the Giants, at all risks of destroying what could never be replaced. Luckily the altempt was found totally unadvisable." (v. iji. p. 262.)

If the desire of the French to devise means of removing these frescos was a proof of their cupidity, their refraining from the attempt, because it was found unadvisable, is a proof that their cupidity was restrained by an enlightened forbearance. In imputing their liberal desire to cupidity, the author of Waverley is both absurd and unjust, for besides that, Mantua was, as he admits, the citadel of Italy, and exposed, of course, to frequent bombardments; from the low and watery situation of the place, these frescos were liable to premature destruction. Beckford, who visited Mantua sixleen years prior to this siege, observed of the paintings in the Ducal palaces; " being painted in fresco, upon damp neglected walls, each


diminishes their numbers, and every winter moulders some beautiful figure away.” (Beckford's Italy, letter 9th.) The truth is, the French artists, sneered at by the great novelist, wished to preserve, not to destroy, these famous Frescos. Unluckily for the sincere lovers of the Fine Arts, their laudable wish could not be gratified, and these master-pieces of Titian's rich and glowing touch, are now probably faded away among the things that have been.

PAGE 494. (22) The letter to Lieutenant Colonel Duvivier is too well expressed to be omilted altogether.

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