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sun is not shining while it is raining. So do not water, especially during the hot summer days, during the middle of the day when the sun is hot.

Many lawns are greatly damaged and often ruined because the mowing is neglected. This makes the subsequent maintenance very expensive. The grass should never be permitted to grow so long that when cut the loose grass clippings form a mat. The mower should not cut more than a quarter to a half inch in length from the grass on the turf. The quality of grass, and therefore of the turf, is greatly improved by frequent cuttings. The mowing will have to be done according to the season. The grass should not be cut too closely during the hot summer months. It should be cut from one to three times per week, depending upon the season, on the fairways, and from one to five times per week on the putting greens.

L'nder no circumstances should the cut grass be removed from the lawn. It soon drys and settles about the roots and forms a very beneficial mulch. Sometimes, when the mowing is neglected and the grass grows too long, this cut grass has to be removed.

It will not be necessary to discuss lawn mowers. There are many good ones on the market. In my judgment the heavy three ton power mower is too heavy and has a bad effect upon the soil because it seems to pack the upper surface of the soil, thus killing the grass. The triplex type, my experience has proved, is the best type of large mower. There are a number of light tractors being built today to draw these triplex mowers.

So far as I know, they may be satisfactory. Such a tractor will be welcomed, for horses are bound to leave foot prints, especially when lawns are wet and soft.

CLUB HOUSE

The question of a club house has no real answer. I am sure no golf course is complete or satisfactory without a club house with adequate lockers, shower baths, and with its café or lunch counter. Then, too, there is the lounging room where the golfer can sit down and “talk it over.” The social features of this institution must not be overlooked. So the club house can be made as elaborate as funds will permit in keeping with good judgment and economy. Under no circumstances should the cost of construction of the club house be at the expense of the construction of the golf links. The golf links come first. So without further discussion we may safely assume

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that the club house as well as the course should be a balanced institution. Sometimes a simple club house will serve for a year or so, if funds are limited.

The club house shown in Figures 2, 3 and 4, was built in 1914 under the supervision of the writer at a cost of $10,000. It is a very serviceable club house. The same plan could be enlarged with added cost. Many club houses and shelters cost $25,000 and for most part the cost was due to some foolish attempt to make an architectural monument. The writer believes the club house shown in the figures is one that will fit into any park landscape. It is not elaborate, but the lines are simple and pleasing.

THE SUPERVISION OF THE GOLF COURSE

After the golf course has been constructed with the club house, its success will depend largely upon the quality and character of its management. There is nothing more important than the observance of the rules and etiquette of the game. Every one should be impressed with this fact. The simple and more important rules should be printed on the back of the score card. The golf links should be in charge of a competent man. This man should understand and play the game so that he can assist the beginner in selecting his clubs. He should be permitted to sell clubs at the club house. This, I feel, is of valuable service to the golf beginner. The man in charge should have the entire charge of the course and should be responsible for the proper upkeep of the links. Under no circumstances should this responsibility be given to an incompetent person. Such a worker cannot be secured at the salary paid a laborer.

It is important to speak of the management of the club house as well as of the golf course itself. I have observed here and there about the country the most dilatory policies relative to the management of the clubhouses and golf shelters. I have known of public golf shelters which are equipped with locker rooms and toilets to be locked and the key in possession of the park guard. The duties of this park guard may make it necessary for him to be all about the park or golf course. Such gross neglect and lack of a proper conception of real public service cannot be denounced too strongly. As a rule you will find that the man in charge in such a case and perhaps the superintendent in full charge, has small capacity and vision as a public servant. No building of this nature should be without an attendant in charge from 5 o'clock in the morning until dark in the evening. I am persuaded that the public is glad to pay for this service, if for some good reason it is necessary to make a charge. Often times I have found the clubhouse and its various departments dirty and unkept, no hot water for the showers, perhaps the showers out of repair. There should always be on hand necessary supplies for the toilets and lavatories. It is not enough to inspect these places once a day, perhaps in the morning, then neglect them the rest of the day. Remember there is such a thing as good housekeeping on the part of the management. It is also true that the standards set by the management have much to do with the deportment of the players.

CHARGING A FEE ON A PUBLIC GOLF COURSE

I have discussed the subject of charging a fee for playing on the public golf course with many who are interested. There are varied opinions on this subject. Perhaps it would be misleading to assume that there should be a charge for the reason that people will only appreciate that which costs them something. I hear this statement made in some form or other all about the country. The same basic argument might be made with regard to the attendance at our public schools, yet I am quite convinced that there are few intelligent people who would be in favor of taking a collection as a part of the opening morning exercises of our schools. There are both free public golf courses and those where a charge is made. You will discover on making a very thorough investigation that the charging of a fee has little or nothing to do with the standards maintained or the manner in which the game is accepted by the players. Some of the finest public golf courses, giving the best and most complete service, are free courses. But local conditions will have much to do in determining the right policy to follow. It is more essential we persuade people that they will be the better for playing golf; that the game is conducive to the better health and morale of the community, than that they shall be charged for this service. It is possible to pay dividends to a community in other terms than dollars and cents.

If it is decided that a charge is necessary to make the golf course pay part of the upkeep, and local conditions seem to demand it, then make a charge. Under these conditions I am strongly in favor of two charges, a season charge and a daily charge. In addition to this charge there should be nominal locker charge. The season or yearly fee should be made as low as possible and the daily fee rather proportionately higher. Let us assume that the golf season consists of 150 days, that the average player will play 100 games during the season. If we accept this data and charge ten cents per game this would make the season charge ten dollars ($10.00). This would not be an unreasonable charge for a player who played this number of games during the season. The player who plays only an occasional game might feel that ten dollars was an exorbitant fee. For him it would be. Yet he could not expect to buy his golf privileges at the same rate per game as the player who buys in season quantities. If we are to make a charge I believe we should be guided by the same economic principles which govern the buying and selling of goods. For a daily fee I would say

I seventy-five cents. Let it be optional with the player whether he plays all day or only nine holes; the charge is the same. Then for the locker which is rented to the individual there should be a charge of two or three dollars per year. For all players paying the daily fee there should be checking privileges free.

That it may help some one to decide this question as the merits of the argument may seem to decide all questions, let me suggest a few comparisons. Do you pay to use our public libraries? Do you pay to drive your automobile over miles of our costly boulevards? Do you pay to visit our wonderful and beautiful public gardens which have cost thousands to construct and maintain ? Are our public zoological gardens and our conservatories free? It has always seemed to me that a careful study of the entire accepted field of public service would assist us very much in coming to logical and accurate conclusions relative to all these matters.

If it is a question of doing without the public golf course or making a reasonable charge, then there is every justification in the world for making a charge to maintain this public service.

1 PUBLIC AND PRIVATE COURSES COMPARED

I know of no very good reason why we should make our public courses so very different from the private courses. There seems to be a tendency to make them far easier, in fact, much inferior. Of course, the public links will always have a larger number of beginners. While it is true that some who begin to play golf on the public links will become members of the Country Club where better golf is possible, yet there are fifty others who, because of the expense of belonging to the Country Club, must continue to get their golf recreation on the public course. They, too, should have a good golf course. A public course should not be a make believe one. There may, however, be a few modifications that are desirable. There should not be developed on a public course those holes which penalize the average good drive. In other words, it is not good architecture to lay out a course for a few long drivers. This is not the secret of laying out an interesting golf course, be it public or private. But it is absolute folly to try to make the public golf links a sort of croquet ground. The average player at the public course will enjoy the golfing thrills quite as much as the player at the Country Club. Let us give him a chance to be a “real sport" and a “real golfer.”

HAZARDS

There is no question that natural hazards are the best, and certainly the most picturesque. Yet if the ground is quite level, we perhaps have no alternative than to accept the artificial hazard. Then, too, every green should be somewhat guarded. There are those who will say that artificial hazards have no place on a public links, but the game of golf is the same, whether played on a public or private course. Even though the hazards are artificial, in the hands of a skillful designer much can be done which will remove the feeling of stiff artificiality. Some seem to feel that water hazards do not belong on a public course and are not desirable on it. It is the varied golf shots that in part, at least, make the game so delightful and fascinating. Therefore, the water hazard is just as appropriate on a public course as any other.

Water hazards should not be too difficult. That is, the distance across the water should not be too great, possibly a hundred yards, a little more or less. Figure 5 shows a short water hazard. It is an easy mashie pitch and demands some accuracy. The green is large and when once over the player's satisfaction quite compensates for the times he has failed. If a golf ball of the floating type is used the balls are not lost that go in the water. It is true that all short holes have a tendency to cause congestion and there should not be too many of them. Where a water hazard is possible without too much expense this element should be worked out on the public course.

Just a word about bunkers and traps. The straight transverse bunker or trap has no place on any golf course and is rapidly being

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