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abandoned. The same element can be introduced by working out some hills which have a more natural appearance. The same can be said about the traps. Some appropriate planting of trees and shrubs will assist this process wonderfully. This is a problem of the designer, and every piece of ground will present its own peculiar prob- . lem. Nature has made the best hazards and every advantage should be taken so as to employ them to the fullest degree. If artificial hazards must be used, let nature be the teacher.

With the foregoing discussion as a background, it will be possible to interpret with greater accuracy the following cost data. We will use Figure 1 as our concrete example. This assumed piece of ground with an assumed layout contains fifty acres. We will compile two estimates—one based on a low average cost without water system and with the simplest construction that will provide a serviceable golf course where limited funds only are available. The same course will be estimated on the basis of a higher standard of construction. It will be possible by a comparison of the two costs to make any number of modifications in keeping with local conditions. It should be borne in mind that the tabulated cost data which follows will Auctuate if the standards of construction and maintenance are modified.

ESTIMATED ITEM Cost

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The cost data given is not the lowest, nor is it the highest. Both can be construed as creditable construction and maintenance standards. I would be quite inclined to recommend these standards if the funds are available. I should not recommend this, however, if the maintenance of these standards involves the exclusion of other essential community activities, or even their neglect.

At Sayner in the Northern part of Wisconsin at one of the lake resorts, a golf association was formed by the summer residents and a 9 hole golf links constructed on 53 acres. The cost of maintaining this links (Figure 6), was $600 for the season of 1920. The course is 3020 yds. in length, with a par 37. The ground is rolling and I found playing over this course quite delightful indeed. The greens, tees and fairways were not up to standard, yet many scores were made slightly above par and the expert golfers frequently make a par score. Such a course is well worth while and could be constructed for $2,000 to $3,000, depending upon the character of the grounds selected.

THROUGH THE PORTALS

Festival for Children. By Clara E. Sackett

A charming, practical and colorful Americanization festival for children can be had in typewritten form, accompanied by 20 costume plates, by applying to the Bureau of Educational Dramatics, Community Service (incorporated) 1 Madison Avenue, New York City. The rental for this festival and the costume plates that accompany it, all of which must be returned after use, is $2.00. This amount covers the cost of postage, the wear and tear of the costume plates and manuscript. Anyone wishing a very unique and thought-provoking festival for children will find what he wants in this wellworked out idea. The scene is laid at Ellis Island. There are twenty-three characters, boys and girls. As many more characters as desired can be added. There are folk songs and folk dances, and practically every country which sends immigrants to America is represented. The festival is very easy to give, and contains a real lesson.

COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION By Joseph K. Hart. Published by the Macmillan Company, New York.

Price, $2.50

This book, the initial volume of The Social Welfare Library edited by Edward T. Devine, is "the outgrowth of ten years of work in educational and social lines in western states, together with six months' experience with War Camp Community Service in intensive study of the problems of community life and organization under reconstruction conditions."

Studying the history and development of the community with the tangle of problems arising, the author concludes that the “salvation of the democratic community is in the released wisdom and cooperative enterprise of all the members of the community.” “What is here proposed, what indeed is the very genius of democracy, is a program deliberately and definitely thought out and wrought into the structure of habit and institution by the intelligent will of the community. Since there are practical difficulties in the way of getting all the community together, the author suggests the formation of a deliberative group,' not of representatives” but of those who know types and classes of the community. The program worked out by this group is not to be a program "made in the mount and handed down in final form." It is to be the working out of the repressed and poignant life of the people who make up the Community. To proceed from deliberation to action, a long, hard step, the leadership may be found in its old forms in politics, property, labor. But finally, "we come back to the one imperishable hope of the community--the community itself.” “We fail to get our program into the social life because the race's capacity to act has been so largely lost.”

"The old creative impulses once prized in hand work but useless in a factory must find room once more in industry. The deep-lying civic impulses and loyalties denied expression in active form under the autocratic governments must be given large scope in the democratic community. * recreational inpuises that were compelled to find outlets in furtive ways under puritanical repression must be given opportunity to fill the whole community with a new sense of freedom and joy, and release of emotion. Such release of the deeper impulsive elements of human nature will provide eventually the active energies necessary to the carrying out of any social program deliberation may devise.”

The appendix describes briefly certain experiments in community viganization well under way in America.

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