Children Talk About the Mind
Oxford University Press, 26 янв. 1995 г. - Всего страниц: 248
What, exactly, do children understand about the mind? And when does that understanding first emerge? In this groundbreaking book, Karen Bartsch and Henry Wellman answer these questions and much more by taking a probing look at what children themselves have to tell us about their evolving conceptions of people and their mental lives. By examining more than 200,000 everyday conversations (sampled from ten children between the ages of two and five years), the authors advance a comprehensive "naive theory of mind" that incorporates both early desire and belief-desire theories to trace childhood development through its several stages. Throughout, the book offers a splendidly written account of extensive original findings and critical new insights that will be eagerly read by students and researchers in developmental psychology, cognitive psychology, philosophy, and psycholinguistics.
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3 Talk about Thoughts and Beliefs
4 Talk about Desires
5 Desires and Beliefs
6 Explanations and Arguments
7 Individual Differences
8 Childrens Developing Theory of Mind
9 Alternatives and Controversies
Questions and Conclusions
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Часто встречающиеся слова и выражения
3-year-olds ADAM ADULT analyses appeal to beliefs apple behavior belief terms beliefs and desires Brian MacWhinney causal Chapter child child’s children’s early children’s talk children’s understanding coded cognitive Cohen's kappa conception conversations desire contrastives desire psychology desire terms developmental direction of fit Dunn emotions everyday example explain action explanations of action explicit genuine psychological references genuine reference Gopnik individual contrastives intentional intentional stance language mental contents mentalistic Naomi object one’s Perner predict reasoning reference to belief reference to desire reference to thoughts representational mental Ross samples Sarah Shatz simple desire simply simulation someone sort specific subjective contrastives Table talk about beliefs talk about desires talk about thoughts target person tasks theory of mind theory-theory think and know thoughts and beliefs transcripts understanding of belief understanding of desires understanding of mental understanding of mind utterances verbs versus wanna Wellman young children
Стр. 186 - Predict that the agent will act in a way that will satisfy his desires. H2 Predict that the agent will act in a way that would satisfy his desires if his beliefs were true.
Стр. 8 - Here is what I would have done if I had been faced with this problem in designing Homo sapiens. I would have made a knowledge of commonsense Homo sapiens psychology innate; that way nobody would have to spend time learning it.
Стр. 219 - Early conversations about causality: Content, pragmatics, and developmental change. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 11, 107-123. Dunn, J., Brown, J., & Beardsall, L. (1991). Family talk about feeling states and children's later understanding of others
Стр. 162 - The function of specific theories within the research tradition is to explain all the empirical problems in the domain by "reducing" them to the ontology of the research tradition.... Moreover, the research tradition outlines the different modes by which these entities can interact. Thus, Cartesian particles can only interact by contact, not by action-at-a-distance. Entities within a Marxist research tradition can only interact by virtue of the economic forces influencing them (Laudan, 1977, p.
Стр. 162 - In brief, a research tradition provides a set of guidelines for the development of specific theories. Part of those guidelines constitute an ontology which specifies, in a general way, the types of fundamental entities which exist in the domain or domains within which the research tradition is embedded. The function of specific theories within the research tradition is to explain all the empirical problems in the domain by 'reducing...
Стр. 208 - The central thesis in this book is that the 1 -year-old child's intentionality drives the acquisition of language. Our intentional states - the beliefs, desires, and feelings that we have - are themselves unobservable, but they determine how we relate to one another in everyday events. Children learn language for acts of expression in the effort to make known to others what their own thoughts and feelings are about, and for acts of interpretation in the effort to share the thoughts and feelings of...
Стр. 86 - ... different from the outcomes they point toward or the actions that would satisfy them. Moreover, young children refer to desires that differ across individuals and that are subjective. Abe (2: 10): No. Adult: You don't like it? Abe: You like it? Adult: Yes. 1 do. Abe: But I don't like it. Adult: No, I don't want any (watcr poured on her). Sarah (2: 11): Why? Adult: Because I don't like to get wet. Sarah: Huh. Don't like to get wet? Swim? You want you swim?
Стр. 78 - I'm gonna eat these raisins. I want some cookies. Adult: We don't have any. Ross: My cookie monster wants my mommy to make some cookies for him. Individual Contrastives Adult: I want you to tell her about this bookAdam (2:8): Don't want book.
Стр. 70 - Adam (2:7): Eat mommy. Mother: Eat? Adam: Yeah. Mother: I'm not hungry. Adam: Want spoon? Mother: No thank you. Adam: OK. You don't want a spoon. You don't want a spoon. Ross (2:6): He scratched me, Adult: Didn't it hurt? Ross: Yeah. I want a band-aid. The boy hurt me. Adult: The boy hurt you? How did the boy hurt you? Ross: The boy wanted to. Sarah (2:8): My new book. Adult: A new book. Sarah: New book. Wan
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