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MISS HARRIET NIEL
Training School for Kindergartners
By correspondence. A close study of Successor to Miss LAURA FISHER
Nelle K. P. Cooper, 110 W. King
Kindergarten Training School
Of the Buffalo Kindergarten Association. Two Years' Course. For particulars address
MISS ELLA C. ELDER 86 Delaware Avenue
Buffalo, N. Y
All different, all
Normal Course two years. Graduate
200 Commonwealth Avenue
Kindergarten Training School
IN AFFILIATION WITH THE
NEW YORK UNIVERSITY
New York City
July 2 to August 10, 1917. Dr. James E. Lough, Director
Kindergarten Primary Dept.
Miss Harriette Melissa Mills, Principal
Courses may be taken for Universitv and Kindergarten Training School credit. For special circular, address. Miss Harriette M. Mills. New York University. Washington Square. New York City.
TEACHERS! Let us give you absolutely FREE
30 Maga 250 prepaid. for Kindergarten and Primary posi. Sharpener for your school, or an eighteen inch bust o
Yours for only Regular course of three years prepares Great help in teaching. Satisfaction tions. Lectures in Montessori methods guaranteed. with observation in Montessori School. Address,
New Egypt, N. J.
a guaranteed $3.50 Dexter Penci Washington finished in lasting old ivory. There is not one cent of investment on your part! All you have to do is to have your pupils sell only one gross of our best white enamel pencils, No. 2 lead, at five cents each!
MISS NETTA FARRIS, Prinolpal Pupils sell them in one day. Send for them NOW.
giving references and have your pencil sharpener, the best on the market, in one week. Everything is guaranteed to please you, and we have a special reward
for you. Write Today
Law Froebel Kindergarten Schon Aids Company, Box 199, Burnsville,
Training School and School
Forty Practice Schools.
2313 ASHLAND AVE.
PUBLISHED ON THE FIRST OF EACH MONTH, EXCEPT JULY AND AUGUST, AT MANISTEE, MICH., U. S. A. SUBSCRIPTION PRICE, $1.00 PER ANNUM, POSTPAID IN U. S., HAWAIIAN ISLANDS, PHILLIPINES, GUAM, PORTO RICO, SAMOA, SHANGHAI, CANAL ZONE, CUBA, MEXICO. FOR CANADA ADD 20C., AND ALL OTHER COUNTRIES 30C., FOR POSTAGE. J. H. SHULTS, MANAGER.
Entered at the P. O., Manistee, Mich., as Second Class Mall Matter.
Every Teacher a Patriot
You, as a kindergartner or primary teacher can become a strong force for patriotism in your community and it is your duty to do this. Not only should you teach patriotism and loyalty to our country every day in the school room in some of the many different ways in which this can be accomplished, but you should take an active part in the community in which you live.
While you should seek to avoid wounding the feelings of the people natives of the countries comprising the Central Allies, yet do not hesitate to take a firm and decided stand for America and democracy. It is one thing to sympathize with those made unhappy by the initiative of autocracy and quite another thing to slacken your loyalty toward America when in their presence. Let your loyalty be unquestioned.
You can aid America much more than any soldier at the front. The problem of food supply is perhaps the most important of all problems in connection with the war.
The following articles will indicate to you many ways in which you can render most efficient service for our country.
Work tactfully, persistently and effectively:
THE IMPERATIVE NECESSITY OF A FOOD CONSERVATION PROGRAM
By Charles R. Van Hise, President of the University of Wisconsin
In order that the war may be carried to a successful conclusion, it is necessary that four things be done: first, men must be sent to France by the hun
VOL. XXX-No. 1 dreds of thousands: second, our men and those of the Allies must be furnished with vast quantities of munitions; third, ships must be built wih sufficient rapidity not only to transport men, munitions, foods, and other supplies, but to make up for the losses by submarines. The fourth and final great problem is that of food for ourselves and the Allies. This is the one that I shall consider.
There is no question that at the present time there is a shortage of food for the entire civilized world such as has not occurred in modern times. This year the Argentina wheat crop was nearly 100,000, 000 bushels short. The Australia crop is short by 50,000,000 bushels. Last year the United States wheat crop was short by more than 200,000,000 bushels and Canada produced little more than half a crop. The United States wheat crop for this year is estimated at 655,000,000 bushels. The Canadian crop will again probably be short because of insufficient labor. It may be placed at 250,000,000 bushels. Normally in the United States and Canada are used as flour, about 550,000,000 bushels of wheat, and for other purposes 100,000,000 bushels. If these amounts were consumed, this would leave for export from North America only 255,000,000 bushels from this year's crop. Taking into account on a liberal basis all the wheat that can be obtained from other countries than the United States and Canada, the Allies need from North America 550,000,000 bushels, but probably the best we can do even if the conservative programme proposed below is carried out is to furnish them 400,000,000 bushels. The rest must be
made up by other cereals.
The production of sugar in France has been greatly reduced and none is available from the Central powers. The main available sources are Cuba, Hawaii and the United States, since the sugar of Java cannot readily reach the market. Computations indicate that if the Allies are to be furnished with the barest necessities in the way of sugar, that we should reduce our consumption by one-fourth, that is, from four ounces to three ounces per person per day.
This ounce which seems small, for the people of the United States, means for a year the vast total of 1,100,000 tons.
The third fundamental shortage of food for the Allies is the fats. It is difficult to estimate the requirements in fats because of the consumption not only for food but for munitions.
The vast shortage of the fundamental food products of wheat, sugar and fat shows the seriousness of the problem which confronts us.
In regard to waste, it is estimated on a conservative basis that we throw away each year not less than $700,000,000 worth of food, which in a European country would have been utilized. Anyone who has been able to compare the habits of a family in America with those in France or England knows that each day the waste is relatively large in America. In Europe it is planned to cook just enough food for the family; and if anything is left over, even a scrap of bread, this is saved and goes into some future dish.
The elimination of waste will help, but it will not be sufficient to furnish the essential food for the Allies. We must readjust our daily programme. For wheat we should eliminate white bread one meal a day, seven meals a week, from our tables. This does not mean that we shall go hungry, but that we shall use as a substitute for white bread, corn bread, hominy, barley bread, oat meal or rice. To such an extent have we become white bread eaters that these other thoroughly wholesome and abundant foods are largely neglected; and by careful thought a menu could be made even more varied which uses rice, barley, corn, oats and other substitutes for onethird of the wheat. If this proposed substitution were made, this would increase the amount of wheat which we could send to the Allies by more than 150,000,000 bushels.
For sugar, the solution is not so much that of substitution as reduction. If we eliminated candy altogether it would probably be a benefit rather than a detriment; the same may be said of sweet soft drinks. Sugar could be left out of tea or coffee or reduced to one-half or one-third of the amount. Beets and carrots contain much sugar and an increase of their use will compensate for the decrease in sugar.
The necessary saving in fats will come by reducing the amounts used of fat meat, butter, lard, etc. As substitutes for meat, beans and peas serve admirably and an increase in their use will decrease the amount of meat used. Soy beans and cow peas, not ordinarily used in the human diet, are excellent articles of food. A saving of fat of one-third ounce per person per day would add in one year to our exports to the Allies about 350,000 tons.
In short, a survey of the situation shows that there is an ample amount of wholesome food for all, besides furnishing a minimum sufficient amount of wheat, sugar, meat, and fats to the Allies. We need but eliminate waste and readjust our daily food pro
gramme in order that these things shall be accomplished.
But how shall we succeed in getting the people of the United States to make the necessary changes? First, all the educational forces of the country should harmoniously co-operate to place the facts before the people and induce them to adopt the programme.
It is planned by Mr. Hoover to work out a daily program for the households of the country, or rather alternative programmes adapted to the different sections and different families. Each head of the household will be presented with alternative food programmes, one of which it is desired she should use; and she will be asked to sign a statement that she will put the programme in force in her household. Fi nally, the President's Food Administration Bill must be enacted into law, and Congress should do this at the earliest possible moment. This Bill, authorizing the President to establish agencies to control the essential food supplies of the country, is now in the Senate. * The President is authorized to prevent market manipulation which unduly enhances prices and thus works a severe hardship upon the wage earner and the men receiving small salaries. At the present time, because of hoarding and manipulation, the workingman of this country is paying a higher price for his loaf of bread than is the Englishman or Frenchman, whose bread is made from American wheat.
This World War cannot cease; it must not cease, until Germany shall recognize that the laws of nations must be obeyed, that the conquest of small nations is wrong.
It is to establish these great principles that we entered the war. In order that they may be maintained, all the sacrifices which are necessary must be made by this nation. If the fundamental principles of freedom and democracy call for the death of hundreds of thousands of our young men, the sacrifice must be made. If it calls for the expenditure of billions of dollars, the money must be forth coming. If it requires the concentrated ability of the best intellect of the country to devise ways and means to build ships to destroy the submarine menace, that ability must be dedicated to those purposes.
And last of all, if it requires that we eliminate waste and that we readjust our food programme in order that the Allies shall not starve, this must be done. Indeed, as compared with the giving of our young men, as compared with the simply incredible sacrifices that the Allies have already borne for these principles, it is a trivial thing to ask that our people be self-denying in order that the Allies may be fed. *NOTE-This bill has since become law.
In the matter of food conservation, you will doubtless be met frequently with this statement, "Oh! the little we can save that way wouldn't make any difference at all." Show them that unless they work along the
lines suggested by the government, they will really prove of no help whatever in that direction to our country. That if everyone maintained that attitude, food conservation would be an absolute impossibility. While thousands are dying of starvation it should be easy for any American to conform to the Suggestions made by the government for food conservation. The producer or saver of food stuffs is performing an act of patriotism.
ADDRESS OF CHARLES W. ELLIOT, PRESIDENTEMERITUS OF HARVARD UNIVERSITY
The great War inevitably increases the destructiveness of the evils which the Social Hygiene Associations in this country have been combating for a few years past. I have lately been told by a well-in-formed French national official that tuberculosis, alcoholism and venereal diseases are killing and disabling month by month more French people than the actual fighting is killing and disabling. Defense against tuberculosis is only an incidental part of the work of the Social Hygiene Associations. Their main object is to prevent the ruin which follows upon sexual vice; but inasmuch as alcoholism and sexual vice are almost always closely associated, Social Hygiene Societies have found it necessary to contend against both the saloon and the brothel, or in broader terms against the free sale of alcoholic beverages and prostitution. Their means of attack on these wide spread evils are chiefly educational, by spreading information about them, and stimulating public opinion to demand effective legislation against them. The great War in which the United States has now joined with all its might in defense of democracy and national liberties, and in support of the sanctity of international contracts, inevitably increases the danger to the community from alcoholism and venereal diseases. Hence the Social Hygiene Associations should turn their attention during the War to the protection of the soldiers summoned hastily from their homes into training camps in this country, and nto cantonments near the fighing lines abroad. They should make immediate provision for giving nstruction to all the new levies through the Medral Corps, the agents of the Young Mens Christian ssociations, and their own employees, as to the fareaching consequences of both alcoholism and venreal disease, and for providing wholesome means f comforting and refreshing the troops after hardhips, nervous strain, and intense fatigue.
PPORTUNITIES AND OBLLIGATIONS OF THE
C. G. Pearse, President, State Normal School,
As a nursery of democracy the American school
never had an equal. As a training for the actual duties of life it might do a great deal better. The teaching profession of the United States faces a tremendous task. The education which American schools have given to American children has lacked a good deal of essential value.
We must give our young people a great deal better quality of physical education. It is our shame that half the young men examined for admission to the Army and Navy are rejected because of physical defects. An equal number of women would be found equally defective if subjected to similar examination. Some system of physical examination must be worked out to bring 75 or 90 per cent to maturity and carry them through life physically fit, whether for onerous duties of peace of for those of war.
Our system of education has given our people intelligence and interests in the things being done in the world, and has made them adaptable, courageous and aspiring. As an education to fit them for the duties by which to earn their livelihood it has left much to be desired. The American system of education must do more and much better to train the youth of the country for their vocation.
This training for vocations must include the training of girls for that vocation which nine out of ten will follow-the vocation of homemaker. It must train them not only in the ideals of an American home; they must also understand the operative side and be qualified to become buying partners in these homes. Our youth who will be heads of families must also learn what are their family responsibilities and how to carry these responsibilities right.
We have left much to be desired in our training for the duties of citizenship. Ten million of our young men enrolled for military service on a designated day. Our people respond to great emergencies. Thy have not been so taught as to be ready and to have the habit of responding to the small daily calls for service. They do not go to the polls on primary election days, or on the day of the general election. Our leading and most competent business and professional men refuse to become candidates for office when asked to do so, perhaps because they dread to face possible defeat, perhaps because they do not wish to make the required contribution of their time. Loyalty and usefulness in daily requirements are no less important in establishing a high standard of civic value than the readiness to respond to those emergency calls for extraordinary service.
It is the task of the school people in the country within the next decade to apply themselves to the task of working out this more effective system of public education. The National Educational Association must lead. The National Council of Education can not justify its existence more thoroughly nor more conspicuously than by taking the initiative in this task,
HOW THE PUBLIC SCHOOL CAN FOSTER THE AMERICAN IDEAL OF PATRIOTISM
By Sara H. Fathey, Teacher of English, Seward Park School, New York City.
"The greatest proof that the world is making progress," said Miss Sara H. Fahey of New York City in addressing one of the great meetings of the N. E. A. in the city Auditorium, Portland, Ore., last July, "is that 141 years ago the Declaration of Independence was uttered to an unresponsive world. Today, it is the creed of two-thirds of the people of the earth."
From that Declaration, we get the slogan for our entrance into the present war. "To make liberty and self government safe for mankind." Teach pupils that their destiny as Americans is on ward and upward realizing this ideal for every one of God's children. So train them that they will be determined to hold their country true to her democratic ideals, and that they will have faith in her power to realize her ideals."
In our country the public school should stand alone in its ability to discriminate and reflect the American peoples' conception of citizenship and patriotism. Such patriotism is of the character that prompts a citizen to serve his country in whatever way she needs him most. It is patriotism for daily living as a member of a society whose basic principle is that government rests on the consent of the governed. Because of this ideal, America is today committed to the most serious war the world has ever known. Long and anxiously had we hoped and prayed and trusted that our land would not be drawn into that seething vortex which has well nigh engulfed all of Europe, but our country found at last that it was impossible to keep out. She found that tacit approval of a great principle counts for but little. She found that the world is slow to respect men until they strip and fight for a principle.
While we were dreaming of arbitration methods, educational systems in Europe were stimulating adoration of the past historic hatred, and unwholesome fear of their sister nations. We should have spent of the billions we are now ready to use in sending representatives of our ideals across the seas.
We know that we can never enjoy place and stability in government until democracy establishes nationalism in a larger sense than is at present understood. There must be a moral and spiritual character behind those terms and there must be high purpose in the masses of the people before the democratic ideal of patriotism can be fully realized."
While central Europe by its militaristic government has been crushing out individual liberty and power, while it has been boasting of its efficiency, we, on the other hand, have been too insistent in our claims for individual liberty without its duties and responsibilities.
Pupils must be taught that democracy does not
mean that the majority necessarily is right. The voice of the people is not always the voice of God. But democracy does mean that decision and respon sibility are put on the same shoulders. If war must be declared it ought to be done by those, who, when war comes have to go out and be shot. The school should teach that any society that governs itself is superior even if some autocracies may seem to be more efficient.
Many of the foreign born misunderstand the spirit of our institutions. Their ideals must be transformed. The public school must do this work through their children.
Many large schools and school systems fail to be democratic in their relations to the teachers, the pupils, and the public generally. Since we are fighting for a world in which the man is held more precious than the machine, the system or the state, then it is most important that the school recognize that democratic principles are essential to its own organ. ization.
Then too, the new education depends too much on voluntary interest. Some of our methods make children flabby of mind, weak of will, superficial in character and inaccurate in scholarship. Children should be led to appreciate the meaning of a thor oughbred. To quote from a bit of advice in a re cent novel, "You must go on until you can go no further. You reach the limit of human endurance and then you hold on another minute and that's the minute that counts."
RELIGIOUS EDUCATION AS A MEANS OF NA
This world war has repeatedly brought forth the exclamation that religion has failed. The facts are all things science and art, industry and commerce, government and diplomacy, education and religion have failed to prevent this worst of wars. For three years, and up to this very hour, everything has failed to stop the worst waste, and the greatest human butchery in history.
Why has religion been singled out as the greatest, but worst of failures? Because it had been believed and hoped by many of the world's wisest and best men and women that religion had evolved enough in power and effectiveness to prevent civilized nations from going to war. That hope has failed, but out of the failure emerges a clear and well-defined issue between war and religion. Time was when human slavery was defended and promoted in the name and in the interests of religion. There have been religious wars and wars in the interests of religion, but that time is gone. War looms up as the worst of evils, because it multiplies all other forms of evil. War multiplies all kinds of suffering and thrusts its aw ful consequences upon the innocent and helpless as well as the guilty for generations to come. Religion has evolved as a way of preventing and alleviating