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Quite as important is lung development. heart and lungs are the most vital of the organs, but as a contribution to general health the regular and healthy working of the stomach and organs of excretion are almost as important.
The third outcome I shall name is good position and easy, dignified carriage. Watch people walk! By watching them you can detect the trained from the untrained, the cultured from the unschooled.
And next I want to claim gracefulness and agility as an important outcome.
Certain mental qualities should come as an indirect result of physical education. These include the ability to cooperate, qualities of leadership, and willingness to practice good posture, good hygiene and good, clean living.
And last but not least every person should, when he leaves the schools, carry with him a love for good health giving games and stunts. He should have chosen his games, tennis, swimming, hiking, rowing, golf maybe, and should be sufficiently addicted to one or more of them to insure his taking it through life with him. Can you imagine a better life insurance policy? And he should be led to see that he can form a life partnership with some games and some stunts while with others like foot ball and pole vaulting, he can not.
BY MRS. E. M. BURNTON
All this great world was made for me;
ANNA SCOTT KENNEDY
We've been to see the folks up at the zoo!
Then we saw a whopper mamma lion!
Her babies rolled over one another,
There was a mamma monkey, oh, so old!
The baby monkey acted awful bad
I wouldn't mind a word it's mamma said-
And then she picked him up and hugged him tight.
Then mamma saw some ribbon by the door-
Then everybody laughed and laughed so loud! It made the monkey run when they did that; But, after 'while, she found a lettuce leaf, And tried to make the little one a hat.
Then we saw such a funny, hump-back cow!
So I ran fast and climbed up in a tree.
But when her baby came up by me close-
A man came by with supper for them all-
One of the difficulties which the young kindergartner encounters in September is, what we may call in the military language of today, "raw recruits."
Have you thought how very difficult it must be for our brothers who have enlisted or who have been drafted to meet the first drill lessons of the army? "The awkward squad" is the title often given them. Muscles must be brought to bend to the will of the officer in command. This is because soldiers must be trained for concerted action.
However, there has been some modification of military tactics, I am told, since the days of "The Light Brigade," and some individuality has been recognized as a valued asset even in the soldier.
In schools and kindergartens are not many teachers following too much in their discipline, the older type of military drill? If we did not in our large cities have such large numbers of children as we do, we would urge almost entire abandonment of socalled military discipline. In smaller private and in many rural schools there is no need for it at all.
What we need to remember is that military uniformity is not useful at all in the ordinary walks and duties of life.
When such discipline is imposed upon young children from five years of age upwards to ten, fifteen or more years it tends to stultify individuality. While it may develop passive obedience, it is obedience of a primitive type and leads in the end to a possible "world war." It is proverbial in our American schools that German children are more passively obedient and respectful as a rule than others. Some one has said of German children, "They drink in obedience to authority with their mother's milk." Let us beware of worshiping passive obedience blindly. It develops "the boss" in this country. There could be no "boss" if there were no blind followers. Let us join kindergartners and primary teachers who are cultivating a new ideal in discipline, even tho we may often encounter criticism from those who are set over us. While holding on firmly to our own ideal of less restricted order in school life, and to a more natural, home-like, sociable atmosphere, we must still be willing to "learn from our friends, the enemy."
They have had “a long day” in the schools, and our ideals are comparatively new. Froebel teaches that the "past, present and future" must be respected in their continuity.
This means that we must keep on learning from the past while working towards the future.
This brings us face to face with our first prac
tical problem, namely, "What shall we aim for the first day, week and month in kindergarten as far as discipline is concerned?" Our answer must depend in part upon the size of our class, the size and location of our room, upon our equipment and upon our own personality. I find it difficult to be specific with so many modifying circumstances.
If you are favored with a large room, somewhat isolated from the older classes, it is one problem. If you have only four or five little ones in a private house, it is so different.
And yet in these two very diverse cases, as in all others, you must have an ideal to work towards.
This ideal may be summed up in one word, "helpfulness" to each other. If it will "help" to be very quiet, we will try!
Inhibition, that is holding in, learning self-control is the inspiring thought to us. Let the children see that you are pleased that they can keep quiet when you raise your hand, or touch a note on the piano, or if in the play ground, you blow a low whistle, or raise a white flag.
Children rather enjoy quiet signals, instead of repeated strokes on a bell, or loud commands. These save the teacher's voice too. Dr. Montessori's little exercise in "Silence" may help in fixing a standard, altho I have found that too extreme efforts at silence are apt to bring about reactions.
Never shout your directions. Rather whisper them. Then the children see they must be quiet or they will not hear.
Usually there are only one or two children so young or so immature that they do not respond. Treat them differently from the rest.
If the room is large, let them keep on frisking about. You may even use their actions as a "help," saying to the others, "I am so glad you are old enough to understand. Never mind these little ones. They will imitate us soon if we do right." Or it may be wise to hold one child on your lap, or have him sit near you, while you place a firm arm about him while you tell a story.
If a child is timid and begins to cry, be sure to have a little toy or some object for him to hold. It gives a feeling of security to "hold on" to something.
It is often "helpful" to let one of the older children entertain a troublesome child. Some little girls are very motherly and can help quiet a child where any adult frightens him.
Now some one may ask, how do you get the children quiet before they know of any signal?
In large kindergartens meet them at the door, if convenient, shake hands, speak a cheerful word, and say "I have a little chair for you. There it is. Sit down and look around the room at my pictures. By and by we will talk about them."
Or if conditions are more favorable say, "You will find some toys in the corner. Will you play quietly until you hear the piano?"
It is a good rule to take advantage of the quiet
feeling that usually comes over a child who goes into a strange place. Turn it to good account the first day. It is a natural quiet that some excitable kindergartners misjudge, thinking they must rouse the children out of it at once. Rather make it the time to start your "ideal" working. "There are so many of us. It is nice to be quiet so that you can listen to my story." Praise freely. Have the story ready for it is the story that "helps" us most in training the little one's attention. Be sure it is one they can follow.
Have a doll and sing it to sleep. Lay it down carefully and with an uplifted hand and soft voice say, "Hush, sh---baby is sleeping." Sing a lullaby. These may be called the ready teacher's ammunition. She is aiming to lead not to drive. She is aiming to train the children to love order because it helps, not to hate it because she scolds.
Good discipline is an art acquired more readily by some than others. Often those who make the best teachers have trying days at first.
Teachers who only care for immediate results and begin with fear and punishment, and many set rules, are not training thoughtful American citizens nor self-governing human beings.
It is a big problem but let us take courage. Those of us who read Paul's letters may find a watchword in 2. Timothy, 2:24. Remember too that good old proverb "An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure."
STORIES AND CONVERSATIONS Sept. 4. Getting acquainted. What is your name? Teacher's name? Your father's name? Your mother's? Your sister's? Show flowers. Ask the colors. Notice a few pretty colors on children. Show box of balls or one ball. Ask what we can do with a ball.
If there are no balls, substitute any toy as a doll or a wagon and ask a few questions, as who has a ball at home? How big is it? What is it made of? What do you do with it? What is mine made of? Who can throw it? Who can catch it? A story about a ball that was lost; where it was found, etc. who can hide our ball? Who will try to find it?
Sept. 5. Show a picture of children playing ball or any other of interest, as of a Mother Goose Rhyme. Get children to talk about it. Repeat the rhyme. Sept. 6. Story. The little boy who was always early and clean.
Sept. 7. A finger play. See Poulssen's or a song about water. Finger plays.
Sept. 13. Flowers now in the garden or the woods. Colors.
Sept. 14. Fruits. Colors. Where they grow.
Sept. 15. Home experiences. How did you help?
Sept. 19. Story repeated.
Sept. 20. Animals on the farm. Picture book of animals. Sounds.
Sept. 21. More about what animals can do to help. Our pets. Sounds animals make.
Sept. 24. Home experiences. What is in your kitchen? Your parlor? What is in your barn? Your cellar?
Sept. 25. New song. Down in the dear old orchard.
Sept. 26. Falling leaves. Colors. Play we are trees. Use balls for apples or leaves.
Sept. 27. The squirrel. Nut trees.
Sept. 28. Birds going away. Why? Song about a nest or bird. Finger play of the bird's nest. September will fly away before you come back. See if you can find out what month is coming.
These stories and conversations will suggest subjects for the drawing day by day. Let the children who can tell a story in their drawing do so. Draw little sketches on the blackboard crudely and thus arouse the child to imagine little scenes, as trees with ladders to get apples. A basket or barrel to hold apples. A train to carry them to town.
Outline apples or balls and let younger children color them in mass. Afterwards let them cut them out. This will help to keep the two groups balanced as to time, for children can build longer than they can draw to advantage.
If children finish drawing before the building is over, send them to the sand table if there is one, or let them draw on the blackboard or look at pictures. There should always be a pile of mounted pictures or animal picture books at hand. There should be city pictures also for rural schools.
Draw the barn,
a wagon, a wheel, a ladder, a cup, a bowl, a chair, a bed, etc. Children must learn to draw these objects one at a time. (See the admirable talks on drawing given at Boston last May before I. K. U. and reported for this magazine. Note what is called "A graphic vocabulary.")
If there are large blocks, let the children build freely on the floor. Cultivate language by letting them tell what they have made. This suggestion also applies to drawing. Never forget that the child's vocabulary and power to express thoughts must grow from day to day. Encourage him to look right at
you when he speaks to you. This is humanizing. At first be satisfied to have him tell what he has drawn or built. Later induce him to add a simple description.
Have simple toy objects as dishes, dolls and tools to put with the blocks to give life to the building. A few cheap toy animals are also needed.
A child who does not know what to build will be ready to build a stable for a horse, or a fence to keep the cows in the pasture.
A boat may suggest a bridge or a dock. In early work in building, these objects help very much to vivify. Later the children can build by direction. Begin with suggestion anu initiation.
I consider that drawing and building with perhaps a little cutting and chain-making will be sufficient hand work for the first month. If sand and clay are furnished, use them in small groups changing these groups from day to day. Possibly a few children may take their blocks to the sand table and build there. However, the younger ones will at first enjoy piling, sifting and digging, filling pails as if at the seashore. This mere handling of an unusual material is educating to the sense of touch and is in no sense wasted time.
Keep to dry sand this month. Later it may be moistened.
If clay is used let the children do as they please at first. Note what they do and only make suggestions when they work aimlessly. Then show how to make marbles, balls, pies, wheels, dishes, a nest, a bird, and an egg.
The fully developed game will hardly be reached during the first month. It must be built up of elementary movements. Children love to imitate animals, tools, workmen. Play at first without music. Dramatize the stories simply and let them grow into games.
The ball games are good for beginners. Rolling, bouncing, hiding. Consult any good kindergarten book of songs to accompany games and also to suggest games. For example: If you teach "Down in the dear old orchard," build up a game gradually. 1. Children are all the trees in the orchard. 2. A few children may be chosen to run around among the trees to play pick up the apples. They may even shake a tree to bring apples down. 3. Another day, ask what we shall do with the apples. Imagine a barrel or make a barrel by using four or five children in a small ring. They may stand close and twine arms around each other. Where shall we take the barrel? To the train! How shall we make a train? Four or five children or all remaining make a long line placing hands upon each other's shoulders. An engineer and conductor are chosen, the barrel is put
aboard and the train starts for the city. This game could be the chief one for this month. Accept children's suggestions as far as possible.
Another game with trees may be similar but a squirrel be introduced to run in and out, the trees being chestnut trees or hickory. Games of the squirrel are much enjoyed and can be found in good collections. The children never tire of the old one:
"The squirrel loves a pleasant place
He Tackled the Thing that Couldn't be Done -and He Did It.
The following verses were read by Miss Nellie E. Brown, supervisor of the public school kindergartens of Bangor, Maine, at the I. K. U, in Boston. They encouraged her to accomplish the passage of the State law requiring the establishment of kindergartens under certain conditions. The reading in connection with Miss Brown's report brought her enthusiastic applause:
Somebody said that it eouldn't be done,
That maybe it couldn't, but he would be one
So he buckled right in, with the trace of a grin
Somebody scoffed, "Oh, you'll never do that-
But he took off his coat, and he took off his hat,
He started to sing, as he tackled the thing
There are thousands to tell you it cannot be done,
Then take off your coat and go to it;
GOLDEN HOURS BY ALICE M. INNES The day-time hours Are tinged with gold. The night-time hours Reflections hold.
Work in the light; Rest in the dark, Then you'll be up To greet the lark.
Plans of Work for September
Jenny B. Merrill, Ph. D.
The Kindergarten Magazine is deeply interested in rural schools where earnest teachers are struggling to give the youngest children some benefit of kindergarten methods.
The rural teacher, may have other grades besides the kindergarten. She must, sometimes, in games, rhythms, songs and perhaps even stories unite kindergarten and primary grades. The "spirit" of the kindergarten is more important than the "letter."
Very few young teachers fully realize the importance of getting a true "point of contact" with the child's former experiences.
There must not be a break between home and school experiences.
A lady who had taught in German elementary schools told me recently that there was no connection attempted between home and school life in Germany. On the contrary, many of us in America are earnestly striving year after year to solve our problems by making closer and closer connections with the home.
Have you ever made a list of the common, familiar objects and animals that Froebel uses as educational starting points? You will enjoy doing it. You can use them also in kindergarten, and in school. The clock, the window, the piano, the gate, the wheel, the nest, the bridge, the wind, the moon and stars, the most familiar workmen and their tools. These every day experiences with common things need further organization in school. A few questions will show how superficial the child's ideas of even familiar occurrences may be.
Use them as starting points for stories and songs; let their movements suggest games and rhythms. Try to reproduce them in building with blocks, in outlining with sticks, in drawing. Do this and you have a kindergarten.
Now what may we do in September? Let us come to the point starting with Sept. 4, but remember other similar work may be preferable for your environment. We can only hope to write a possible proThe order of gram, not a fixed one in any sense. exercises for the day may be as follows or it may have to be modified:
1. Preparation of room for the day, children who come early helping in any way possible, as placing chairs, unlocking closets, (how they love to handle a key) dusting, watering plants. Younger ones play with balls, dolls and other toys, an older child helping.
2. Call to circle with quiet music, children responding quickly until all are seated.
3. Greetings by cheerful word and finally singing
a "Good Morning Song." See any Kg. Collection as Song Stories by Patty S. Hill.
4. Notice the weather by suggesting looking out of the window. Speak of the sun, the clouds, rain, snow, heat, or cold as the case may be. As soon as convenient teach a weather song as, "Good morning to you glorious sun," or, "Over there the sun gets up" or, "Good morning, Merry Sunshine" or, "Pitter patter," etc.
5. Tell a story or if necessary talk of coming early, of clean hands, etc. Even such suggestions may be impressed by a story improvised for the occasion. This story may be of a little girl who came so early that she helped the teacher, (of course enlarging with details). It may be of Johnny who remembered to wash his hands. It is better to present thoughts in the positive rather than the negative, altho contrasts are also valuable, as Johnny remembered but Tom forgot.
6. Rhythms follow. Play wash hands together singing "This is the way we wash our hands." Children stand. Play walk to kindergarten by walking around the circle. A few may be sent, then others. From day to day add movements, as running to school or skipping, etc. Exercises of a simple kind as clapping, standing on tiptoe, bending knees, raising Rememhands high over head, swinging arms, etc. ber all parts of the body need exercise.
7. Finding seats at table for hand work. If possible have two groups. a. Draw a house, a fence, etc. b. Build houses, etc.
8. Recess and free play out of doors if possible.
9. Games in a ring. Begin with imitative motions. Show with hands and arms the motion of a wheel, a swing, a hammer. See if any circle game is known. If not let one child walk from one child to another shaking hands. If no one is willing, teacher does it. All play "rocking baby," holding arms as if baby or dolly were there. Teacher sings a lullaby. Teach any simple game as hiding the ball, or rolling it into a circle drawn on the floor.
10. Table work. (Reverse groups.) a. Build. b. Draw.
11. Repeat a few ring games or teach a finger game if there is time before saying "Good-by."
Americans are living in the greatest country the world has ever known. It is now in direst need. Every teacher should be a patriot, doing all she can to encourage a loyal and patriotic sentiment in her neighborhood as well as to encourage saving and the production of food stuffs and general conformity to the requests and suggestions of the government.
Self-preservation is the first law of nature; selfsacrifice the highest rule of grace.-Vauvenargues. Sheridan.
Let us be silent that we may hear the whispers of God.-Emerson.