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ality of our army organization, which assign- a poor man, so high was his sense of honour ed the troops of the line to the Commander- that he declined gifts which seemed in his in-Chief, and the two Woolwich corps to mind to carry with them the imputation of the Master of the Ordnance, no doubt did mercenary motives on the part of the recipimuch to keep their claims in the back-ent. As our leading journal justly remarkground:

ed, on the occasion of his resigning his comBut although thus denied an opportunity mand in China, Charles Gordon there set an of showing their fitness for every branch of a example of courage, of modesty, and of unsoldier's duties in any campaign in which spotted honour, of which his country may British troops have been engaged in Europe, well be proud. officers of engineers have from time to time Lord Napier's services are so fresh in our been able to burst through these official memories that it seems' unnecessary to recashackles, and thus assert the injustice to pitulate these further proofs of an engineer which their corps was subject.

officer's capacity for command. Lest, howDuring the Crimean War, Captain Sim- ever, some critics may consider that the suomons, as a general of division, assisted by cess of the Abyssinian expedition indicates Lieutenant Ballard as a brigadier, did good a talent for organization rather than a fitness work with Turkish levies against the Rus- for fighting, it may be well to refer to former sian troops stationed on the eastern shores services of this general; to his enterprising of the Black Sea; and in truth the fighting tactics while commanding the division which material they had to make use of was indif- did the hard work of the last China war, ani ferently good in comparison with the well to his daring operations while commanding disciplined troops of the Czar with wbom a brigade of troops during the Indian Mu they had to contend. Deteriorated by the tiny. His action with the well-organize evil example of the enervated bullet-fearing army of mutineers at Jowra Alipore was on Pashas who commanded them, these soldiers of the most gallant affairs of the campaig of the Sultan were at first but imperfectly of 1857-1858. One day at the end of reliable under fire. But when they came to forced march he found his fatigued litt? find leaders who really performed the duty force in the immediate neighbourhood of th of leading, the old courage of Central Asian rebellious army of the Maharajah Scindia ancestors was once again kindled in these -an army composed of infantry, cavalry sons of Islam. The campaign in Mingrelia, and artillery, equipped from British arsena including the passage of the Ingour river, and drilled by British officers. Without may well stand a comparison as a piece of moment's hesitation he made up bis mind soldiering with any of the operations carried attack at any odds. Taking with him a ba on at the same time in the Crimean penin- tery of borse-artillery and a few squadro sula.

of cavalry, he worked his way in silen In China, again, a young captain of the round the shoulder of the low hill that sep corps not long ago found himself gradually rated the contending forces, and sudden developing from an adviser of the Imperial making his appearance on the enemy's flan generals into the position of Commander-in- plunged headlong into their dense ranks. Chief of their entire forces. In this capaci-clear field and twenty-two guns were the ty Captain Gordon raised armies, fought ward of this day's work, by which Rob battles, and reconquered provinces. Here, Napier effectually set at rest any doubts too, imperturbable courage on the part of to the calculating spirit of the engineer bei one man served to convert a mob of timo- in any way detrimental to tho dash of t rous Orientals into a really useful fighting soldier. force. And when at length his firmness and In thus venturing to cite a few instan fearlessness had overcome the many obsta- of services rendered in the field by Ro des he had to encounter, in the shape of an Engineers, we feel that we undertake wi active enemy, unwilling recruits, and endless may seem to many a superfluous task. I official thwartings offered by orthodox man- ordinary reason and experience ought al darins to this resolute white devil-in short, to teach us that such services are not lik after the insurrection which threatened the to be below the level of those performed very throne of China had been quelled by men whose natural aptitude for military s his personal efforts,-Gordon returned to dies has not, in the first instance, been his ordinary engineer duties without carry- termined by the test of examination, nor ing with him any outward benefit. Having afterwards been developed by a professio done his duty as an English officer, he now education. The regimental routine as an English gentleman refused the offers scribed as the sole training of most officer of service and of rewards made to him by our army is excellent as a means of teach the grateful Emperor of China. Although thein habits of order and obedience, but yond a certain limit its action is apt to be tary, those young Frenchmen contrived injurious. Long subjection to its monoto- somehow or other to beat their orthodox annous restraint tends to merge the man into togonists,quite in opposition to the rules the machine-or rather into an isolated laid down for such cases, it is true,—but fragment of a machine,-useful so long as beat them they certainly did. The Austrians the entire apparatus is in gear, but helpless could of course console themselves with the so far as ind movements are concerned. reflection that the very defeat but the If any one doubts the evil effects of this better proved their rigid adherence to estabsystem of cherishing the military attributes lished rules of procedure. With one of of an army at the expense of its warlike qual. Molière's doctors they might even say, "Il ities, let him look at the last struggle be- vaut mieux mourir selon les règles que de tween Austria and Prussia. No troops in réchapper contre les règles." Sentiments the world are better disciplined than those of this kind might very possibly have soothed of the Kaiser. None have higher courage. the court circles of the Vienna of that time. That they went down before the soldiers of But we doubt if Englishmen of the present North Germany was not due to the mere day would be content with such an apology mechanical superiority of the needle gun. offered on behalf of a British army beaten The same intelligent spirit of soldiering which under similar circumstances. We question supplied the Prussians with that admirable whether the nation, on hearing that its flag weapon was visible throughout every pbase had been so soiled, would be satisfied by an of their proceedings, visible in the strategy explanatory circular from thc Horse Guards of their generals as well as in the individual assuring us that the unpleasant result bad efforts made by every man of the force. Sa- been brought about in strict accordance with dowa, to use a well-worn expression, was the regulations of the service. simply the victory of mind over matter. That radical reforms are required in the

To our country that seven weeks' war in organization of our army appears to be the Germany ought to carry a special warning. conviction of the country, and symptoms are If any lesson were to be gathered from it, it not wanting to show that the earliest efforts was assuredly this, that mere courage, active of its reformers are likely to be directed or passive, is no longer sufficient to save an to the system on which it is supplied with arıny from defeat. The tactics pursued by officers. Already the movement against our best generals in the Peninsula and at the sale of commissions has assumed formiWaterloo, which almost invariably consisted |dable dimensions. Setting himself astride in relying on the unflinching resolution with this hereditary cheval de bataille, a mem. which English troops can endure the on- ber of the present Administration has slaught of assaulting columns, would be of not hesitated to proclaim the necessity of little avail in a modern battle-field. The abolishing this and other practices, which conditions of the combat are altogether al- tend, in his mind, to make the army a createred by the use of arms of precision of the ture of the Crown rather than a servant of present day. Any general in the field at the country. And doubtless many members tempting to handle troops after the time of the House of Commons are prepared to honoured maxims to this day practised on support this gentleman in effecting important English parade-grounds would never repeat changes in this respect. How far the prethe operation. Long before his cumbrous sent purchase system may be beneficial, and columns had taken up their alignments and how far it may be injurious to our army, dressed up to their points, bis ranks would we need not now inquire. Much may

be urged show sad gaps.

An enterprising enemy in support of each view of the case. And might sorely violate bis notions of proper we, who may now be set down as endeavour, fronts” and “proper pivots” by falling heading to advocate certain claims of the Royal long on him without regard to any other Artillery and Royal Engineers, in which this principle of war than that of securing success. systems does not obtain, may possibly be reÎn arms, as in all things, innovations invari- garded as but partial judges of this matter. ably meet with the cry of "heterodoxy, At the same time, as it happens that these heterodoxy," from the praisers of past times. corps are the examples selected by Mr.

Napoleon and the other generals of the Trevelyan and his school to prove the adFrench Republic adopted methods of fight- vantages of the principle they seek to proing utterly at variance with the good old mote, we may venture to point out what types of strategy laid down in the ingenious seems to be the secret of success in their intreatises on warfare with which the Austrian stance. And at the outset we may mention commanders of the day were thoroughly con- that there is this radical difference in the Ordversant. Departing from the ballowed pre- nance corps from the model organization scriptions of the old masters of the art mili. I which these abolitionists seem to have set be

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fore themselves, in so far that in them none of When the elements of drill and discipline
the officers have risen from the ranks. bave been fairly mastered by a young soldier,
Moreover, although admission to the Royal it is right that he should acquire knowledge
Academy is nominally open to all competin of the varied kind which is necessary for the
tors, yet the nature of the qualifications application of these to the wants of warfare.
which are exacted does in reality restrict the A mcre capacity for maneuvring troops is
candidates to certain classes of the commu- but a poor qualification for commanding an
nity-classes, in fact, which can afford to army; and yet, Heaven knows, this is about
pay £130 a year for their boys during their the limit of learning attainable by many of
training at Woolwich, and can make them our officers, whose mornings are occupied in
some annual allowance afterwards during dawdling through drill and orderly-room
their subaltern days at Chatham.* In short, duties, and whose afternoons are filled up by
the officers of the Royal Artillery and Royal strolling in search of such bonnes fortunes as
Engineers are the sons of the gentle folks of are to be met with in the streets of the coun
England. This condition of the question try quarters in which they find themselves
may no doubt seem of small moment to en Surely it is better for a man to be engage
thusiasts whose abstract notions of a perfect in healthy occupation for the mind and th
military organization may be summed up in body than to be condemned to the life-lon
the supposititious bâton de maréchal which listlessness of mere barrack work.
each French soldier is said to carry in his If certain critics choose to cavil at th
knapsack. But to those who have an every employment of engineers on duties whic
day acquaintance with the subject the cir- may seem to belong to the civilian rathi
cumstance is hardly capable of being over than the soldier, we would ask these gentl
rated in importance.

men to look at the many engineers who he
Men who have mixed much with the Eng- bigh commands during the late war in Ame
lish soldier well know that the respect and ica, and then to tell us if the usefulness
obedience he yields to an individual of the Robert Lee, of Meade, of Beauregard, ay
class which he designates as gentlemen are their brother officers, was in any way impair
not to be obtained by persons of a lower so- by the varied callings of peaceful life whi
cial position. On service the display of bad occupied their previous years of milita
courage will always insure a leader being inactivity. We would even ask these
followed, irrespective of birth or breeding;jectors to look at the case of Lord Stra
but in barracks-and barracks, be it remem- nairn, whose regimental work may be said
bered, constitute the normal scene of duty- have ceased on his reaching the rank of c
the English soldier will usually be found tain, and then let us know whether his s
much less tractable to the orders of the sequent successful career as a general car
most meritorious officer that ever rose from considered to establish the inferiority
the ranks than to the most careless of subal- comprehensive course of training, civil
terns freshly set free from Eton or Sand- well as military, compared with that fi
hurst. In course of time a juster apprecia- instruction which is comprised within
tion of human equality may possibly pervade red boards of the Queen's Regulations
the rank and file. At present, however, it is the Army.
well that their existing sentiments on this We think most Englishmen will a
subject should not be overlooked in any with us in considering that able generals
scheme devised for commanding them. not sufficiently numerous in our arm

In addition, however, to the mere circum- warrant us in refusing to seek for i stance of social condition, the Engineer offi- wherever they can be found. In ma cer has, as we have seen, a professional edu- this selection, it seems unwise that the c cation such as is seldom enjoyed by his try should be denied the choice of fellows in the line. His future occupations, 2300 officers of artillery and engin too, being of an ever-varying nature, are whose military training has been more better calculated to develop his capabilities fully conducted than that of any soldie as a man than the monotonous repetition of its service. In justice to these ordnan one small round of mechanical duties which ficers, too, it is right that the mischi constitutes the military career of most officers ban which hitherto has excluded them

commands should now be removed. I

istence is the veriest mockery imagina * The cost of a cadet varies according to circum- the claim of intellect or of culture to a

The sons of officers are admited on lower arrayed in a red coat. terms than those of non-military men; and, again, If, notwithstanding their early tra the lower may be the rank of the parent, the less is the amount required for the boy. *£130' may be and their after services, these officers set down as the average cost.

still be denied this act of justice, the

of our army,

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yond a certain limit its action is apt to be | tary, those young Frenchmen contrived injurious. Long subjection to its monoto- somehow or other to beat their orthodox annous restraint tends to merge the man into togonists,-quite in opposition to the rules the machine-or rather into an isolated laid down for such cases, it is true, but fragment of a machine, -useful so long as beat them they certainly did. The Austrians the entire apparatus is in gear, but helpless could of course console themselves with the

far individual movements are concerned. reflection that their very defeat but the If any one doubts the evil effects of this better proved their rigid adherence to estabsystem of cherishing the military attributes lished rules of procedure. With one of of an army at the expense of its warlike qual. Molière's doctors they might even say, "Il ities, let him look at the last struggle be- vaut mieux mourir selon les règles que de tween Austria and Prussia. No troops in réchapper contre les règles." Sentiments the world are better disciplined than those of this kind might very possibly have soothed of the Kaiser. None have higher courage. the court circles of the Vienna of that time. That they went down before the soldiers of But we doubt if Englishmen of the present North Germany was not due to the mere day would be content with such an apology mechanical superiority of the needle gun, offered on behalf of a British army beaten The same intelligent spirit of soldiering which under similar circumstances. We question supplied the Prussians with that admirable whether the nation, on hearing that its flag weapon was visible throughout every pbase had been so soiled, would be satisfied by an of their proceedings, visible in the strategy explanatory circular from the Horse Guards of their generals as well as in the individual assuring us that the unpleasant result bad efforts made by every man of the force. $a- been brought about in strict accordance with dowa, to use a well-worn expression, was the regulations of the service. simply the victory of mind over matter. That radical reforms are required in the

To our country that seven weeks' war in organization of our army appears to be the Germany ought to carry a special warning. conviction of the country, and symptoms are If any lesson were to be gathered from it, it not wanting to show that the earliest efforts was assuredly this, that mere courage, active of its reformers are likely to be directed or passive, is no longer sufficient to save an to the system on which it is supplied with arıny from defeat. The tactics pursued by officers. Already the movement against our best generals in the Peninsula and at the sale of commissions has assumed formiWaterloo, which almost invariably consisted /dable dimensions. Setting himself astride in relying on the unflinching resolution with this hereditary cheval de bataille

, a mem. which English troops can endure the on- ber of the present Administration has slaught of assaulting columns, would be of not hesitated to proclaim the necessity of little avail in a modern battle-field. The abolishing this and other practices, which conditions of the combat are altogether al tend, in his mind, to make the army a crea. tered by the use of arms of precision of the ture of the Crown rather than a servant of present day. Any general in the field at the country. And doubtless many members tempting to handle troops after the time of the lIouse of Commons are prepared to honoured maxims to this day practised on support this gentleman in effecting important English parade-grounds would never repeat changes in this respect. How far the prethe operation. Long before his cumbrous sent purchase system may be beneficial, and columns had taken up their alignments and how far it may be injurious to our army, dressed

up to their points, his ranks would we need not now inquire. Much may be urged show sad gaps.

An enterprising enemy in support of each view of the case. And might sorely violate bis notions of

proper we, who may now be set down as endeavour. fronts” and proper pivots” by falling head- ing to advocate certain claims of the Royal long on him without regard to any other Artillery and Royal Engineers, in which this principle of war than that of securing success. systems does not obtain, may possibly be reIn arms, as in all things, innovations invari- garded as but partial judges of this matter. ably meet with the cry of "heterodoxy, At the same time, as it happens that these heterodoxy," from the praisers of past times. corps are the examples 'selected by Mr.

Napoleon and the other generals of the Trevelyan and his school to prove the ad. French Republic adopted methods of fight- vantages of the principle they seek to proing utterly at variance with the good old mote, we may venture to point out what types of strategy laid down in the ingenious seems to be the secret of success in their intreatises on warfare with which the Austrian stance. And at the outset we may mention commanders of the day were thoroughly con- that there is this radical difference in the Ordversant. Departing from the ballowed pre- nance corps from the model organization scriptions of the old masters of the art mili- / which these abolitionists seem to have set be

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fore themselves, in so far that in them none of When the elements of drill and discipline
the officers have risen from the ranks. bave been fairly mastered by a young soldier,
Moreover, although admission to the Royal it is right that he should acquire knowledge
Academy is nominally open to all competi- of the varied kind which is necessary for the
tors, yet the nature of the qualifications application of these to the wants of warfare.
which are exacted does in reality restrict the A mcre capacity for maneuvring troops is
candidates to certain classes of the commu- but a poor qualification for commanding an
nity—classes, in fact, which can afford to army; and yet, Heaven knows, this is about
pay £130 a year for their boys during their the limit of learning attainable by many of
training at Woolwich, and can make them our officers, whose mornings are occupied in
some annual allowance afterwards during dawdling through drill and orderly-room
their subaltern days at Chatham.* In short, duties, and whose afternoons are filled up by
the officers of the Royal Artillery and Royal strolling in search of such bonnes fortunes a:
Engineers are the sons of the gentle folks of are to be met with in the streets of the coun
England. This condition of the question try quarters in which they find themselves
may no doubt seem of small moment to en. Surely it is better for a man to be engage
thusiasts whose abstract notions of a perfect in healthy occupation for the mind and th
military organization may be summed up in body than to be condemned to the life-lon
the supposititious bâton de maréchal which listlessness of mere barrack work.
each French soldier is said to carry in his If certain critics choose to cavil at th
knapsack. But to those who have an every employment of engineers on duties whic
day acquaintance with the subject the cir- may seem to belong to the civilian rath
cumstance is hardly capable of being over than the soldier, we would ask these gentl
rated in importance.

men to look at the many engineers who he
Men who have mixed much with the Eng. high commands during the late war in Ame
lish soldier well know that the respect and ica, and then to tell us if the usefulness
obedience he yields to an individual of the Robert Lee, of Meade, of Beauregard, a
class which he designates as gentlemen are their brother officers, was in any way impair
not to be obtained by persons of a lower so- by the varied callings of peaceful life whi
cial position. On service the display of bad occupied their previous years of milita
courage will always insure a leader being inactivity. We would even ask these
followed, irrespective of birth or breeding ;jectors to look at the case of Lord Stra
but in barracks and barracks, be it remem- nairn, whose regimental work may be said
bered, constitute the normal scene of duty have ceased on his reaching the rank of c
the English soldier will usually be found tain, and then let us know whether his s
much less tractable to the orders of the sequent successful career as a general can
most meritorious officer that ever rose from considered to establish the inferiority
the ranks than to the most careless of subal comprehensive course of training, civil
terns freshly set free from Eton or Sand well as military, compared with that fi
hurst. In course of time a juster apprecia- instruction which is comprised within
tion of human equality may possibly pervade red boards of the Queen's Regulations
the rank and file. At present, however, it is the Army,
well that their existing sentiments on this We think most Englishmen will a
subject should not be overlooked in any with us in considering that able generals
scheme devised for commanding them. not sufficiently pumerous in our arm

In addition, however, to the mere circum- warrant us in refusing to seek fort stance of social condition, the Engineer offi- wherever they can be found. In ma cer has, as we have seen, a professional edu- this selection, it seems unwise that the c cation such as is seldom enjoyed by his try should be denied the choice of fellows in the line. His future occupations, 2300 officers of artillery and engin too, being of an ever-varying nature, are whose military training has been more better calculated to develop his capabilities fully conducted than that of any soldie as a man than the monotonous repetition of its service, In justice to these ordnan one small round of mechanical duties which ficers, too, it is right that the mischi constitutes the military career of most officers ban which hitherto has excluded them of our army,

commands should now be removed. I

istence is the veriest mockery imagina * The cost of a cadet varies according to circum- the claim of intellect or of culture to a

The sons of officers are admited on lower arrayed in a red coat. terms than those of non-military men; and, again,

If, notwithstanding their early tra the lower may be the rank of the parent, the less is the amount required for the boy. *£130 may be and their after services, these officers set down as the average cost.

still be denied this act of justice, the

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stances,

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