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church of like rank and status with our dies historical phenomena. But we hazard Episcopal one." Is not that a gigautic the counter assertion (evith a strong bias in "rival plan of doing ” ? and its proposer favour of Establishments), that there are as has not told us how culture approves" of many minds of the highest spiritual signifit. We have only his individual opinion cance outside of all Establishments as withthat such is the verdict of cultivated in their venerable precincts. The explanathought on the point in question. Said wetion of the law he has discovered, which not truly, that his repudiation of practical | Mr. Arnold gives, is, that Nonconformity is schemes breaks down, and that the link of “not in contact with the main current of connexion between the scheme he actually national life.". The explanation is as insubmits, and the culture which he teaches, conclusive as the law. Surely the current is so vague as to be imperceptible ? that sweeps outside of Church Establish

Again, we find Mr. Arnold frequently ments is as broad, as various, and some. generalizing from data which do not war- times as deep as that which fows within rant his inferences; and it is the tendency their banks. All the facts, we are afraid, of all comprehensive generalization to be- do not tally with this theory; and in those come vague in proportion to the breadth of individual cases to which 'Mr. Arnold's the area it covers. Thus in his remarkable statement applies (and it applies to many), classification of British society into the the real explanation of the defect is not three grades of the Philistines, the Barba- remoteness from the main stream of national rians, and the Populace, while he has suc. life, but an inability fully to comprehend cessfully named and acutely criticised the that stream, and to sympathize with the first of the three, and may be almost said to mixed elements of which it is composed. have minted a new term for current use in It

may seem ungracious towards a writer the English language, it is not likely that who has done so much to illustrate and to his second term will be either appreciated as advance some of the choicest forms of cul

. accurate or adopted to any extent. On the ture, to object to the terms he has made whole it is a mistake to divide society by such frequent use of in teaching these. But sharp lines of demarcation into classes Swift's phrase," sweetness and light," which founded on intellectual differences. In no Mr. Arnold thinks the most appropriate to case is the risk of false classification great- describe the twofold tendency of culture er, as we deal with a type of existence of toward the Beautiful, and toward Intelliwhich the forces are so manifold, so pro- gence, is far from felicitous. Sweetness has tean, and so many of its phenomena latent, a flavour of mere sensation, with which we while their sources are so obscure. Each would willingly dispense; and light is not caste or class in society shades into that sufficiently discriminative if it is to be conwhich is contiguous to it by fine and almost fined to the action of the intellect. There imperceptible gradations; they sometimes is moral as well as mental light. intersect each other, and often meet in the At the beginning of this article we refer. same individual. This fact has not escaped red to the relation in which the doctrine of the notice of so observant a critic as Mr. Ideal Culture stands to kindred problems; Arnold. But we doubt if he has given due and there are at least two other questions weight to it, or if he sufficiently recognises closely related to the one with which we the presence of the Barbarian element started, "What is the chief end of Man?" among the populace, and of the Philistine They are these" Whence have we come ?" element amongst his barbarians. If the and“ Whither do we tend ?” We may be crossings and blendings of these types are able to answer the first of the three, without very numerous, the success of his classifica. obtaining a philosophical reply to the other tion is weakened. And if the variability of two; but we cannot pursue the course which the type is admitted to the extent which we that answer indicates, withouts

some approx: think it must be admitted, the distinctive, imate solution of the others. And every features of the three classes, as they now doctrine of culture which ignores them, or exist, would need to be much more marked, pronounces them insoluble, is to that extent to warrant Mr. Arnold's classification. defective in moral power, if it does not lack As a further instance of rash generaliza- all moral leverage. We need some dozzá

. tion, we are told of

What force is to urge the soul bids the rearing outside of National Estab- forward in this career of many-sided life? lishments of men of the highest spiritual What is to facilitate the progressive harmosignificance." The accuracy of this estimate dy of its powers? Is it true, as Mr. Arwill depend on the ideal of spiritual signifi- nold represents Empedocles as sayinga cance which the student of history forms, “Once read thy own heart right, and also on the glass through which he stu- And thou hast done with fears;

which “ for- VNEWS.

à law

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Man gets no other light,

“ Roads for India ?" “Why, India is Search he a thousand years"?

itself one great road !” Must the force proceed from human nature Such was the evidence tendered to a itself, and its relation to this present state Committee of the House of Commons, which of being ? or must it not rather spring from happened not long ago to be engaged in. a perception of our Origin and our Destina- quiring into the wants of our Eastern Emtion? If we perceive that we have emerged pire-the witness in this instance being a from the Infinite, not as atoms developed by member of Parliament enjoying the reputhe slow evolution of an eternal Force, but tation of knowing India well. as beings cast in the image of the Creator, By the assertion that India is itself a and destined to immortality, we have a road, this gentleman meant to imply that motive for the culture of our powers that is the sun-dried soil and empty water-courses inexhaustible. If, on the contrary, we mere found there during the rainless months of ly stand by the side of the stream of each year afford every requisite facility for human existence, or float on its

the upper

movements of its inhabitants. To him, surface, wholly ignorant of its origin and of and to a once considerable but now scarcer its issue, we may drift with the current, but class who think with him, there seemed we can have no motive to advance. It nothing amiss in a condition of things which would be a matter of indifference to us compelled the cultivator, when carting his where we stood along the margin of a line, produce to market, to undertake a journey both ends of which are lost in the darkness across country in fox-hunting fashion, or at of the Infinite. But as we need induce- best along roads of a description so rude as ments and stimuli to urge us forward, we to entail a certain waste of time, and a conmust know the points from which and to siderable risk of accident. For, notwithwhich we tend. Where can we find a motive standing frequent invocations of his gods, to progress, if not in the ambition to reach and many stimulating twistings applied to " the measure of the stature of the perfect ?” | the tails of his oxen, the driver might conWhen we remember our origin and discern sider bimself lucky who reached the end of our immortality, we continue the laborious bis journey without sustaining injury in quest for knowledge, we willingly renounce cart or bullocks--racked to pieces in ruts beliefs that have proved their immaturity which immersed wheels up to the axle-tree, by our advancing growth. Every branch or goaded to death in struggles to cross of philosophic study, of scientific labour, or passes hardly practicable for unladen anof artistic toil, yields us some new element imals

. with which to carry on the education of our The setting in of the annual rains of the powers. We venerate the past and strive to tropics, which saturate the loamy soil and learn from its rich accumulations, but we food the bridgeless rivers to an extent proaim at a larger and more mellowed culture bibiting the passage of travellers, and which, than any that the past has bequeathed to us; in fact, is the signal for the owners of carts while we remember that Man himself is to remove the wheels and store them in dry "greater than anything that educates him," places throughout each June, July, and greater than any object that surrounds him August-this complete suspension of the in the universe of finite existence.

traffic of the country might at all events have seemed capable of evoking an admission of the necessity of some remedial

But no ! In the minds of certain

Anglo-Indian praisers of past times, this ART. VIII.-PUBLIC WORKS IN INDIA, very consequence of a want of roads appear

ed to offer a conclusive proof that no roads 1. Reports of the Proceedings of the Govern- were nedeed.

ment of India in the Public Works De. We trust we are correct in saying that partment. Printed at Calcutta by order views of this retro-active nature are no of His Excellency the Governor longer prevalent among us; and that they General in Council,

need now be considered only in the light of 2. Administrative Reports of the Public Works causes which explain the faint progress

Department of the various Presidencies works of improvement have hịtherto made of India.

in India. Of late each fresh Secretary of 3. Indian Polity. By Major GEORGE CHES- State for India—and during half-a-dozen

NEY, R.E., Accountant-General to the years we have had about as many occupants
Government of India, Public Works of the office—has lost no opportunity of
Department. London: Longmans, stating bis conviction of the importance of
Green, and Co.

roads and canals for his charge. And,

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doubtless, each has used efforts to give his | East, it must be acknowledged that forced views effect. Some progress, too, has actually labour was in many respects not ill adapted been realized in this direction. But much, to the circumstances of their subjects. The very much, work yet remains to be done. languid temperament inherent in interDistricts as large as half-a-dozen English tropical nations, added to habitual subjeccounties put together, and possessing a soil tion to arbitrary authority, has rendered more fertile than is to be found in Europe, the native of India more inclined to obey a are without roads for the conveyance of their command to work than to respond to an Crops to market. Others, equally rich and invitation that work shall be done in consiextensive, are liable to periodical visitations deration of a recompense. As in France the of famine, owing to the want of water, which national need for despotic control is alleged might with care be led along channels, to to be shadowed forth in the words " Il est irrigate their fields. In such parts of India défendu," which everywhere meet the eye a year of drought means a year of death. of the traveller in that country-so in India

No doubt the task of meeting these many the inborn reverence for authority is typirequirements is no easy one. The field of fied in the idioms of its language, of which labour is so vast: the means immediately “Hookm hai” (It is decreed) appear the available for work appear so inconsiderable. words ever on the lips of its people

. The Nature seems there so all-powerful : Man so very terms in which a prohibition is expresfeeble, so liable to be soothed into sloth by sed serve to show this national craving after the enervating influences of climate. The commandments. The doorkeeper whose very extent and intricacy of the official duty it is to bar the entrance of a mosque, machine by which an order is conveyed from or other forbidden place, stops the intending the lips of the Minister in London to the trespasser with the injunction, “There is no ear of the man who is to work it out in order for you to enter here." And so it is India, would alone interpose serious risks of in almost every phase of thought or action. delay, if not of absolute abortion. And the Government, in the mind of the man of Minister must find it no easy matter to hit Hindustan, means

a mighty inscrutable off a happy medium between the execution thing, endowed with undisputed power to of imperfect projects, pressed for his adoption use its subjects as to it seem best, and called by enthusiasts within or schemers without, upon to regulate by rule every act of their and the no less mischievous alternative of existence. With him all sense of indiviinaction to which the faulty system of Public duality is effectually merged in a consciousWorks* finance or the advice of over-cautious ness of constituting a marvellous small counsellors might well drive him.

fraction of a great human whole lying at the He cannot adopt the course pursued in absolute disposal of his sovereign. An order the case of the grand mosques, temples, and to labour on behalf of this master seems to tanks which mark the reigns of former rulers him a very reasonable exercise of power. of India. Shah Jehan might unhesitatingly Nor must it be imagined that labour was order every labouring man and every beast exacted after the fashion of the hard taskof burden within a given circuit, to be im- masters who exist in English minds in pressed into the task of damming up an association with this state of things. Those artificial lake for irrigation, or of opening a who have mixed much with the natives of way across a mountain pass. But Queen India know that in their treatment of serVictoria could not venture on so Eastern à vants they are kind and considerate. The form of procedure. Compulsory labour has word "slave" has no proper equivalent in an evil sound in the ear of an Englishman. their language. "Son of the house” is the He cannot be brought to consider its appli- term generałly use to denote the African cation in other countries as in any degree who at times may be found in the domestic excused by the fact of its having not long establishment of a Mussulman--slave in so ago existed in principle in his own. far that he was bought in the market-but Yet in justice to our predecessors in the wearing his bonds lightly, as may be imagi

ned from the kindly epithet accorded to * In describing works of improvement we shall him. To meet slavery in its English sense, hereafter adopt the comprehensive designation of one must pass the mountains of the Hindoo and of which we give the following interpretation by Koosh, and seek for it in Balkb or BokMajor Chesney :-" In India the term Public Works hara. has always been applied to every kind of building In carrying out this compulsory process, operations undertaken by the Government, and in the Mogul Shahs observed in a fair degree cludes, therefore, the construction and repairs of all the dictates of humanity and

the prejudices State buildings, civil and military, as well as the

of religion. prosecutions of roads, railways, and irrigation

Labour was demanded only works."-Indian Polity, p. 357.

during the season when agricultural opera

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tions in India are at a stand-still, and mode- The energies of the Indian Public Works rate wages, or rations of food, were allowed Department are chiefly occupied in drawing to the workmen. Nor were the less substan- up plans on paper, or in combating objections tial luxuries of sweetmeats and fireworks offered to them. Indeed, the temptations wanting to reward them for the successful presented to all concerned, to display their completion of their task and sweetmeats powers of perception, and of picking holes, and fireworks are, to the working man of are so great as to be nearly irresistible to India, the same source of gratification that men sitting in offices in India, where during fire-water is to an English navvy. To men most of the hours of daylight the climate thus gathered together there was no great renders out-of-door occupations impossible, hardship in being compelled to sleep under and where the cheaply paid swarms of publica rainless sky; and shelter, if necessary, office clerks are naturally enough disposed might almost anywhere be found in the to beget the work which is needed to justify temples or houses of fellow caste-men, or be their employment. Then too, as we must all easily improvised with branches of trees and know, there is in the minds of most men a coarse matting

latent conviction of a capacity for engineerBut widely different as was the Indian ing. As almost every Englishman conceives system of old from the oppression practised himself a competent judge of a horse or a in the land of Egypt, either in the days of bottle of wine, so do our countrymen seem to Pharaoh or of Mohammed Ali, its adoption consider themselves fitted, with few excepat the present time is of course out of the tions, to pronounce sentence on any proposal question. Such works as we require must embracing bricks and mortar. be made by volunteers, for whom the wages Members of the Civil Service of India, we offer shall present a sufficient source of thoroughly conversant with questions affectattraction. And on this score we need have ing their proper duties, as Collector of a little cause to fear, seeing the readiness with district or Commissioner of a province which workmen flock to the operations of the questions of so abstruse and so hard-named Indian railways. The difficulties in the way a nature as to be unintelligible to ordinary of providing public works for India are of a Englishmen—these gentlemen appear often different nature. To understand them, it is to care less for the credit fittingly accorded necessary to keep in view the peculiar posi- to their knowledge of Ryotwarree Tenures tion which the British government occupies or the Hindu Law of Adoption, than for a in that country.

reputation they seek to acquire for a certain Her Majesty's Viceroy at Calcutta, in acquaintance with earthwork and masonry. addition to his functions as chief magistrate In short, almost every official in India is of her Eastern dominion, has to perform the more or less of an amateur engineer, ready less showy duties of land-steward over an to cavil at any plan placed before him, and estate larger than France, Spain, Austria, in occasional instances equally prepared to Prussia, Italy and the United Kingdom, put suggest an alternative scheme of his own. together. And to increase the difficulty of Then, too, death, disease, or a desire to run dealing with so unmanageable a property, home to England, are causes always operating he is compelled, by the usage of public busi- to bring a rapid succession of fresh incumness in India, to enter personally into almost bents into Indian offices; and each new man every affair which concerns it. A question comes to look on the acts of his predecessor of such small importance as the construction with a critical eye-unable, possibly enough of a few miles of road, which happens to from inexperience, to grasp at once the view have been proposed by the officials of some it may have cost the out-goer many years of remote village, is liable sooner or later to toil to master. So that the general result find its way to the desk of the Governor- may be summed up in this form—that at General; and on arrival there it is no longer least twice as much time is consumed in that in the shape of a simple plan and estimate stage of a public work which is described in for carrying out the proposal, but is swelled official returns by the words "under coninto a bulky budget, composed of criticisms sideration," as would suffice for its effectual and counter-calculations of engineers, of construction. voluminous commentaries by collectors of Nor do the drawbacks to the operations of districts, and of able but embarrassing résu- the Public Works Department of India end més of these discordant documents, prepared here. Even in the case where these proby energetic under-secretaries, possibly en tracted preliminaries have ended in an order dowed with a talent for epigram.

for breaking ground, there yet remains an The results of this system are such as we uncertainty as to funds being available to might expect them to be-much writing, meet the cost of execution.* A bad year's little working

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* This state of things has not yet been so suffi.

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rents, a short crop of opium, an outcry for | lightful set-off in the shape of work in the economy-these, and many other contingen- field. Indeed, it would be hard to conceive cies, are at any time capable of cutting off a more wholesome or happy existence than the necessary supplies of money; so that the that passed by one of these officers during officer in charge of a work is often compelled his annual turn of camp life in the districts to carry it on in a most unsatisfactory man under his charge. Provided with a couple

Unable to count on any sums beyond of suites of tents, so as to permit of one set the allowance doled out to meet the wants being sent in advance to be ready to receive of the year in which he finds himself, he is him at the end of the morrow's journey

, he deprived of aids which in undertakings of is enabled to carry on his duties with as this nature are essential to reaching the end much regularity as if he were staying at his in view, either speedily or economically. head-quarters. About an hour before sudContracts he can hardly venture to enter rise he swallows the cup of tea and biscuit into, unless these be provided with breakage which constitute the "small" breakfast of clauses on behalf of the Government, such as India, and at his tent-door finds a horse no contractor would accept, save on terms being led before it in readiness for him. If of an extravagant sort. The plant and ma- the stage before him be a long one, or if chinery requisite to assist and cheapen his works on his way require inspection, he operations he at best can only acquire gets at once into the saddle, and moving piecemeal, whereas the greatest service these clear of the falling tents, the piles of bag

. accessories afford is often to be found during gage, the prostrate forms of much-roaring the earlier stages of work. The very labor- camels, and other litter incidental to the ers whom he may with much trouble have confusion of striking camp in the dark, he gathered together from distant places, for jogs quietly along until the dawning day

thinly-peopled locality - changes the drowsy sort of foot-pace his nag these very men, when leaving at the out has observed through the darkness into a burst of the rains, for their fields and farms, skittish inclination now exhibited for a run can meet with no assurance from their em

over the firm far-reaching plain that lies ployer, that their services shall be required ahead. And it is really wonderful to noon the re-opening of the working season. tice the intelligence which the little Arab

From the day the first sod of a canal is horses, used in India, do display in seizing turned, or the foundation of a bridge laid, an opportunity of this kind. The animal until the time he is able to report his task which allowed itself to be kicked along complete, it is with him one long struggle sleepily through the dark hours before dawn, to make the most of imperfect means; while, no sooner feels the choering influence of the to aggravate his evils, his mind is kept in coming day, than, shaking his bit saucily, constant anxiety regarding every shilling and assuming a jaunty style of action, he expended in his district. He is held to be invites the man across him to a frolic toresponsible not only as a designer and a gether over the flat. A .couple of Persian constructor, but also as a paymaster and greyhounds are likely companions of the accountant. It would not be surprising morning's march, and as hares are plentiful, were men in this position to lose all zest it is hard if man, horse, and dogs do not get for their duties, and rest satisfied with one or two good runs on the road. attending to official correspondence, and a If the officer be not pressed for time, be vigilant superintendence of their ledgers and probably does not leave his tent till day: treasure chest. It would be hard to blame break; and then starting, gun in hand, and them were they to show themselves little with a horse led after him, he makes his inclined to see works of importance set camp-followers beat a broad belt of the agoing in their districts.

bush, field, or swamp that borders his way, To the credit of the officers employed in and so manages to get a fair bag of quail, the Public Works Department of India, it bustard, snipe, duck, bare; if he cares to must be said that, in spite of many dis- stalk, he can in most places find herds of heartening influences under which they are antelope or spotted deer. And when at placed, they almost invariably work with all length the sun has worked some way up the their heart both in-doors and out of doors. sky, and the pangs of the stomach begin to And if the office labours be at times uncon- prevail over the claims of sport, he gets genial to an active man, it must be admit- across his horse, and canters hungrily home ted that against these duties there is a de- to his camp. Yes! we may safely use the

word home. For everything about the place ciently remedied by the recent system of Public looks thoroughly comfortable and well-orWorks' loans, as to perniit of its being described in dered. At his tent-door stands a groom the past teuse.

ready to lead his horse off to the line of

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