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an immediate payment in cash, 97; our imperial lums in England and Wales, Scotland, and Ireland,
ferent classes of the discharged, 67, 68; the cura-
ble and incurable, 68; the question as to the
plication of the term “ Public Works," 120; the poor otherwise than in asylums, with probable ben-
“Culture and Anarchy," ib. ; the ideal of cultur
functions of the House of Lords, ib. ; bis advice that culture prosecuted with a view to the enti
signated, 113, 114; Mr. Arnold's doctrine lays
much stress on thought, and indefinitely postpo
290; birth and parentage, 291, 292; his way- what sad, 110; and why, ib.; his range of cul
teristics of it, 57, 59; controversies in whic
88, 89; the
je Stock. Es
of the foot
1 Act, 1968,"
60; his “ History of Christianity," and Dr. New- and engineers, ib. ;-is it a just one? 4 ; Lord
Delhi, 6, 7; Sir Hugh Rose at Jhansi, escalading,
treatment they have received, 8; instances of
, 189 ; his early life, and studies, 189,190 ; to be 'gathered from the last struggle between
of Radicals as depicted in“ Fathers and Children,”
edge of military matters, 1; power of the news- entitled “Smoke," holding up to ridicule the pa-
ART. 1-1. The Royal Engineer. By SIR Sebastopol had fallen most of us had mas
FRANCIS B. HEAD. 8vo. London, 1869. tered this little formidable vocabulary by no 2. Professional Papers of the Royal Engineers. more difficult process than the perusal of London.
our morning papers.
And while this sort of knowledge was If the art of war has made no marked pro- being spread over England, there arose or gress of latc years among those of us who all sides an increased interest in things mili are soldiers by profession, it is certain that a tary, which, under the influence of the considerable knowledge of military matters Volunteer movement, eventually took : bas recently been diffused through our com- permanent place in our feelings. munity at large. Armies—their organiza- Our soldiers, their equipments and thei tion and their evolutions—are subjects manoeuvres, are now topics of daily talk, and which, little more than a dozen years ago, are made subject to as free a criticism as an were surrounded with a halo of mystery other matter which our journalists think f penetrable by none but men bearing arms. to select for censure or approval.
Few of those who held Her Majesty's In each modern campaign reporters for commission ventured to express an opinion the Press accompany the combatants. T on such matters. The only literature in Special Correspondent is now an essenti which they were noticed consisted of one or member of each well-constituted journalist two periodicals whose circulation was limited staff
, and is held in readiness to to mess-rooms and military clubs.
despatched on a very short notice to an But this state of things has disappeared. theatre of war which may offer an opport Along with the troops who undertook the nity for his pen. The importance of invasion of tlie Crimea, there were a few duties has come to be recognized even Englishmen in no way trained in the avoca- those who long looked upon him as a m tions of fighting, but who not the less chievous interloper in camps. managed to furnish our newspapers with officer meets with more attention than descriptions of every phase of that expedi. now lavished on this news-writer by ev tion; and this they did in terms so accurate prudent man of the force to which he and so graphic as to lead their readers to the accredited. From the confidential do conclusion that, after all, military affairs ments of the chief of the staff to a sea might prove capable of being understood by the mess-table of any regiment or batt any man of ordinary education and intelli- that may be present-everything is pres gence.
ardently on his acceptance. Even the technical phraseology of warfare The influence he is capable of exerting came by degrees to be appreciated by men the highest dignitaries of the army is gr who hitherto had shrunk from approaching so great at times as to lead to inconvenie what seemed to them an insurmountable ob- and even to acts of doubtful justice. stacle to researches in this field. Its terms His widely-published dicta coming fu were soon discovered to be neither numerous from a field of battle are apt to produce nor bard of comprehension. Long before the minds of his readers an effect not to
effaced by the more accurate despatch in one long record of devotion, bravery, and which the commander of an expedition may blunders on the part of our commanders, tardily proceed to point out the proper almost every step taken in it involving a recipients for the rewards of victory. violation of the recognised principles of war
More than one Victoria Cross has been fare--an invasion undertaken without in. virtually awarded by a special correspondent, formation being obtained as to the country whò contrived to describe in glowing terms to be entered; the results of a battle thrown acts of an individual which possibly remain away for want of a reconnoissance to verify ed unperceived by his regimental brethren. the defenceless state of the north side of
Nor has the power of the newspaper been Sebastopol; an English army made to file less surely established over the military for a couple of days across an enemy's posiauthorities in England. That curiously- tion; and, last crowning crime of war, a named corporation of army officials, the siege carried on against a place which was Horse Guards, has at length thrown open its left entirely free from investment, and conlong-closed doors.
sequently open to constant reinforcements. Yielding to the modern craving for pub- Nor did the Indian Mutiny furnish many licity, our army authorities have laid bare instances of brilliant generalship. Itself every source of information to the researches a creature of our defective military of the reporter. “What says the Times ?" organization, it brought to light a singular has come to be a question asked each morn- want of perception on the part of many offiing in Whitehall with as much solicitude as cers as to the means best adapted to meet a banker of twenty years ago used to display the end in view. The cumbrous columns, in demanding of the confidential clerk who their deliberate movements, and the general ushered him into his business-room, "How system of strategy which characterized Lord are the Funds ?”
Clyde's operations in Oude, might be admiKnowledge begets inquiry. As English- rably suited for European warfare, but men have gone on increasing their acquain seemed somewhat nisjudged applications of tance with their army, so have they ventured art when brought to bear on opponents so to investigate many matters connected with bad at fighting and so good at flying as the it which long appeared hard of comprehen- mutineers on all occasions showed themgion.
selves to be. In other countries they saw warfare culti- Indeed, of the many officers who held imvated as a science. The success of Sadowa portant commands throughout that campaign, and its preceding combats was secured, as few but Lord Strathnairn and Lord Napier they learned, by a system of tactics and had the military discernment to recognise strategy conducted by one man, on a princi- its circumstances to be of a nature in which ple as certain, and as regularly organized, as strict tactics might well be set aside in that which a skilful chess-player brings to favour of a bold course of action improvised bear on each movement he makes on the for the occasion. board. Throughout continental Europe, as Our wars in New Zealand disclosed well as America, the men selected to com- equally unsatisfactory examples of military mand armies appeared thoroughly conver- skill. There again our generals appear to sant with the theory and practice of war. have been unable to grasp a proper concep
It mattered not that the training bad been tion of the special character of the combats obtained in any individual regiment or de on which they had to enter. There, too, partment. If the officer were capable he at operations such as are intended for troops once found opportunities of command. acting in an open country, against an enemy
Turning to England, our observers saw equipped after a European inodel, were unan entirely different policy pursued. Here wisely carried out against bands of brave they found prevalent the grand, simple idea but undisciplined savages lurking in the of soldiering such as it existed in the flint bush. period; a calm conviction of the incontest- In short, without venturing to fatigue our able superiority of the British army, which readers by reminding them of the baphazard required no further aid from art than such sort of tactics displayed by our generals in as is imagined to be developed on a field of modern campaigns, we may safely say that battle by the inspiration of that ignis fatuus results in each instance have not been such of our country which goes by the name of as to imbue Englishmeu with a bigh esticommon sense,
mate of their military commanders. Nor did the results of this rudimentary The first really successful expedition apparatus for wielding the warlike resources undertaken by a British army for many a of the nation bear a critical examination, day was that directed against Abyssinia.
The Crimean campaign appeared to be of fighting, it is true, there was but little.
But on that score we have little cause to tenure of this office that the release of the question the competency of English gene- Abyssinian captives was resolved upon. rals; so that the bloodless nature of this Bombay was the point evidently best suited campaign did not affect its merits in the as a starting-point for this purpose. Again eyes of the country.
that the command of this underIt was the perfect organization and ad- taking did not fall to be decided by the army ministration of the force required to effect a authorities in Whitehall. And again it hazardous operation in a most difficult chanced that the choice of those charged country which called forth not only the with the selection fell on Napier. approval of England, but of other nations Seeing how singularly successful he had who are chary in admitting our claims to proved himself as a general, men now began military skill.
to ask how it came about that the country The man who planned and conducted this was prevented from 'availing itself of the expedition was clearly above the ordinary services of the corps to which he belonged. calibre of British generals. Who was he? What was its history, what might be its what were his antecedents ? were questions shortcomings in the eyes of our army offiasked by many.
cials? To those who had already formed doubts Was it possible that some subtle insular as to the judicious award of our posts of idiosyncracy did in reality render the Engmilitary responsibility, a confirmation of lish artilleryman and engineer different their suspicions was now afforded by the from their fellows in other armics of the discovery that Lord Napier had come to head world ? Napoleon was an artillery officer; this expedition by what must be described as a General Lee, the commander of the geographical accident. He belonged to the the Confederate States of America, is an corps of Royal Engineers, and as such was, engineer; so is Marshal Niel, so is Vaillant, by the time-honoured traditions of White- so was Cavaignac. hall, rendered incapable, along with his In India, too, it was clear that both
corps comrades of the Artillery, of commanding a had shown capabilities of command. Sir British army, or even a division of a British George Pollock, who retrieved the disasters army.
This professional ban has always of Afghanistan, is an artilleryman; and beld, and still holds, undisputed sway in Lord Napier, as we have already seen, is a England and her colonies. But India, under good general although an engineer. How the old régime of the Sovereign-Company, came it that the higher capacities of these was exempt from its operation; for the Di- Ordnance officers should be incapable o rectors in Leadenhall Street considered that development outside the tropics? The po as good horses are of all colours, so good sition they held in the British army prope generals may be of all corps. Even to this appeared to be this that artillerymend day this lax creed obtains in our Eastern well enough to dash up and unlimber in fac possessions, although, in justice to English of an enemy's column, and so manage t army officials, it is fair to say that a steady break its formation as to enable the cavalr pressure has all along been exerted by them to be brought up to finish the work it ha to
purge these distant dependencies of this cost the lives of a good many gunners an remnant of military nonconformity.
drivers to begin. Engineers, too, were a By reason, then, of this schismatic practice very well in their way; very serviceable of the Eastern army, which may be desig- riding ahead of the columns, and thus pic nated the Great Ordnance Heresy, it ing up intelligence at the expense of inco chanced that Robert Napier, who had fought venient warnings from an enemy's ou in tlie Punjaub campaigns, and who had pickets. Occasionally, too, they were usef been chief of the staff to Sir James Outram in pointing out to a puzzled general t at Lucknow, came to command a brigade of conformation of a battle-ground, and t the Central Indian Field Force in 1858; disposition of troops it might require. A and as his work as a soldier was always no doubt they came in opportunely when well done, he afterwards commanded a divi- man was wanted to lead a storming pac sion of the army employed in the last war through a breach, or show the way up with China, and there again with much ladders at an escalade, Within limits
this kind artillerymen and engineers mig In course of time a Commander-in-Chief be employed. But not beyond them, i was wanted for the army of Bombay. Sir the higher work of British warfare t Robert Napier was considered a man emi- were held to be unfitted. Any claim ur nently qualified for the post, and as the on their behalf to exercise military c choice did not rest with the Horse Guards mands was at once set at rest by the sim he was appointed to it. It was during his official procedure of reminding them t
that cuch esti
ya nia. stle.