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"hardly one has left his mark in history” | profit of their servants, and ordered the ex(p. 69).

tinguished lights to be carried to a room under "After the long episcopate of Thomas Koinp the chapter house, and there melted for the followed a rapid line of prelates, mostly undis- benefit of the Dean and Residentiaries' (n. 154). tinguished, and who passed over the throne of The whole body of St. Mellitus, of which London to higher places” (p. 111).

the Cathedral once boasted, seems to have “The majestic figure of Wolsey passes, on dwindled down to his two arms, one large and more than one occasion, over the pavement of one small(p. 155). St. Paul's (p 175). (Mentioned as if by way of “The Ritualist of our day may read in Dugcontrast.)

dale-if he can read for tears of fond but vain “The Bishops of London during the reign of regret—the pages which recount the gorgeous King James I. (with two exceptions) were not robes, ''etc. (p. 229). men of great distinction even in their own day” (pp. 315, 319).

Granting that every side should be well “Before the Elizabethan Reformation, the represented in the conflict of opinion, it is Deans of St. Paul's (with three exceptions) every way a gain that the party of progress

.. left no mark on their age, and have sunk and freedom should have had a representainto oblivion” (p. 322).

tive like Milman, the graces of whose style "Of the eight bishops who filled the see of had a tendency to deprive opposition of its London during the eighteenth century, three sting. Vehement as he sometimes was in only have left a name. cent, worthy prelates, and from their quiet condemning past abuses, yet when dealing thrones have sunk into quiet oblivion” (p. 956). with the more exciting topics of existing

" There was then (1761-1777) a rapid success controversies, his style more commonly exsion of decent prelates, who no doubt discharg- emplified the balanced judgnient, which was ed their functions with quiet dignity, and lived free from the impatience and precipitancy by their blameless lives in respect and in esteem” which popular verdicts are too often de(p. 464).

graded. It is the danger of popular leaders A leading charm in all Dean Milman's to be irritable and captious; sometimes overwritings, is their chastened humour and eager,--sometimes, on the other hand, too urbanity; and especially the gentle irony cold and unsympathizing. Dean Milman through which he suggests a regret or disap- showed no wish to lead at all. But whenprobation which he does not wish to ex: ever his position and pronounced opinions press :

forced him to the front, he brought a temper "Dr. Hampden, who .. promised to be to the contest which seemed all but faultless. the English historian of this remarkable chap. He always declared himself to be peculiarly ter in the history of the human mind, has sunk averse to ecclesiastical controversy.

He into a quiet bishop" (Hist. Lat. C. ix. 101, note, shows it by waiving off disputed questions ed. 1864).

with a courteous smile, rather than an eager "I have read the splendid quarto volume of M. Carle, Histoire de la Vie et des Ecrits de S.

contradiction. As one might say, he rather Thomas d' Aquin, of which I much admire the bows out an opponent, than dismisses him -type (ib. 137, note).

with rude decision. Thus he had no love for Bisliop Fitz James had watched with keen “the sterile debates of Convocation” (p. jealousy all Colet's proceedings, and with still 289), which he shows by saying that “St. gathering aların at the popularity of the Dean. Paul's acquiesces, with more than submission, The Bishop rep: sed in pleasant indolence at in the loss of her ancient dignity,” by its Fulham (except for an occasional persecution") St. Paul's, p. 121). He had just before called removal to Westminster (p. 179).' He has Fitz James “one of those high-born church

as little belief in the value of its censorial men, piously ignorant and conscientiously blind, judgments; so he remarks, on the condemwith whom a hair's-breadth deviation from es- nation passed upon a book of Bishop Hare's, tablished usage and opinion is insolence, sin, that "it must be supposed that the censure worse than sin--heresy" (p. 120).

of Convocation had the same effect then as “Many causes conspired to break up this

The copy

of the obnoxious work now maguificent theory of cathedral worship.

before me is of the ninth edition" (p. 459.) Throughout the good old rule prevailed, that there should be one to perform the duty while We may observe, throughout his notices of the other secured the emoluments” (p. 134).

the Reformation, how quickly his temper reKing Jolin of France "gave the Dean'five sumes its habitual balance, after it has been forin nobles, of which the petty canon officiat- stirred by the excesses of either party. "The ing had his share. What share we are not told" worst enemies of the Reformation were," he (p. 152)

says, “the Reformers” (p. 220). Yet "if “It appears that the audacions vergers and the Reformers saw not how or where to draw bell-ringers of the Cathedral had the evil habit the fine and floating and long obscured line wax-lights and tapers, after they had burned between religion and superstition, who shall long enough on the shrines and tombs. The dare to arraign them ? " (p. 231.) On Dean and Oanons put an end to this godless side, again, let us not transfer the blame for



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x hateful policy to the present Roman Cath- | equally false, and by the magistrate as equally olics; "they have a right to cast off the ter- useful" (i. 165, ed. 1854). Compare the rible heritage bequeathed to them by darker following sentence of Dean Milman's:ages” (p. 295). On another side, let us not “The sins of the citizeus of London must "avouch” too readily " Mr. Buckle's dismal have been surprisingly light, the penances view of the religion of Scotland;" though surprisingly easy, or their faith surprisingly "there is too much truth in the darker weak, if from this time the cathedral was part,” he" deliberately closed his eyes to all wanting in ample and copious support” (St. its better influences" (p. 269, note). He Paul's, p. 160). It would be difficult to de. kindles into enthusiasm when he speaks of cide from the isolated quotations, whether the advantages which have flowed from the Gibbon or Milman wrote such sontences ag Royal supremacy in England, pointing out the following :-"I believe in the columns, with gratitude how“ it has saved” the Eng. I doubt the inscription, and I reject the pedlish Church “from sacerdotalism in both igree" (Gibbon, v. 121, note). "The past its forms," as well from cpiscopal as from he regretted, he was discontented with the presbyterian Hildebrandism; how it “has present, and the future he had reason to settled down into the supremacy of law-law dread” (vi, 23). “The rector of Honiton administered by ermine, not by lawn, by has more gratitude than industry, and more dispassionate judges, by a national court of industry than criticism” (vii. 350, note). justice; not by å synod of Bishops and a Froissart“ read little, inquired much, and clamorous Convocation" (p. 269).

believed all” (viii., 32, note.) We often But we are diverging too soon from the find sentences as terse in Milman :-"Faith consideration of his style, with its peculiari- makes martyrs; fanaticism makes martyrs; ties, which invite further comment before we logic makes none(St. Paul's, p. 96). But pass to deeper questions. It is instructive as a general rule they are lengthier and less to compare it with the style of Gibbon, on condensed in their construction. “The slovo, whose pages he was long and usefully emperhaps not yet complete, certainly not geneployed as commentator, before he happily ral, development of a rational and intellec. assumed the position of an equal. He tual religion" (Hist. Christ., i. 47. “Now seemed to catch a reflection from the mind what was the clear, I may say the manifest, with which he was so long in contact; I

almost say

the declared aim and obthough indeed his varied sympathies have ject of the framers of our Articles ?” veined his pages with reminiscences of many (Fraser, March, 1865, p. 274.) “Men have other writers. When he tells us, for in- begun to doubt, men are under the incapacity stance, that Edmund Rich fled from the of beliering, men have ceased to believe

, the Archbishopric of Canterbury, and ended by absolutely indispensable necessity of the ini sinking into a saint(p. 47), we are re- tervention of any one of their fellow-creaminded of Byron's line, "The hero sunk tures between themselves and the mercy of into the king.” When he speaks of the God” (Hist

. Lat. Christ., ix. 354). dreary November day” on which a Coun- Here is a different kind of sentence, cast cil gathered at St. Paul's (p. 49), or of “the in another of Gibbon's familiar moulds :-duli, dubious light of a November day” (p. “ The productiveness of the shrine may ac492), we suspect

, perhaps more doubtfully, count for the richness and vitality of the an echo from the style of Mr. Froude (e.9., legend. The legend no doubt fostered the H. E. vi. 283-7). It would be easy to pick unfailing opulence of the shrine” (St. Paul's, out sentences which are tinged with the pe. p. 12). Compare Gibbon :--- Persuasion culiar rhetoric of Lord Macaulay. But is the resource of the feeble, and the feeblo Gibbon is the writer to whom, in this as in can seldom persuade” (viii. 147). And many other respects, he bears the closest re- compare Macauley, passim; e.g. :-“ The er: lation. Not that he was in any sense a ror of judging the present by the past, and servile imitator. His burnished

paragraphs, the error of judging the past by the present" his mazes of parenthetical clauses, his com- (H. E. ii. 236). He followed Gibbon also plex constructions, are peculiarly his own. in many of his Latinisms, sometimes of word Hisstyle is less monotonous than that of Gib- and sometimes of construction; in his inverbon. His rhetoric is in general as much more sions of clauses so ill suited to the genius flexible as his tone is invariably more pure of a comparatively uninflected language;

It was Gibbon's favourite habit to cast bis and especially in his omission of conjuncepigrams into the form of triplets; as in tions in enumerations of particulars--a habthe familiar instance where he says that it which grew on Milman, if we mistake not, " the various modes of worship wbieh pre- in his later writings, and produced somevailed in tlie Roman world were all consid- thing of the unpleasant effect of a mannerism. ered as equally true, by the philosopher as In Gibbon's Memoirs of his Life and Writ.

ings he describes his mode of composition But it is time to pass to broader features
thus :-" It has always been my practice to than these mipor details of construction. In
cast a long paragraph in a single mould, to one of his notes he praises Gibbon for the
try it by my ear, to deposit it in my memo- "vigour, rapidity, fulness, and exactness
ry, but to suspend the action of the pen till with which he had drawn the history of the
I had given the last polish to my work" Paulicians* (H. L. C. v. 399). The terms
(p. 104). We have not yet been favoured might have been chosen to describe what
with Dean Milman's autobiography, if it ex- seems to have been his own ideal. They cer-
ists, and we have no personal acquaintance tainly suggest the leading excellencies which
with his literary habits; but so far as the he ever sought to realize. He evidently
paragraphs themselves are evidence, we thought much of rapidity of movement. In
should conclude that in writing them out he a part of one of his old prefaces which we
departed widely from Gibbon's example, un- have not observed in the reprint, he apolo-
less his ear was set to an unusual rhythm. gized for brevity on the ground that he was
He rather gives the impression of one who bound to keep up the rapidity of bis nar.
crowds in his thoughts and facts as he is rative.” Thus be always carries on his read-
writing, or who even interlines them after er from one point to another with springing
bis sentences are finished, The following is and elastic step. “I trace rapidly the his-
no unusual instance of the mode in which tory of Eastern Christianity until the reun-
his data are packed together by parentheses: ion with the West;" and then in a few pages,
“On the trial of Rogers in St. Mary Ov: “We are again in the West, reascending
ery (Southwark), (he had been imprisoned and passing in review Latin Christianity and
in Newgate), Gardiner the Chancellor (South- | its primates” (ib. i. 305, 320). Such rapidity,
wark was in the diocese of the Bishop of in fact, was an essential condition of such ful-
Winchester) began the examination with the ness. A slow and lingering guide could never
question of the Papal Supremacy” (p. 242). have conducted the reader through the
He intercalates in the same way even in his “ vast circumference” of the history, in
shortest sentences :-"In 1596 (he was born which, as Dean Stanley says, he has embraced
in 1573) Donne embarked with the expedi- " the whole story of mediæval Europe.”+
tion of the Earl of Essex to Spain” (p. 324). His vigour, again, like most valuable qual-

Their attachment (a secret marriage took ities, was reflected, as we may imagine, on place) endured to the end of their lives "(ib.) his writings from his life. It is instructive We might copy from these Anna's of st. to mark the eager interest with which, as his Paul's complex examples which sometimes notes show, he caught at all new books, fill a whole entangled paragraph; but it can worked up all fresh knowledge, and availed scarccly be doubted that the more exag;

himself even of the least kindred sciences gerated specimens would have been smoothed of geology, for example, to illustrate the out on the revision of the press.

foundation of St. Paul's (p. 406). Uis keen Let us note yet one other minor character- sympathies enabled him to find living atistic,—the way in which, like an energetic tractions even in quarters that might have speaker, he repeats a word again and again, seemed least promising. Among the many with emphatic additions, till he has succeeded charmed spectators of the Ammergau mysin driving it home upon the hearer :—"Colet tery-play in 1860, few can have been more and Erasmus were in some respects closely remarkable than that distinguished old man, kindred: "—the word is repeated at the head bending under the weight of nearly seventy of at least six fervid sentences. Amongst years, as he watched, with an eye trained to other things they were “ kindred in their every form of excellence, and a temper most contempt for that grovelling superstition averse to mediæval superstition, the modo which, especially under the countless degen in which merc peasants discharged a task of erate, ignorant, obstinate, arrogantly ignorant the utmost delicacy and difficulty. “During monks and friars, had suffocated the higher my early life,” he says, "I have seen the dratruths of religion” (p. 112). Savonarola ma in all its forms, as exhibited in the most was “a monk, an impassioned monk, an Ital. splendid theatres of Europe. I have never ian visionary monk, a fervent mediæval Cath- witnessed a performance more striking from olio” (p. 114). In Ridley's disputation at its scenic effect.

its scenic effect. . . . There was nothing, I Oxford, on questions where there ought to think, which could offend the most sensitive have been the most perfect knowledge, etc., religiousness, ... I never passed a day (it “there the worst of ignorance, learned igno- lasted from seven in the morning till three rance, was to decide, aided by the shoute of a rabble of monks, of monk-taught men, and bon in Newman on Development, p. 190 seq.

* There is a keen analysis of that chapter of Gibboys monk-educated, if it may be called ed- Lectures on the Easiern Church, vol. i. Întrod. p. ucation” (p. 246.)


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in the afternoon) in more absorbed and un-stroy all faith in the whole account of the Perwearied attention" (H. L. C. ix. 180, note). sian invasion by our venerable Ilerodotis. Di.

With these characteristics te may con- odorus, with all that we know of Ctesias and nect his custom of making life the great test that class, must follow. Niebulir and Sir George of excellence in composition. In the outset in the sacrifice of Livy. I must confess that I

Lewis, if they agree in nothing else, must agree of his chief work, he promises that it shall have some fear abont Cæsar himself. At all " at least attempt to fulfil the two great events, there must be one wide sweep of, I functions of history,--to arrest the mind and think, the whole of Oriential history" (Pref. carry it on with unflagging interest; to infix to Hist. of Jews. 1863, p. xxxi). its whole course of events on the imagination What precision of observation and rapidiand the memory, as well by its broad and ty of combination are shown in the following definite landmarks, as by the life and reality summary of the characteristics of the chief of its details in each separate period

English cathedrals :(H. L. C. i. 21). Speaking of popular or

“Are we to mourn with unmitigated sorrow ballad poetry he writes :-" Its whole excellence is in rapidity of movement, short, sud-land's more glorious cathedrals, it seems to me,

over the demolition of old St. Paul's? Of Eng. den transition . . . in, above all, life, upre- I confess, none could be so well spareu, posing, unflagging, vigorous, stirring life" Old St. Paul's had nothing of the prodigal (Memoir of Lord Alacaulay, p. 19). And of magnificence, the harmonions variety of LinMacaulay's own style he says, that “the coln, the stately majesty of York, the solemn vigour and life were unabating '' (ib. p. 22). grandeur of Canterbury, the perfect sky-nspirHe applies the same test on kindred subjects, ing unity of Salisbury. It had not even one of such as Painting. Thus of the angels, etc., boast of some of our other churches ; neither

the great conceptions which are the pride and in Fra Angelico's pictures he writes the massy strength of Durham, “looking eter“ Not merely do they want the breath of nity' with its marvellous Galilee, nor the life, the motion of life, the warmth of life; tower of Gloucester, nor the lantern of Ely, nor they want the truth of life, and without the rich picturesqueness of Beverley, nor the truth there is no consummate art. They have deep-receding, highly decorated arches of the never really lived, never assumed the func-west front of Peterborough. . . . . Even in its tions nor dwelt within the precincts of life.” central tower, and its western towers

, not 100

iminediate neighbourhood, though wanting a (H. L. C. ix. 338). And of mosaic

-- The

successfully afterwards added by Sir Christointerlaying of small pieces cannot altogether pher Wren, the Abbey, with its fine scaring colavoid a broken, stippled, spotty effect: it imns, its beautiful proportions, its solemn, grey, cannot be alive." But after a time, “the re- diapered walls,—the Abbey, with its intricate ligious emotions which the painter strove to chapels, with its chambers of royal tomus, with excite in others would kindle in himself, and Henry VII.'s chapel, an excrescence indeed, but yearn after something more than the cold in sufficient harmony with the main building, immemorial language. By degrees the hard ed by its richly fretted root, -the Abbey of

in itself an inimitable model of its style, crown. flat lineaments of the countenance would be Westminster would have put to perpetual shame gin to quicken themselves," etc.; "the mum- the dark, unimpressive pile of the city of Lonmy would begin to stir with life(ib. 327-9). don: Westminster modestly reposing in its low

Of his fulness and exactness numerous il- er level, -St. Paul's boastfully loading its more lustrations could be given from passages proud, but more obtrusive eminence.” (St. where his well-stored memory and swift hand Paul's, p. 388.) enabled him to sweep together illustrations One more characteristic before we close from distant quarters, so as to condense, as the subject of his style. He never forgot it may be said, an essay into a page. It is that he was a poet. Every now and then thus that he enlivens a dry subject--the diffi- his prose rises into a strain of poetry, which culties presented by the numbers in the He gives to his descriptive passages a colouring brew Scriptures :

of rich and gorgeous beauty. Take an in“If accuracy in numbers is to determine the stance from his account of the death of Otho historical credibility and value of ancient writ- III., than which“ po Nemesis more awful ers, there must be a vast holocaust offered on

ever darkened the stage of Greece.”. Stethe stern altar of historic truth. Josephus phania, the widow of Crescentius, had been must first be thrown upon the hecatomb with the victim of the basest usage.

" With ont hope of redemption. Bishop Thirlwall and

stern self-command she suppressed her inMr. Grote must lead up, with averted eyes,

the first-born of Grecian history. The five inillions dignation, her loathing, within her heart. and a quarter in the army of Xerxes must de- At the end of three years she bad nursed up * He knew the value of mosaie in its proper place, Otho himself, the religious Otho, was caught

her fatal beauty to its old exquisite lustre. and would have employed it, as it seems to replace in her toils, which she spread with consun, the paintings inside the dome of the Cathedral.St. Paul's, pp. 436, 441, 496, note.

mate art." Through the poison which she ad

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ministered,“ the hand of death was upon the lake was studded with boats and barks, conbright, hopeful youth.” “ Heaven, it is to be veying the bishops and abbots, the knights and hoped was more merciful than the wife of Cres grave burghers, of the Tyrol, of Eastern and scentius. Deeply must Otho, cut off at the age Black Forest and Thuringia. Along the whole

Northern Germany, Hungary, and from the of twenty-two years, have rued his fatal connexion with Rome" (H. L. C. ii. 346-7). Or Brabant, Flanders, or the farthiest North, from

course of the Rliine, from Cologne, even from take an instance from bis picture of Langue England and from France, marched prelates, doc before the fatal crusade against the Albi. abbots, doctors of law, celebrated sclioolmen, genses; of Languedoc, “the land of that mel- following the upward course of the stream, odious tongue first attuned to modern poetry,"

and gathering as they advanced new hosts from where “life was a perpetual tournament or

the provinces and cities to the east or west. feast;" where " reiigion was chivalry, but Day after day the air was alive with the stand

ards of princes, and the banners emblazoned chivalry becoming less and less religious;" with the armorial bearings of sovereigns, of nowhere the cities had risen in opulence and bles, of knights, of imperial cities; or glittered splendour;" where "literature, at least poetry, with the silver crosier, borne before come maghad begun to speak to the prince and to the nificent bishop or mitred abbot. Night after


song and the music in the cas- night the silence was broken by the pursuivants tle hall, at the perpetual banquet," while “the and trumpeters announcing the arrival of some

high and mighty count or duke, or the tinkling chant in the castle chapel was silent or un

mule-bells of some lowlier caravan. The streets heard." “So basked the pleasant land in its were crowded with curious spectators, eager sunshine; voluptuousness and chivalrous pro to behold some splendid prince or ambassador, digality in its castles, luxury and ease in its some churchman fimons in the pulpit, in tho cities: the thunder-cloud was far off in the school, in the council, it might be in the battlehorizon.” (16.v. 404-7). For a longer example field, or even some renowned miunosinger, or of his descriptive power we may turn to his popular jongleur.” account of the gathering of the multitudes to the Council of Constance (ib. viii

. 227-9):- quiet province of literary criticism to the less

We pass with some reluctance from the " In June the quiet streets of ancient Con- inviting controversies in which Dean Milstance were disturbed by the first preparations for the great drama which was to be performed

man was from time to time unwillingly enwithin hier walls.” “In Angust came the Car- gaged. His three historical works bore dinal «f Viviers, the Bishop of Ostia, with a

more or less directly on three such controdistinguished suite, to take order for the accom- versies, each connected with and to some exmodation of the Pope and of his cardinals. tent overlapping the others: the Divine From that period to the Feast of All Saints, the authority of Scripture, the supernatural ele. day named for the opening of the Council, and ment in Church history, and the claims of for several months after, the converging roads dogma to be regarded as the chief condition which led to this central city were crowded of Church union. with all ranks and orders, ecclesiastics and laymen, sovereign princes and ambassadors of sov.

1. As a representative of the more free ereigns, archbishops and bishops, the heads or interpretation of Scripture, he lived to rerepresentatives of the great monastic orders, mind us how much times have changed since theologians, doctors of canon or of civil law, his own position, at least in England, seemdelegates from renowned universities, some ed to lie on the extremest frontier. The with splendid and numerous retainers, come risiog tide rolled far beyond him long belike trains of pilgrims, some singly and on foot, fore his death. It is curious to turn back With these, merchants, traders of every kind and degree, and every sort of wild and strange to the indignant reclamations of the old Britvehicle. It was not only, it might seem to be ish Critic in 1830, or to the not altogether a solemn Christian council, but an European needless warnings which Dr. Faussett adcongress, a vast central fair, where every kind dressed to the University of Oxford in his of commerce was to be conducted on the bold- sermon against the History of the Jews. The est scale, and where cliivalrous or histrionic or weakest point in his assault upon him was other common amusements were provided for the common one, of not knowing exactly idle hours and for idle people. a final and concentrated burst and manifestation where the real danger lay, and of mingling of medieval devotion, mediæval splendor, me

childish and trivial charges with retorts diwval diversions;-all ranks, all orders, all which still retain their grave importance. pursuits, all professions, all trades, all artisans, His chief external offence was the studied with their various attire, habits, manners, lan- freshness of his larguage; the attempt to reguage, crowded to one single city.

alize more vividly the sacred scenes and “On the steep slope of the Alps were seen narratives by brioging “fresh eyes” to bear winding down, now emerging from the autumntinted chestnut groves, now lost again, the rich upon them, and by expressing Scripture liis cavalcades of the cardinals, the prelates, the tory in less formal and conventional phrases. princes of Italy, each with their martial guard In this respect the startling vovelties of or their ecclesiastical pomp. The blue spacious ' 1829 have become the mere commonplaces

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