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STATE OF THE BAROMETER, &c.
From Dec. 26th, to Jan. 25th, 1812,
in the vicinity of Edinburgh.
26 30.11 34 36
1811. Barom. Thermom. Rain. | Weather. M.
2 29.55 36 38 0.56
3 29.53 22 31
4 29.5 26 27
30 30.15 31 29.95 39 Jan. 1 29.61
7 30.2 36
8 30.41 31
38 43 0.04
High Water at Leith,
30 35 0.1
Quantity of rain,............. 1.23
56 54 7
67. 52 8
Tu. 11 1
W. 12 1
Th. 13 2
Sa. 15 4
Su. 16 4
M. 17 5
Th. 20 8
M. 24 0
Tu. 25 1
14 28 4
W. 26 1
Fr. 28 3
14. Valentine day.
19. Sun enters Pisces 37 min. past 5 evening.
55 2 11 28 2 44 0 3 15 29 3 44
MOON'S PHASES FOR FEBRUARY, 1812. Apparent time at Edinburgh.
D. M. H.
Last Quart. 5 41 4 even.
EDINBURGH LITERARY MISCELLANY,
FOR JANUARY 1812.
Description of the Railway from Kilmarnock to the Harbour of
TH HERE is no part of Scotland, where improvement is carried on with greater activity, than in the western counties. In our Number for May 1807, we gave a map and description of the important canal forming between Glasgow and Ardrossan. By the favour of Mr Aiton, we now exbibit a view of the Rail-road between Kilmarnock and the Troon; an operation on a smaller scale, indeed, but still likely to prove highly beneficial. It is also worthy of notice, as being the first undertaking of that nature, of any magnitude at least, which has been executed in Scotland. Kilmarnock and the country around it, form the most populous and flourishing part of Ayrshire. The only disadvantage under which they labour is that of distance from the sea. Ten miles, however, from Kilmarnock, lies the Troon, which is capable of becoming, and will soon be rendered, one of the best harbours in Ayrshire. It is obvious,
therefore, how great must be the advantage of forming a communication between these two points.
This very important improvement has been undertaken by a single individual, the present Duke of Portland. It is computed, that it will cost upwards of £40,000. The mode of constructing it is thus described by
"The road is to be double, or two distinct roads of four feet in width each, and laid four feet distance from each other, with frequent communications from the admit of carriages going both ways, but one road to the other, so as not only to to allow one carriage to pass another, when both are travelling in one direction. The distance between the two rail roads or courses, being the same as the width of each, a horse may travel in the middle space, with a wheel on the inner range of each of the roads.
base, on which the carriage wheels run, is 4 inches in breadth, and the ledge or parapet, rising perpendicular in the inner side of the rail, is also about 4 inches in height, raised in the centre, and declining at both ends of each rail, to add to its strength. The rails are something broader at both ends, to make them lie more solid on the blocks. They are not laid on sleepers of wood; but on solid blocks of stone, from 9 to 12 inches in thickness. and generally more than a foot square, in base and surface. The ground, on which these blocks are laid, is beat solid, and the stones are also beat down, after being laid, so as to give them all the solidity possible. The iron rails are bedded level on the blocks, and a hole about an inch and a quarter diameter, in the centre of each, six inches deep, is filled with a plug of oak; and a square niche being formed in the centre, at both ends of each of the rails, about half an inch on each side above, and something narrower below, and when the ends of two of these rails are put together, the niches in each of the two rails, form one hole about an inch in length, and more than half an inch in breadth, contracting a little below; and these being placed over the plug of wood, in the centre of the block of stone, a nail is fixed into it, the head of which exactly fills up the hole in the ends of the two rails, and the holes and heads of the nails being broader above than below, they keep the rails solid and firm on their beds. The space of 4 feet between the rails is filled with road metal for the horse, to near the top of the ledges of the rails, and
the outside to the sole of the rails."
It is understood that when the railway is finished, a horse going from Kilmarnock will be able to draw upon it from 10 to 12 tons and from 8 to 10 in the contrary direction.
This, however, is not the only benefit, which the Duke of Portland is conferring upon Ayrshire. The Troon possesses many natural requisites, by which it is qualified to become an excellent harbour. By the great operations which the Duke has now undertaken, it will soon be rendered one of the first in Scotland. A pier is building, which will extend 500 feet into the sea, which will be 30 feet high, 13 of them under water, and 17 above. The
width is to be from 35 to 60 feet. The harbour when finished, will afford 10 feet water at all times of the tide; it will admit merchant vessels constantly, and ships of war at high water. The expence athese two undertakings together, mounts to 50 or L. 60,000, so that will not fall short of L. 100,000.
Proceedings of the Highland Society of Scotland,
HE Secretary submitted to the Meeting, the proceedings of the Directors since the General Meeting in July last and the premiums adjudged by them for the year 1811, for bringing waste lands into tillage in different districts of the country, raising green crops in these parts where that beneficial system has hitherto been but little introduced, méliorating the breed of cattle, and to ploughmen for improvement in ploughing, and to the authors of essays on a variety of subjects: when the Meeting confirmed the proceedings of the Directors, authorised payment of the premiums to a larger amount than on any former occasion, and directed them to be afterwards published with the names of the preferred competitors. It appearing from the reports, that great attention had been given by the Conveners and resident members of the Society, to the cattle and ploughing competitions, the last of which, in particular, continued to excite much emulation and improvement among the ploughmen; the Meeting voted its thanks to Sir John Campbell, Sir H. Darymple Hamilton, Sir J. M. Riddell, and Sir J. Macgregor Murray, Barts.; Mr Garden Campbell of Troup, Colonel Duff of Fetteresso, Mr Miller of Glenlee, Mr Denistoun of Colgrain, and Mr Maxwell of Aros, for the attention