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against it. Poor man reproaches poor man in the streets with impolitic mention of his condition, his own being a shade better, while the rich pass by and jeer at both. No rascally comparative insults a Beggar, or thinks of weighing purses with him. He is not in the scale of comparison. He is not under the measure of property. He confessedly hath none, any more than a dog or a sheep. No one twitteth him with ostentation above his means. No one accuseth him of pride or upbraideth him with mock humility. None jostle with him for the wall, or pick quarrels for precedency. No wealthy neighbor seeketh to eject him from his tenement. No man sues him. No man goes to law with him. If I were not the independent gentleman that I am, rather than I would be a retainer to the great, a led captain, or a poor relation, I would choose, out of the delicacy and true greatness of my mind, to be a Beggar.

Rags, which are the reproach of poverty, are the Beggar's robes, and graceful insignia of his profession, his tenure, his full dress; the suit in which he is expected to show himself in public. He is never out of the fashion, or limpeth awkwardly behind it. He is not required to put on court mourning. He weareth all colors, fearing none. His costume hath undergone less change than the Quaker's. He is the only man in the universe who is not obliged to study appearances. The ups and downs of the world concern him no longer. He alone continueth in one stay. The price of stock or land affecteth him not. The fluctuations of agricultural or commercial prosperity touch him not, or at worst but change his customers. He is not expected to become bail or security for any one. No man troubleth him with questioning his religion or politics. He is the only free man in the universe.

The following is another example of this popular kind of exposition, though written in a very different style :

ARISTOCRACY IN AMERICA.

A word about American aristocracy, to begin with.
What, American aristocracy?
Yes, certainly.

I assure you that there exist, in America, social sanctuaries into which it is more difficult to penetrate than into the most exclusive mansions of the Faubourg Saint-Germain or of Mayfair and Belgravia.

The Americans, not having any king to give them titles of nobility, have created an aristocracy for themselves. This aristocracy boasts as yet no dukes, marquises, earls, or barons, but the blue blood is there, it appears - Dutch blood, as a rule and that is sufficient.

A New York lady, who is quite an authority upon such matters, told me one day that Society in New York was composed of only four hundred persons.

Outside of this company of elect, all Philistines.

Money or celebrity may allow you to enter into this charmed circle, but you will never belong to it. You will be in it, but not of it. The lady in question entered also into very minute details on the subject of what she called the difference between "Society people” and “people in Society"; but in spite of all her explanations I confess I did not seize the delicate shades of distinction she tried to convey. All I clearly understood was that the aristocracy of birth exists in America, not only in the brains of those who form part of it, but also in the eyes of their compatriots.

The desire to establish an aristocracy of some sort was bound to haunt the breast of the Americans ; it was the only thing that their dollars seemed unable to procure them.

The second aristocracy is the aristocracy of money, plutocracy. To belong to this it is not sufficient to be a millionaire, — you must, I am told, belong to a third generation of millionaires. Of such are the Astors, the Vanderbilts, and company.

In the eyes of these people to have from thirty or forty to fifty thousand dollars a year is to be in decent poverty. To have two or three hundred thousand dollars a year is to be in easy circumstances.

The third aristocracy is the aristocracy of talent, -- literary and artistic society. This third aristocracy is incontestably the first, if you will excuse the Hibernicism.

I do not think that one could find anywhere, or even imagine, a society more refined, more affable, more hospitable, more witty, or more brilliant.

One of the consequences of the position which woman takes in the United States, is that in good American drawing-rooms conversation is never dull. “ If I were queen,” exclaimed Madame Récamier one day, “I should command Madame de Staël to talk to me all day long.” One would like to be able to give the same order to plenty of American women. - Max O’Rell, in Jonathan and His Continent.

EXERCISE XLIII.

FORMAL ESSAYS.

Subjects :
Our Public School System.
Hypnotism : What It Is.
Elements of Pleasure in Poetry.
American Love of Sport.

Sunday Newspapers.
Child Labor in the United

States.

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Many readers of the present day are not satisfied merely to be entertained — they demand accurate information, instruction. And writers, inspired with something of the same spirit, seek to satisfy this demand. Thus has grown up the modern essay — a species of composition rather brief in form, impersonal in tone, shorn of all unnecessary allusions, addressed immediately to the intellect, and seeking to treat its subject exhaustively though not necessarily in minute detail. The old informal essay may convey much information, but that information is not organized in such a way as to give it the greatest utility nor does it pretend to be complete ; it is suggestive rather than definitive. The writer has not taken the trouble to make himself thoroughly familiar with his subject, and the chances are that the reader will not go any farther ; thus the value even of its suggestiveness is minimized. The more formal, didactic essay imposes a severer task on the writer. He must endeavor thoroughly to familiarize himself with his subject, to get a comprehensive view of it in all its bearings, so that he can treat it from the standpoint of one having authority to speak.

We say this kind of essay is one of the demands of the times. The entire field of legitimate knowledge has been so immeasurably broadened that each man must limit his own investigations to a very small portion of it. But he naturally desires to know the results of others' investigations, and therefore he expects from them, in a readily accessible form, such definite information as they alone can give. The didactic essay is one of the mediums of this interchange.

In most cases perhaps it aims to be exhaustive, though within its ordinary limits it can be so only broadly, not minutely. For example, this result may be reached by setting forth the most apparent divisions of a subject without entering into the subdivisions. The method of treatment presupposes a definite plan in the writer's mind. Too much emphasis cannot be laid upon this plan. It is no exaggeration to say that every such essay will be the gainer if one half of the time allotted for its preparation is devoted to the construction of the plan. This involves the gathering of materials and then the fitting them together and the building them up into a framework of thought; what remains thereafter is but a minor task for one who has any skill in composition.

The plan should follow some fixed principle. This principle may be logical, historical, chronological,

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little matter what; only it should be rigorously adhered to. Let the plan be fully made out before there is any attempt toward writing the essay: the work of composition then will consist merely in an amplification of the plan and will be found comparatively easy.

The essays of Macaulay and De Quincey fall under this class. Numerous examples may be found too in the current numbers of such magazines as the North American Review, Atlantic Monthly, Popular Science Monthly, Forum, Arena. Instead of appending here any model of this kind of composition, the following plans are presented for study. The first is abstracted from an essay by Charles F. Thwing in the Educational Review for April, 1892. The first main division is of the nature of an introduction and propounds a question. The body of the essay is devoted to answering this question. In the conclusion a lesson is drawn -- a way is suggested .of applying to advantage the knowledge which has been arrived at. This plan may never have been written out by the writer, but it must have been pretty clearly defined in his mind.

THE COLLEGE PRESIDENT.

Unusual amount of notice recently attracted to this office.

Frequent resignations, elections, declinations.

Comparative lack of success. What is the reason? The college president represents at least four distinct relations :

Relation to the governing board,
Relation to the faculty,
Relation to the students,

Relation to the general public.
These manifold and diverse relations demand rare versatility of

talent.

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