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determine, through the intervention first of mice and then of bees, the frequency of certain flowers in that district !

A few lines, further on, will give a hint of work still to be done in a direction in which the student may get interesting results well worth recording :

The difference in the length of the corolla in the two kinds of clover, which determines the visits of the hive-bee, must be very trifling ; for I have been assured that when red clover has been mown, the flowers of the second crop are somewhat smaller, and that these are visited by many hive-bees. I do not know whether this statement is accurate ; nor whether another published statement can be trusted, namely, that the Ligurian bee, which is generally considered a mere variety of the common hive-bee, and which freely crosses with it, is able to reach and suck the nectar of the red clover.

In the treatment of the first subject given above, make a record of your dreams, tracing everything in them as far as possible to some experience or impression of waking life. Appeal also to the experience of your friends.



Shakespeare the Product of His Age.
An Early Change in the Government of Russia Inevitable.
Reasons why Human Slavery should not be Tolerated.
The Successful Man.
John Brown, Hero.

There is a process of reasoning just the reverse of that with which we have been dealing. Given the

a con

general law for a class of objects or instances, we can proceed to apply it to any particular object or instance in the class. If all men are mortal, one man is mortal, and if I am a man I am mortal. If


is ductor of electricity and if lightning is electricity, then copper is a conductor of lightning. These are examples of deduction. Let us put them in the form of what is known in logic as a syllogism: Major premise : All men are mortal. Minor premise : James is a man. Conclusion : James is mortal.

Electricity is conductible by copper.
Lightning is electricity.

Therefore, lightning is conductible by copper. It must be at once evident to all that these conclusions are indisputably correct -- that is, if the premises are.

The deductive process in itself is not open to the objection which the inductive process is open to, for it does not go beyond the limits with which it begins. But there may be some question in regard to those limits. We must have premises in order to draw a conclusion. Those premises are established by induction ; if by imperfect induction, there is a possibility of their being untrue; and if they are not true the conclusion itself may be false. Thus, by observing the satellites of Jupiter, Saturn, and the Earth, astronomers had at one time concluded that the satellites of our planetary system revolve from west to east. They could therefore very well infer that if Uranus was attended by any satellites they revolved from west to east. Uranus is attended by a number of satellites, but they revolve from east to west. The induction had been imperfect, and as it happens, incorrect; and the inference, though drawn by a correct process, was also incorrect.

The danger from this source is twofold. Not only may the one premise which asserts a general truth of a class be false, but the other which assigns an individual to that class may also be false. Suppose we say: All oaks have simple leaves ; the poison-oak is an oak; therefore the poison-oak has simple leaves. Our conclusion is false, not because the deductive process of reasoning is fallacious but because the second premise is fallacious : the poison-oak is not a member of the oak-family at all.

Of course we go on making deductive inferences, and trusting them too. If now and then one turns out to be wrong we go back and examine our premises, and if we discover a false induction, that is so much gained; the discovery of an error always brings us so much nearer the truth.

The great body of argumentative literature is founded upon deductive reasoning. Rarely however in composition do we employ anything so formal as the complete syllogism. Here is one example from Matthew Arnold: “Genius is mainly an affair of energy, and poetry is mainly an affair of genius ; therefore, a nation whose spirit is characterized by energy may well be eminent in poetry." But nearly always one of the premises is unexpressed; sometimes the inference itself is not drawn.

When we say,

66 The treatise will not be popular because it is so abstract," we trust to everybody to supply the premise, “ Abstract treatises are not popular.”


Take the following arguments, supply the missing premises, and construct complete syllogisms :

Blessed are the merciful: for they shall obtain mercy. Matt. v: 7.

Poverty is a great enemy to human happiness; it certainly destroys liberty. — William Mathews.

It is true, no doubt, that a man's immediate ancestors must be supposed to have most influence on his character, and that Byron's immediate ancestors were far from being quiet, respectable people. — W. Minto.

In writing an essay of this kind remember that the conclusion may be reached through a long series of deductions. Avoid, in general, the formal syllogism. Follow any order. For example, you may tell what John Brown did and then show that such actions, by whomsoever performed, are essentially heroic; or you may begin by defining heroism and then show that John Brown's actions partook of its characteristics. The argument for the downfall of monarchy may be based on the growing love of freedom and the greater courage in the assertion of individual rights.

The whole process is simply this: we go back to broad truths and then make a special application of them.

Read the following inquiry into the cause of the popularity of Childe Harold, by William Minto, Encyclopædia Britannica:

It has often been asked what was the cause of the instantaneous and wide-spread popularity of Childe Harold, which Byron himself so well expressed in the saying, “I awoke one morning and found myself famous.” Chief among the secondary causes was the warm sympathy between the poet and his readers, the direct interest of his theme for the time. In the spring of 1812 England was in the very crisis of a struggle for existence. It was just before

Napoleon set out for Moscow. An English army was standing on the defensive in Portugal, with difficulty holding its own; the nation was trembling for its safety. The dreaded Bonaparte's next movement was uncertain ; it was feared that it might be against our own shores. Rumor was busy with alarms. All through the country men were arming and drilling for self-defence. The heart of England was beating high with patriotic resolution.

What were our poets doing in the midst of all this? Scott, then at the head of the tuneful brotherhood in popular favor, was celebrating the exploits of William of Deloraine and Marmion.

.. Southey was floundering in the dim sea of Hindu mythology. Rogers was content with his Pleasures of Memory. Moore confined himself to political squibs and wanton little lays for the boudoir. It was no wonder that, when at last a poet did appear whose impulses were not merely literary, who felt in what century he was living, whose artistic creations were throbbing with the life of his own age, a crowd at once gathered to hear the new singer. There was not a parish in Great Britain in which there was not some household that had a direct personal interest in the scene of the pilgrim's travels – “some friend, some brother there.” The effect was not confined to England ; Byron at once had all Europe as his audience, because he spoke to them on a theme in which they were all deeply concerned. He spoke to them, too, in language which was not merely a naked expression of their most intense feelings; the spell by which he held them was all the stronger that he · lifted them with the irresistible power of his song above the passing anxieties of the moment. Loose and rambling as Childe Harold is, it yet had for the time an unconscious art; it entered the absorbing tumult of a hot and feverish struggle, and opened a way in the dark clouds gathering over the combatants through which they could see the blue vault and the shining stars. In that terrible time of change, when every state in Europe was shaken to its foundation, there was a profound meaning in placing before men's eyes the departed greatness of Greece; it rounded off the troubled scene with dramatic propriety. Even the mournful scepticism of Childe Harold was not resented at a time when it lay at the root of every heart to ask, Is there a God in heaven to see such desolation, and withhold His hand?


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