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as an infernal nature, a fiend in the ordinary display and development of his character.

The deed was executed with a degree of self-possession and steadiness equal to the wickedness with which it was planned. The circumstances, now clearly in evidence, spread out the whole scene before us. Deep sleep had fallen on the destined victim, and on all beneath his roof. A healthful old man, to whom sleep was sweet, the first sound slumbers of the night held him in their soft but strong embrace. The assassin enters through the window, already prepared, into an unoccupied apartment. With noiseless foot he paces the lonely hall, half lighted by the moon ; he winds up the ascent of the stairs, and reaches the door of the chamber. Of this, he moves the lock by soft and continued pressure till it turns on its hinges without noise ; and he enters, and beholds his victim before him. The room was uncommonly open to the admission of light. The face of the innocent sleeper was turned from the murderer, and the beams of the moon, resting on the gray locks of his aged temple, showed him where to strike. The fatal blow is given ! and the victim passes, without a struggle or a motion, from the repose of sleep to the repose of death! ..

Meantime the guilty soul cannot keep its own secret. It is false to itself, or rather it feels an irresistible impulse of conscience to be true to itself. It labors under its guilty possession and knows not what to do with it. The human heart was not made for the residence of such an inhabitant. It finds itself preyed on by a torment, which it dares not acknowledge to God

A vulture is devouring it, and it can ask no sympathy or assistance either from heaven or earth. The secret which the murderer possesses soon comes to possess him ; and, like the evil spirits of which we read, it overcomes him, and leads him whithersoever it will. He feels it beating at his heart, rising to his throat, and demanding disclosure. He thinks the whole world sees it in his face, reads it in his eyes, and almost hears its workings in the very silence of his thoughts. It has become his master. It betrays his discretion, it breaks down his courage, it conquers his prudence. When suspicions from without begin to embarrass him, and the net of circumstance to entangle him, the fatal secret struggles with still greater violence to burst forth. It must be confessed, it will be confessed : there is no refuge from confession but suicide, and suicide is confession.

or man.



Subjects : Plea for International Copyright. Needed Postal Legislation. Restriction of Foreign Immigration. Shall the State License LotDistribution of Public Lands.


Spoken discourse ranges from the plainest talk to the most elaborate address. At the one extreme will be found the easy, familiar, colloquial style of conversation ; at the other the lofty diction that accompanies formal, dignified oratory. But there are certain characteristics that run through all varieties and grades and serve to distinguish them from written discourse. From a mere grammatical and rhetorical standpoint greater looseness of structure is admissible and greater license generally. Occasionally constructions which would not pass in writing may be ventured upon here because the intonation of the voice and the whole manner of the speaker can redeem them from any possible charge of obscurity, weakness, or inelegance. Just as our everyday conversation is full of broken and unfinished sentences, so we may expect to find them in a speech where the speaker is supposed to adopt the suggestions of the occasion and to follow the impulses of his own emotions. Short sentences are to be chosen rather than long, and all long ones should be simple and straightforward in construction. This is for clearness' sake, for a speaker can take no chances on that score. A reader can go back and read a sentence a second or third time if he does not understand it the first, but an auditor must understand it at once or not at all. For the same reason frequent repetition, which is objectionable in a book, is tolerable and even desirable in a speech. By this is meant a repetition of thought in a new form, though at times the repetition may extend to the words themselves and still be effective. And above all this we shall expect in spoken discourse a greater warmth of utterance, a freer display of emotion, and a fuller infusion of the speaker's personality.

In the last exercise we dealt with oratory as an instrument for protecting society by persuading men to fulfill the intent of the law. In the present exercise we deal with oratory of a broader scope — that which has for its aim the persuading of a recognized body of legislators to make, amend, modify, or repeal the laws by which civil institutions must stand or fall. This means in our country the oratory of the Senate and House of Representatives, of the State Assemblies and Legislatures, and various local Councils and Boards. There are numberless questions continually pressing upon the states and the nation that will afford a rich variety of material for orations. Nearly every city, village, and school-district, too, has under deliberation questions that are just as vital to its prosperity as these larger, national ones — questions of sewerage systems, railway franchises, street-paving contracts, improvement of highways, etc., etc. Or, if you are drawing up a constitution for a debating society, or believe that the rules of any organization with which you are connected need modification or amendment, write a speech urging the measures you would like to have adopted. The language in all of these cases will be largely argumentative, of course, and the appeal will be to both personal and social duty.

The following sentence from an editorial in the Christian Union will suggest one way of handling the third subject in the list given above :

A clever Frenchman once said that the old aristocrats distributed public wealth upon the principle, « To each according to his breed”; the plutocrats on the principle, " To each according to his greed "; the communists on the principle, “ To each according to his need”; the socialists on the principle, “ To each according to his deed.” In Oklahoma the principle is, “ To each according to his speed,” and it is certainly the most irrational of all.

The following outline of the second subject is offered as a model :


I. Introduction.

a. When immigration is beneficial.
6. When should it be checked in the United States ?

II. Immigrants in general.
a. Past conditions under which they began life in our

b. Present conditions under which they begin life here.

c. Their disappointment and its effect. III. Paupers.

a. Their character and condition.
b. Their effect upon our laboring class.
c. Concrete examples from Pennsylvania, Ohio, New

England, and Michigan.

IV. Anarchists.

a. Their ideas of government and religion.

b. Their power.

c. Their ignorance, and stand regarding education.
d. Their moral condition.

e. Why especially dangerous in the United States.
V. Chinese.
a. Differ from Americans in race, religion, and civiliza-

b. Object in coming to America.
c. Results :

1. They carry away our gold.
2. Lower standards of life.
3. Hinder the development of the country.
4. Help monopolies.

5. Corrupt the youth. VI. Immigrants in general.

a. Their great numbers.
b. Tendency to colonize.
c. Impossibility of Americanizing such vast numbers.
d. Influence of clergy over certain classes.
e. Their opposition to public schools.

f. Their alarmingly bad moral influence in our cities. VII. Conclusion. a. Immigration should be checked in the United States

because the conditions for such a course are now

b. Self-preservation the first law of nature.

C. How to protect our nation and secure its permanency. The following paragraphs are from a speech before the House of Representatives by the Hon. R. R. Hitt, on the bill to amend certain sections of the Revised Statutes relating to lotteries :

MR. SPEAKER : The lottery is the most pernicious and widespread form of gambling vice, because it uses for its instrument the Post-Office Department; that is, the Government. The

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